Skip to main content

Full text of "Quebec under two flags : a brief history of the city from its foundation until the present time"

See other formats


Under  Two  Flags 

An  edition  of  this  ivork  will' be  published  in  French 
under  the  title  : 

Quebec  sous  les  Deux  Drapeaux 


N.  E.  DIONNE,  Litt.  D.,  F.B..S.C. 


A.  G.  DOUGHTY,  Litt.  D.(  F.R.H.S. 
Orders  should  be  addressed  to  The  Quebec  News  Co. 


Under  Two  Flags 


Brief  history  of  the  City 

From  its  foundation  until  the 
present  time 




Librarians  of  the  Legislature 


With.  Illustrations 

By  the  Rembrandt  Portrait  Studio,  London 
and  the  Forbes  Co.  Boston 






.  Z 

Entered  according  to  Act  of  the  Parliament  of  Canada,  in  the 
year  JjJoS^  by  A.  G.  Doughty  and  N.  E.  Dionne,  at  the 
Department  of  Agriculture* 









Dedication  to  the  Earl  and  Countess  of  Minto    -----  viz 

Note ix 

Illustrations - --xi 

The  Cradle  of  New  France. i  •> 

A  Quarter  of  a  Century  of  Progress ----21 

Quebec  after  One  Hundred  Years --       35  <» 

PThe  Last  Years  of  the  French  Regime 49 

I  The  Siege  of  Quebec. 71* 

I  The  Fortifications  of  Quebec     -     -     - 101 

LLe  Chien  d'Or - 147 

-Quebec  under  British  Rule  - 167  — 

Ecclesiastical  Government. -•-..      185 

Troublesome  Times. 201 

After  the  Storm 211 

Modern  Quebec  ---- --  227*— 

Catholic  Churches -     251 

The   Church   of   England   in   Quebec,  and   the   Protestant 

Churches. - 291 

Monuments  of  Quebec 347 

Hospitals  and  Institutions    ---- 361 

Public  Buildings  and  Places  of  Interest   -------     379 

Literature  in  Quebec- 411 

A  JP  P  1C  >T  D  I  X 

Documents  re  Chien  d'Or i-xxiv 

'  The  New  Park xxv 

The  site  of  the  Battle  of  the  Plains xxvi 




The  Plains  of  Abraham xxvi 

The  Cove  Fields ..._    xxvm 

The  St.  George's  Society. xxix 

Young  Mens'  Christian  Association    -.-----      xxxi 

L' Auditorium  de  Quebec -       xxxii 

The  Fire  Brigade xxxm 

Fire  Ships xxxiv 

Brigadier  Townshend xxxiv 

St.  Patrick's  Literary  Institute  -- xxxvi 

St.  Andrew's  Society  ---- xxxix 

Literary  and  Historical  Society      ---------      XL 

The  Streets  of  Quebec XLI 

Index   ------ -----         xl/v 




His  Excellency,  the  Earl  of  Minto,   Governor  General  of 

Canada,  from  a  photograph  -  -  -  -  To  face  Dedication. 
Quebec,  from  a  photograph  taken  by  Mr.  Wurtele,  from  the 

centre  tower  of  the  parliament  -  -  -  To  face  chapter  I. 

Samuel  Champlain,  from  an  old  engraving -  8 

Church  of  Notre  Dame  des  Victoires,  from  a  photograph  -  27 
Monseigneur  de  Laval,  from  a  photograph  of  an  old 

engraving    ----------------    39 

St.  John  Street,  from  a  photograph  taken  before  the  removal 

of  the  old  gate ---47 

The  Basilica,  in  1835,  from  an  engraving  by  Sarony  in  the 

possession  of  \V.  Molson  Macpherson,  Esq.,  Quebec.  -  57 
General  Wolfe,  from  the  original  painting  in  the  National 

Gallery,  London  --- --..72 

The  Marquis  de  Montcalm,  from  a  photograph  sent  by  the 

Marquis  de  Montcalm,  Paris  -  -  84 

Quebec  Volunteer  Cavalry  (coloured)  raised  by  Capt.  Bell, 

in  1812,  from  a  lithograph  in  the  possession  of  Major    ' 

William  Wood,  Quebec.     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -101 

Abitation  de  Quebec,  from  an  engraving  in  the  works  of 

Champlain  published  in  1613.     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -103 

The  Citadel,  from  a  photograph  taken  from  the  centre 

tower  of  the  Parliament  ------------  141 

The  Golden  Dog,  from  a  photograph  by  Mr.  Wurtele.  -  -  147 . 
The  Death  of  Montgomery,  from  the  engraving  in  the 

British  Museum -  174 


Prescott  Gate,  from  a  photograph 180 

Quebec  Loyal  Artificers,   (coloured)  from  a  lithograph  in 

the  possession  of  Major  William  Wood,  Quebec   -    -    -  184 
Bishop  Mountain,  from  a  photograph  of  a  painting.    -     -     -  197 
Laval  University,  from  a  photograph     --------199 

Monument  to  Queen  Victoria,  from  a  photograph  -     -     -     -  207 

Sir  Louis  A.  Jette,  Lieutenant  Governor  of  the  Province  of 

Quebec,  from  a  photograph  ----------  227 

The  City  Hall,  from  a  photograph 231 

The  Hon.  S.  N.  Parent,  Mayor  of  Quebec,  from  a  photograph.  235 

Kent  Gate,  from  a  photograph 246 

Her  Excellency  the  Countess  of  Minto,  with  the  Frontenac 

team,  from  a  photograph 250 

The  Ursuline  Convent,  from  a  photograph 264 

The  English  Cathedral,  from  a  photograph 291 

The  Monuments  of  Quebec,  from  a  photograph  -  ...  346 
The  General  Hospital ,  from  a  photograph  of  an  old  engraving.  362 
The  Hotel  Dieu,  from  a  photo  of  an  old  engraving  -  -  -  364 
Parliament  Buildings,  from  a  photograph  by  W.  Learmonth.  372 
The  Chateau  Frontenac  from  the  Terrace,  from  a  photograph.  398 
Souvenirs  of  the  War,  from  a  photograph  of  the  Battery  in 

the  Grounds  of  H.  M.  Price,  Esq.,  Montmorency  -  -  407 
The  Hon.  F.  G.  Marchand,  late  Prime  Minister,  from  a 

photograph 422 

Plan  of  Quebec,  specially  engraved  for  this  work  -  ... 

A  Special  Edition  in  2  volumes,  limited  to  500  copies, 
with  fifty  photogravures  and  three  coloured  plates,  is  nozu 
ready.  Price  $6.00.  Each  copy  is  numbered  and  signed. 


The  excellent  photogravures  in  this  edition,  have  been 
printed  from  plates  prepared  under  the  supervision  of  Mr.  James 
Hyatt,  of  the  Rembrandt  Portrait  studio,  London.  The  coloured 
plates  were  made  by  the  Forbes  Company,  of  Boston,  from 
lithographs  in  the  possession  of  Major  William  Wood,  of  Quebec. 

Several  scarce  views  have  been  copied  from  engravings  in 
the  possession  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wm.  Molson  Macpherson,  of 
Quebec,  to  whom  the  authors  are  greatly  indebted.  The  services 
of  the  gentlemen  who  have  contributed  to  the  pages  of  this 
work,  have  been  duly  acknowledged  in  the  text. 

A.    G.    D. 

N.    E.    D. 






THERE  is  not  another  city  on  the  continent  of 
America  that  can  surpass  Quebec  in  the  grandeur 
of  its  situation,  in  the  natural  beauty  of  its  surround- 
ings, or  in  the  glory  of  its  past.  In  the  history  of  the 
little  city,  the  first  pages  of  which  were  inscribed 
amidst  much  suffering  and  heroism  at  the  foot  of  Cape 
Diamond,  we  find  the  foundation  of  the  Canadian 
nationality.  Centuries  do  not  grow  old  in  Quebec. 
Deeply  graven  upon  the  time  worn  rock  is  the  record 
of  those  patriotic  souls  who  toiled  and  suffered  more 
than  two  hundred  years  ago.  Bitter  warfare  has  been 
waged,  and  many  a  momentous  issue  has  been  decided 
upon  its  heights,  but  each  has  been  powerless  to  efface 


the  impress  of  Champlain.  In  most  of  the  cities  of  the 
new  world,  the  triumphant  march  of  progress  has  been 
sufficient  to  obliterate  every  trace  of  their  origin,  but 
in  the  streets  of  Quebec,  and  in  much  of  the  life  of 
to-day  we  may  find  the  reflexion  of  all  that  has  been. 

Quebec,  however,  is  a  progressive  city,  but  the 
deep  reverence  of  her  people  for  the  days  that  are  no 
more,  has  taught  them  that  the  spirit  of  the  age  is  not 
incompatible  with  the  memory  of  those  who  have  gone 
before.  Within  the  compass  of  this  small  work  we  are 
unable  to  dwell  upon  the  picturesque,  and  oft  times 
tragic,  details,  which  marked  the  progress  and  deve- 
lopment of  New  France,  and  we  shall  therefore  rest 
content  with  broadly  sketching  its  annals,  giving  pro- 
minence to  those  features  which  have  given  to  Quebec 
its  peculiar  characteristics. 

The  first  European  who  beheld  Quebec  in  its 
pristine  grandeur  was  Jacques  Cartier,  the  famous 
navigator,  a  native  of  St.  Malo.  It  was  on  the  i4th  of 
September,  1535,  that  he  entered  a  little  river  flowing 
into  the  St.  Lawrence,  to  which  he  gave  the  name  of 
St.  Croix,  a  river  now  known  to  us  as  the  St.  Charles. 
Upon  the  slope  of  a  hill  rising  from  the  shore  of  this 
winding  stream,  stood  the  village  of  Stadacona,  presided 
over  by  its  warrior-chief,  Donnacona.  At  a  short  dis- 
tance, upon  the  heights,  Cartier  perceived  other  villages 
peopled  by  the  Iroquois.  These  were  the  Ajoaste, 
Starnatam,  Tailla  ;  and  upon  the  border  of  the  river 
stood  the  village  of  Stadin,  with  whose  inhabitants  he 
was  afterwards  to  be  on  friendly  terms. 


After  having  visited  Hochelaga,  which  is  to-day 
known  as  Montreal,  Cartier  returned  to  Stadacone, 
where  he  resolved  to  spend  the  winter  with  his  asso- 
ciates. In  order  to  avoid  a  rupture  with  the  Indians  he 
adopted  all  the  measures  of  defence  that  were  possible. 
His  ships  found  a  shelter  in  the  Lairet,  a  tributary  of 
the  St.  Charles,  on  the  left  bank.  At  the  confluence  of 
the  river  he  constructed  a  fort,  mounted  it  with  cannon, 
and  encircled  it  with  a  palisade.  These  precautionary 
means  had  the  effect  of  repressing  the  desire  of  the 
Indians  to  attack  the  French.  From  various  indications, 
and  from  the  conduct  of  the  Indians  in  general,  Cartier 
realized  that  any  attempt  to  colonize  the  place  at  this 
time  would  be  attended  with  extreme  danger.  He 
therefore  resolved  to  return  to  France  as  soon  as  the 
navigation  of  the  river  was  practicable.  Before  leaving 
the  shores  of  this  inhospitable  country,  which  had 
robbed  him  of  twenty-five  of  his  companions,  he  desired 
to  leave  some  evidence  of  his  visit,  which  at  the  same 
time  would  establish  for  his  sovereign  the  honour 
of  the  discovery  of  Canada.  He  accordingly  set  up  the 
standard  of  the  Cross  at  the  place  where  he  had  spent 
the  winter.  By  this  sign  future  explorers  would  know 
that  France  had  taken  possession  of  the  country,  and 
had  a  valid  title  to  it  by  the  right  of  discovery.  The 
means  adopted  by  Cartier  were  in  accordance  with  the 
provisions  of  international  law,  and  disregard  of  this 
evidence  would  be  considered  as  a  cause  for  hostilities. 

It  was  on  Thursday,  the  3rd  of  May,  1536,  that 
Jacques  Cartier  planted  the  symbol  of  the  Christian 


religion  on  the  banks  of  the  Lairet.  The  cross  was 
thirty-five  feet  in  height,  and  over  the  intersection  of 
the  arms  was  placed  a  shield,  the  field  of  which  was 
charged  with  the  lilies  of  France.  And  above  the  shield 
there  was  a  scroll  bearing  this  inscription  :  Frantiscus 
Primus  Dei  Gratia  Francorum  Rex  Regnat.  Three  days 
later  Cartier  returned  to  France,  taking  with  him  the 
great  chief,  Donnacona,  who  was  never  more  to  behold 
his  native  land. 

In  the  year  1541,  Cartier  revisited  Canada,  and 
sought  refuge  at  Charlesbourg  Royal,  (Cap  Rouge) 
where  the  Marquis  de  Roberval  had  fortified  himself 
with  the  intention  of  founding  a  colony.  The  emigrants 
he  had  brought  over  with  him  were,  unfortunately,  an 
ill-assorted  class,  taken  from  the  prisons  of  France, 
from  whom  very  little  good  could  be  expected. 

Jacques  Cartier  undertook  a  fourth  voyage  to 
America,  for  the  purpose  of  rescuing  the  Marquis  de 
Roberval,  whose  efforts  to  establish  a  settlement  had 
proved  fruitless. 

With  the  passing  of  Cartier  and  Roberval,  there 
was  an  end  to  the  misfortunes  which  France  had  to 
experience  in  her  attempts  to  obtain  a  foot-hold  in 
Canada  ;  and  for  a  period  of  over  half  a  century  a  deep 
silence  fell  over  the  whole  region  comprised  between 
Stadacone  and  Hochelaga.  Even  the  Indians  them- 
selves had  abandoned  their  villages,  for  when  Samuel 
Champlain  sighted  Cape  Diamond,  sixty  years  later, 
he  found  naught  but  solitude  and  the  ruins  of  the 
wooden  fort  constructed  by  Jacques-Cartier. 


Samuel  Champlain  was  born  at  Brouage,  in  Saint- 
onge,  about  the  year  1567.  Before  he  came  to  Canada 
he  had  explored  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  obtained 
fame  as  a  navigator.  He  had  also  knowledge  of  the 
isthmus  of  Panama,  and  in  the  narrative  of  his  voyages 
he  suggests  the  possibility  of  a  canal  that  would  connect 
the  waters  of  the  Gulf  with  the  ocean.  This  project, 
after  three  hundred  years,  is  still  unrealised. 

It  was  in  the  year  1603  that  Champlain  first  came 
to  our  shores  as  the  lieutenant  of  Aymar  de  Chastes, 
viceroy  of  Canada,  under  Henry  IV.  After  having 
studied  the  site  of  Tadoussac,  which  Chauvin  de  Tontuit 
had  considered  suitable  for  a  permanent  settlement, 
Champlain  proceeded  up  the  river,  and  cast  anchor  at 
the  foot  of  Cape  Diamond  on  the  22nd  of  June. 

The  elevated  position  of  this  immense  rock, 
fortified  nature,  and  the  river  so  easily  accessible,  even 
for  the  largest  vessels,  filled  Champlain  with  admiration. 
It  is  Quebec  !  the  Indians  told  him  ;  that  is,  the  place 
where  the  river  is  blocked,  or,  at  least,  where  it  is  so 
narrow  that  in  the  distance  it  has  the  appearance  of 
being  completely  closed. 

Five  years  later,  as  lieutenant  of  the  viceroy,  Cham- 
plain  landed  at  Quebec,  and  on  the  3rd  of  July,  1608, 
laid  the  foundation  of  the  city,  within  a  short  distance 
of  the  Church  of  Notre  Dame  des  Vidloires,  in  the 
lower  town. 

Soon  after  this  act  a  modest  building  arose,  styled 
the  Abitation  de  Quebec.  This  structure  was  enlarged 
by  the  addition  of  a  storehouse  for  the  merchandise  of 


France,  and  for  the  furs  of  Canada.  In  the  meantime 
there  were  no  settlers.  Champlain,  alone,  was  likely 
to  remain,  for  his  assistants  and  the  sailors  would 
return  to  their  native  land  upon  the  first  opportunity. 
This  state  of  affairs  was  to  last  until  some  father  of  a 
family  could  be  induced  to  cross  the  ocean  to  seek  his 
fortune  upon  the  banks  of  the  St.  Lawrence.  In  the 
course  of  time  the  first  settlers  arrived.  These  were 
Nicholas  Pivert,  Abraham  Martin,  Pierre  Desportes, 
and  their  families,  and  a  little  later  L,ouis  Hebert,  and 
.his  family  landed  at  Quebec.  These  were  the  pioneers 
of  New  France. 

Encouraged  by  Champlain,  but  often  impeded  by 
the  mercantile  companies  which  soon  after  appeared, 
they  set  about  with  zeal  to  found  homes,  and  year  by 
year  they  became  more  and  more  attached  to  the  land 
of  their  adoption.  Soon  they  had  the  pleasure  of 
seeing  their  children  given  in  marriage  to  men  of  good 
morals  and  to  women  of  irreproachable  character.  The 
Recollects  in  1615,  and  the  Jesuits  in  1625,  blessed 
these  marriages,  the  numerous  offspring  from  which 
became  proverbial. 

Champlain  lived  in  the  midst  of  this  little  colony, 
assisted  the  people  in  their  labours ;  urged  them  to 
cultivate  the  soil  so  as  to  derive  subsistence  therefrom  ; 
protected  them  from  the  exactions  of  the  merchants 
or  their  agents,  and  was  regarded  by  all  as  a  father 
and  friend — as  the  saviour  of  the  country. 

Fearing  the  approach  of  a  powerful  enemy,  Cham- 
plain  fortified  himself  to  the  best  of  his  ability  upon 



the  heights  of  Cape  Diamond,  but  nevertheless,  he  was 
forced  to  capitulate  to  the  brothers  Kertk,  in  1629. 
After  four  years,  when  Quebec  was  restored  to  the 
French,  Champlain  returned  to  the  city  and  lived  for 
two  years  in  the  midst  of  his  people  and  the  friendly 

From  the  heights  of  Fort  St.  Louis,  which  he  now 
inhabited,  he  beheld  with  legitimate  pride  the  develop- 
ment of  the  colony.  Near  the  Fort  could  be  seen  the 
steeple  of  the  Church  of  Notre  Dame  de  la  Recou- 
vrance,  which  bore  testimony  to  the  fact  that  the 
Governor  had  fulfilled  his  vow  to  build  a  church  under 
that  name,  should  Quebec  be  restored  to  the  French. 
Along  the  Beauport  shore  picturesque  hamlets  were 
grouped  around  the  seigneury  of  surgeon  Robert 
Giffard,  and  on  the  borders  of  the  L,airet,  the  Jesuits 
had  commenced  the  construction  of  a  modest  building 
which  was  to  serve  as  a  residence  for  the  community, 
and  as  a  seminary  for  young  Indian  children.  Agri- 
culture commenced  to  prosper  under  the  exertions  of 
Robert  Giffard  who  had  brought  over  a  number  of 
settlers  from  Perche  and  Normandy,  to  add  to  the 
population  which  remained  in  Quebec  after  the  capitul- 
ation of  1629.  The  colony  was  entering  upon  an  era 
of  prosperity,  so  that  Champlain,  who  had  bravely 
struggled  in  the  face  of  the  disappointments  and  hard- 
ships attending  a  new  settlement,  felt  that  he  was  about 
to  reap  the  reward  of  his  anxious  labours.  Providence, 
however,  willed  it  otherwise,  for  he  was  called  to  his 
rest  on  Christmas  day,  1635. 


At  the  time  of  the  death  of  the  first  Governor  of 
New  France,  Quebec  was  only  a  small  village,  consisting 
of  a  few  houses  on  the  Cape  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Cote 
St.  Genevieve,  with  five  or  six  unpretentious  public 
buildings.  The  most  important  of  these  were  the  Parish 
Church  and  residence  of  the  Jesuits,  the  Fort  St.  Louis, 
and  the  storehouse  of  the  Hundred  Associates.  Eighty 
persons,  including  the  religious  orders,  were  the  entire 
population  of  the  city  founded  by  Champlain. 

Although  the  colony  was  numerically  weak,  its 
future  was  not  without  promise,  on  account  of  the 
sterling  qualities  and  industry  of  the  inhabitants.  To 
further  the  cause  of  education,  the  Jesuits  opened  a 
college  where  boys  were  instructed  in  arts,  science 
and  letters.  In  the  course  of  time,  as  a  result  of  the 
' '  Relations  of  the  Jesuits ' '  becoming  known  in  France, 
a  serious  effort  was  made  to  colonize  Canada.  The 
first  fruit  of  the  movement  was  the  establishment  of 
the  Ursuline  convent  in  Quebec  in  1639,  and  the 
foundation  of  the  Hospital  under  the  direction  of  the 
Hospitalieres.  These  two  institutions  which  have  exer- 
cised a  beneficent  influence,  were  founded  by  the  zeal  of 
two  noble  women,  Madame  de  la  Peltrie,  and  Madame 
d'Aiguillon,  whose  names  are  forever  consecrated  in 
the  pages  of  Canadian  history. 

Until  the  year  1634  few  settlers  could  be  induced 
to  leave  France  to  try  their  fortune  in  the  New  World. 
The  work  of  Robert  Giffard  in  the  direction  of  coloni- 
zation was,  therefore,  remarkable.  The  people  of 
Perche,  amongst  whom  he  sought  for  settlers,  were 


Qutitc  (Ja/uiak  du  My.rck  GttuultL 


devoted  to  the  soil,  and  not  given  to  seek  adventure  in 
foreign  lands.  Moreover,  the  prospect  of  crossing  the 
ocean  was  not  at  that  time  inviting.  However,  he 
induced  forty  persons  to  leave  their  homes  and  strike 
out  afresh  in  the  New  World,  without  knowing  what 
would  be  the  result  of  their  enterprise.  Emigrants 
continued  to  arrive  from  Perche,  until  within  the  space 
of  thirty  years  one  hundred  and  fifty  families  had 
settled  upon  the  shores  of  New  France. 

Normandy  also  contributed  its  share  to  the  popu- 
lation of  Quebec,  and  sent  over  many  of  its  sons, 
amongst  whom  were  the  coureurs  de  bois,  and  the 
interpreters.  The  Bretons  were  less  adventurous, 
although  one  of  the  hardy  settlers,  Guillaume  Couil- 
lard,  the  father  of  a  large  family,  was  a  native  of 
St-Malo.  With  the  exception  of  a  few  isolated  cases 
of  drunkenness  and  profanity,  which  were  immediately 
punished,  the  first  settlers  of  Quebec  appear  to  have 
led  exemplary  lives  under  the  watchful  eyes  of  Cham- 
plain  and  the  spiritual  directors.  According  to  the 
evidence  of  Father  L,e  Jeune,  ' '  The  Fort  St.  L/ouis 
appeared  to  be  a  well  regulated  Academy. ' '  Ljfe  there 
was  much  the  same  as  in  a  monastery.  Bach  person 
regularly  approached  the  sacraments,  joined  in  the 
common  prayers,  and  during  meals  they  listened  to 
the  reading  of  some  edifying  work.  Champlain  also 
established  the  custom,  which  is  still  continued,  of 
ringing  the  Angelus  three  times  a  day.  This  mode  of 
living  had  a  salutary  effect  upon  the  whole  population, 
and  the  good  words  spoken  by  the  Jesuits  of  the  people 


at  this  time,  do  not  appear  to  have  been  exaggerated. 
The  immediate  successors  of  Champlain  endeavoured 
to  continue  the  work  of  the  founder  of  Quebec,  and  in 
a  measure  they  were  successful.  The  Company  of  a 
Hundred  Associates,  never  very  powerful  on  account 
of  its  slender  resources  and  the  frequent  resignation  of 
its  most  influential  members,  still  sent  colonists  to 
Quebec  from  time  to  time.  In  the  arrivals  from  1635 
to  1641  we  can  trace  nearly  four  hundred  heads  of 
families  from  Normandy,  Perche  and  Poitou.  These 
were  men  of  rare  courage  and  activity.  They  soon 
cleared  the  valley  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  laid  the 
foundation  of  the  parishes  nearest  to  our  cities.  Quebec 
was  the  most  favoured  in  this  respect,  since  it  was  the 
most  securely  defended,  and  naturally  regarded  as  the 
stronghold  of  the  colony. 

Montmagny  succeeded  Champlain,  and  under  his 
regime  material  progress  was  made.  The  Grande  Alice 
and  other  streets,  were  laid  out  under  his  direction. 
He  improved  the  defences  of  the  town,  erected  a 
Chateau  within  the  fort,  repaired  defective  buildings, 
and  provided  against  attacks  from  the  Indians. 

The  citizens  also  began  to  take  pride  in  the 
appearance  of  their  dwellings  as  the  population  in- 
creased, so  that  Quebec  rapidly  assumed  the  aspect  of 
a  thriving  settlement.  Great  progress  had  been  made 
since  the  foundation  of  Quebec  forty  years  before. 
The  presence  of  the  soldiers  in  the  Fort  gave  an  air  of 
importance  to  the  place,  and  the  Governor  was  always 
attended  by  a  military  escort.  Father  Lejeune  refer- 



ring  to  Quebec  at  this  time,  says  in  effect :  ' '  We  have 
a  number  of  good  resolute  soldiers.  It  is  a  pleasure  to 
see  them  go  through  their  military  exercises  in  time  of 
peace,  and  to  hear  the  noise  of  the  musketry  and  can- 
non called  forth  by  occasions  of  joy  while  our  immense 
forests  and  mountains  answer  these  salutes  with  echoes 
like  rolling  thunders,  which  have  neither  thunder  bolt 
nor  lightning.  The  bugle  awakens  us  every  morning, 
we  see  the  sentinels  take  their  post,  and  the  guard  is 
always  well  armed,  and  each  squad  has  its  day  of  duty. 
In  a  word,  Quebec  is  guarded  in  time  of  peace  as  a  well 
regulated  post  in  time  of  war. ' ' 

Governor  Montmagny,  who  was  a  Knight  of  Malta, 
lived  twelve  years  in  Quebec.  Under  his  administration 
the  inhabitants,  after  repeated  requests,  obtained  per- 
mission to  trade  in  furs.  This  privilege  had  hitherto 
been  reserved  for  the  Company  of  a  Hundred  Associates, 
under  letters  patent.  Montreal  was  founded  during  his 
regime ;  a  fort  was  built  at  Richelieu,  and  the  Indians 
were  appeased.  The  annalist  of  the  Hotel  Dieu  thus 
describes  the  Governor:  "  He  was  very  brave,  very 
conciliatory,  full  of  sympathy  with  the  poor,  zealous 
for  religion,  and  fit  to  inspire  the  love  of  Christianity 
by  the  piety  of  his  example. "  Encouraged  by  Mont- 
magny, the  inhabitants  determined  to  build  a  church 
upon  the  site  of  the  former  edifice  dedicated  to  Notre 
Dame  de  la  Recouvrance.  This  church  had  been  des- 
troyed by  fire  on  the  i4th  of  June,  1640,  together  with 
the  residence  of  the  Jesuits  and  Champlain's  Chapel, 
where  the  remains  of  the  founder  were  laid.  In  one 


of  the  walls  of  the  Chateau  St.  Louis,  there  had  been 
inserted  a  stone  bearing  the  arms  of  Malta.  This 
historic  stone  is  still  preserved  over  the  gateway  of  the 
courtyard  of  the  Chateau  Frontenac. 

D'Ailleboust  replaced  Montmagny  as  Governor. 
Under  a  new  commission  from  the  King  he  created  a 
Council  composed  of  the  Governor,  the  ex-Governor, 
the  Superior  of  the  Jesuits,  until  such  time  as  there 
should  be  a  Bishop,  and  two  residents  of  the  colony,  to 
be  elected  every  three  years. 

The  first  Council  was  composed  of  the  Governor 
D'Ailleboust,  Father  Jerome  L,alemant,  and  the  Sieurs 
Chauvigny,  Godefroy  and  Giffard.  The  Council  was 
empowered  to  enact  local  laws,  to  regulate  questions 
concerning  commerce,  to  decide  the  advisability  of 
peace  or  war  between  the  Indians,  and  to  arbitrate  the 
differences  between  private  individuals. 

One  ordonnance  passed  by  the  Council,  naming 
Jacques  Boisdon,  hotel  keeper,  to  the  exclusion  of  all 
others,  is  still  of  interest.  It  is  dated  the  igth  of 
September,  1648  :  "  The  said  Boisdon  is  to  settle  in 
the  square  in  front  of  the  Church  so  that  all  may  go  to 
this  house  to  warm  themselves.  He  is  to  keep  no  one 
in  this  house  during  High  Mass,  or  during  the  sermon, 
catechism  or  vespers. ' ' 

In  1651,  the  administration  of  justice  was  confided 
to  special  officers,  the  chief  of  whom  was  named  grand 
stntchal,  and  those  under  him  were  the  lieutenant- 
gtneral,  the  lieutenant  particulier,  and  the  procureur 
fiscal.  Jean  de  Lauzon,  the  eldest  son  of  the  Governor, 


was  the  first  grand  sentchal  of  the  country,  Nicolas  le 
Vieux,  sieur  de  Hauteville,  the  first  lieutenant-general, 
and  Louis  Theandre  Chartier  de  Lotbiniere,  the  first 
procureur  fiscal . 

Jean  de  L/auzon  was  chosen  to  succeed  D' Ailleboust, 
in  1 65  r ,  at  a  period  of  danger  to  the  colony.  The  Iroquois 
were  in  a  restless  state,  and  after  the  departure  of 
Montmagny,  they  threatened  to  destroy  the  French 
habitations.  Too  old  to  place  himself  at  the  head  of 
the  troops,  and  too  much  involved  in  the  affairs  of  the 
Hundred  Associates,  to  whom  he  had  become  indis- 
pensable, de  L/auzon  was  manifestly  displeasing  to  the 
people,  and  in  consequence  he  resigned  his  office,  and 
returned  to  France  before  the  completion  of  his  second 
term.  Pierre  Voyer,  Viscount  d'Argenson,  assumed 
the  reins  of  the  Government  of  New  France  after  the 
departure  of  de  Lauzon. 

His  arrival  in  Quebec  was  the  occasion  of  great 
public  rejoicing.  The  Jesuits,  especially,  strove  to 
make  the  reception  a  noteworthy  event,  by  inviting  the 
Governor  to  witness  a  drama,  composed  by  one  of  the 
Fathers,  and  presented  on  the  stage  by  the  pupils  of 
the  College.  This,  however,  is  not  the  first  record  of 
a  dramatic  entertainment  in  the  colony.  On  the  3ist 
of  December,  1646,  in  the  presence  of  the  Governor 
and  the  Jesuit  Fathers,  Corneille's  masterpiece,  Le  Cid, 
was  successfully  presented  in  a  room  belonging  to  the 
Company  of  the  Hundred  Associates,  situated  in  Ste. 
Anne  street,  and  a  second  representation  of  this  piece 
was  given  on  the  i6th  of  April,  1652, 



Between  the  years  1645  and  1670  many  other  plays 
were  presented  by  amateurs.  Thus,  on  the  i4th  of 
September,  1651,  we  find  a  notice  of  a  performance  of 
Corneille's  great  work,  fieraclius,  and  in  1659  a  drama 
was  produced  in  the  Chapel  of  the  Jesuits  in  honour  of 
the  arrival  of  Monseigneur  de  Petree.  On  the  2ist  of 
May,  1660,  the  pupils  of  the  College  performed  a  Latin 
piece  composed  by  Father  Pierson,  representing  the 
Passion.  Under  the  regime  of  Frontenac,  the  Nicocfeme 
by  Corneille,  and  the  Mithridate,  by  Racine,  were  played 
in  Quebec  ;  but  when  the  question  of  the  production  of 
Tartufe  was  discussed  in  the  days  of  Frontenac,  Bishop 
St.  Vallier  manifested  his  opposition,  and  paid  the  sum 
of  one  hundred  pistoles  to  the  Governor  who  agreed 
that  it  should  not  be  presented.  The  Intendant  Jacques 
Raudot  gave  an  elaborate  representation  of  the  Les 
Quatre  Saisons,  at  the  Palace,  with  a  change  of  scene 
and  costume  for  each  act. 

At  the  time  of  d' Argenson's  arrival  in  1658, tragedy 
had  attained  a  high  standard  in  France  under  Corneille, 
and  it  is  not  surprising  that  representations  of  his  works 
were  received  with  enthusiasm  in  Quebec. 

The  first  performance  before  the  new  Governor  was 
a  Huron-Algonquin  Drama,  presented  by  the  pupils 
of  the  College. 

This  dramatic  representation  was  particularly 
striking  on  account  of  the  strangeness  of  the  costumes, 
and  the  diversity  of  the  language.  The  young  Governor 
and  his  attendants  expressed  themselves  as  deeply 
interested  in  the  performance. 


Pierre  de  Voyer  was  named  Governor  of  New 
France  on  the  25th  of  January,  1657,  in  the  place  of 
Jean  de  Lauzon,  who  had  intrusted  the  Government 
to  his  son,  Charles  de  Lauzon-Charny.  As  the  Gov- 
ernor was  to  have  come  to  Canada  during  the  year 
of  his  nomination,  de  Lauzon  resigned  the  command 
to  d'Ailleboust.  D'Argenson  did  not  land  in  Quebec 
until  the  nth  of  July,  1658,  owing  to  the  fact  that 
during  the  previous  3^ear  his  vessel  had  run  ashore  on 
the  coast  of  Ireland,  on  two  occasions,  and  he  -was 
compelled  to  return  to  France.  The  new  Governor 
was  only  thirty-two  years  of  age,  "but  nevertheless," 
wrote  Aubert  de  la  Chesnaye,  ' '  The  nobleness  of  his 
race,  and  the  strictness  of  his  conduct  had  won  for  him 
the  confidence  of  M.  de  Lamoignon,  the  first  President, 
and  the  influence  of  this  high  official  secured  for  him 
the  appointment." 

The  young  Governor  wras  charitably  disposed 
towards  all  those  placed  under  his  command,  but  very 
severe  in  his  own  course  of  living.  He  was  however, 
the  slave  of  etiquette,  in  common  with  men  of  his 
station  at  that  time,  and  we  find  that  he  was  soon  at 
variance  with  the  Bishop  on  the  question  of  the  use 
of  incense  in  the  church,  and  also  concerning  the 
excommunication  of  a  heretic  prisoner.  He  also 
manifested  a  desire  to  interfere  in  other  matters  of 
purely  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction. 

The  Baron  du  Bois  d'Avaugour  succeeded  d'Ar- 
genson,  in  August,  1661.  He  was  brave,  but  obstinate, 
and  soon  became  involved  in  a  quarrel  with  the  Bishop, 



particularly  regarding  the  sale  of  intoxicants  to  the 
Indians.  It  was  during  his  regime,  in  1663,  that  those 
terrible  earthquakes  occurred  in  Canada,  the  description 
of  which,  after  a  lapse  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  years, 
cannot  be  read  without  a  feeling  of  awe. 

These  disturbances  of  the  earth  at  that  time  were 
regarded  as  the  direct  chastisement  of  heaven,  and 
many  who  had  remained  callous  to  the  teachings  of 
the  missionaries  now  turned  an  attentive  ear  to  their 

D'Avaugour  desired  to  extend  the  domination  of 
the  French  in  America.  Thus  he  wrote  :  ' '  And  finally 
to  plant  the  fleur  de  lys  there,  I  see  nothing  better 
than  to  fortify  Quebec  by  erecting  a  fort  on  the  right 
on  the  other  side  of  the  river,  and  another  on  the  left, 
near  the  River  St.  Charles,  and  support  them  with 
three  thousand  men.  Quebec  thus  fortified  may  be 
regarded  as  the  foundation  stone  of  ten  provinces, 
which,  if  fortified  in  the  same  manner  as  Quebec  might 
be  regarded  as  the  assurance  of  one  hundred  others. 
In  a  word,  if  the  King  thinks  of  these  ten  provinces  he 
may  become  the  master  of  America. ' ' 

The  King  paid  no  attention  to  the  demands  of 
D'Avaugour,  and  instead  of  sending  three  thousand 
men  to  New  France,  he  sent  a  few  families,  and  at  the 
same  time  ordered  the  recall  of  the  Governor. 

At  the  instigation  of  Mgr.  de  Laval,  M.  de  Mesy 
was  nominated  as  the  successor  to  D'Avaugour.  The 
Bishop  looked  forward  with  confidence  to  the  regime 
of  de  Mesy,  but  he  was  destined  to  be  sadly  dis- 



appointed.  As  soon  as  the  Governor  was  installed  in 
office,  he  began  to  quarrel  with  the  Bishop  upon  the 
question  of  the  sale  of  intoxicating  liquor.  The  mind 
of  the  Governor  was  unevenly  balanced,  and  he  sowed 
discord  on  every  side.  He  would  probably  have 
wrought  great  mischief  in  the  colony,  had  he  remained 
in  his  position.  Before  his  death  in  1665,  he  acknow- 
ledged his  errors,  and  became  reconciled  with  the 

The  Company  of  a  Hundred  Associates  had  dis- 
appeared at  the  time  of  de  Mesy's  arrival,  and  by  this 
fact  New  France  fell  under  the  direct  authority  of  the 
King.  This  change,  ardently  desired  by  the  people, 
produced  excellent  results. 

The  Government  was  now  vested  in  the  Sovereign 
Council,  through  which  the  laws  of  France  were 
established  on  Canadian  soil.  The  King  granted  to 
the  Council  ample  powers,  constituting  it  a  final  court 
of  appeal.  Public  expenditure,  the  control  of  the  fur 
trade,  and  traffic  in  general  were  under  its  jurisdiction, 
as  well  as  the  administration  of  criminal  law,  generally, 
and  municipal  affairs.  In  the  exercise  of  its  authority, 
the  Council  named  a  corporation  for  the  city  of  Quebec, 
whose  business  had  been  conducted  until  this  date  by 
trustees.  The  citizens  elected  a  mayor  and  two  alder- 
men, but  the  Council  perceiving  that  the  working  of 
this  body  was  too  costly  and  too  complicated  for  the 
needs  of  a  community  of  five  hundred  people,  abolished 
the  municipal  council  after  it  had  been  in  existence 
five  weeks. 

2  17 


Monseigneur  de  Montmorency-Laval,  Bishop  of 
Petree  in  partibus,  came  to  Quebec  in  1659,  in  the 
quality  of  Vicar  Apostolic.  Since  the  foundation  of 
the  city,  fifty  years  before,  the  Jesuits  alone  had 
ministered  to  the  spiritual  needs  of  the  colony.  They 
realised  that  this  state  of  affairs  could  not  continue, 
and  therefore  they  earnestly  desired  the  presence  of  a 
Bishop  in  their  midst.  Mgr.  de  Petree  immediately 
began  to  organize  the  diocese.  In  1663  he  opened  the 
grand  Seminary  for  the  education  of  his  clergy,  and 
five  years  later  he  founded  the  Petit  Seminary  as  a 
preparatory  school  for  ecclesiastics. 

Though  the  sphere  of  action  was  undoubtedly 
large,  there  were  in  reality  not  more  than  2,500 
Christians  in  the  whole  of  New  France.  There  were, 
however,  the  Indians,  to  whom  the  Church  had  a 
mission.  Continuing  in  their  work,  the  Jesuits  sought 
every  opportunity  to  civilize  and  christianize  these 
people.  Not  all  these  missionaries  were  destined  to 
gain  the  crown  of  martyrdom,  as  the  fathers  Lalemant, 
Brebeuf,  Jogues  and  Daniel  had  done,  but  they  were 
qually  zealous  in  the  cause  they  had  espoused. 

The  College  of  the  Jesuits  situated  in  the  upper 
town  was  supported  by  the  generosity  of  the  Marquis 
de  Gamache,  and  provided  a  liberal  education  for  the 
youth  of  the  colony. 

In  1663  New  France  had  become  a  Province,  and 
Quebec  was  its  principal  town  or  city.  And  yet  at  that 
time  there  were  only  about  twenty  houses,  and  not 
more  than  five  hundred  inhabitants  in  Quebec.  To 



this  number  the  religious  communities  contributed  one 
hundred  and  fifty  —  The  Seminary  12,  the  Jesuits  58, 
the  Ursulines  47,  and  the  Hotel  Dieu  41. 

The  Sovereign  Council  held  its  first  Session  on  the 
1 8th  of  September,  1663.  Its  members  were  composed 
of  the  Bishop  of  Petree,  the  Governor  Mesy,  Gaudais- 
Dupont,  a  Commissioner  sent  by  the  King  to  take 
possession  of  New  France,  Rouer  de  Villeray ,  Juchereau 
de  la  Ferte",  Ruette  d'Auteuil,  Le  Gardeur  de  Tilly, 
d' Amours,  Jean  Bourdon,  Procureur  General,  and  Jean 
Baptiste  Peuvret  du  Mesnu,  clerk. 

Among  the  other  important  personages  in  Quebec 
at  that  time  were  surgeon  Jean  Madry,  Claude  Charron, 
d'Angoville,  major  of  the  garrison  at  Fort  St.  Louis, 
de  Maze,  de  la  Tesserie,  Denys,  Chattier  de  Lotbiniere, 
la  Mere  de  1' Incarnation  and  Madame  de  la  Peltrie. 

Many  families  at  that  time  bore  names  with 
which  we  are  familiar  in  Quebec  to  day,  for  example  : 
Couillard,  Maheu,  Fontaine,  Lemieux,  Roger,  Lemelin, 
Levasseur,  Dion,  Lefebvre,  Amiot,  Hebert,  Gaudin, 
Derome,  Fillion,  Lambert,  Norman,  Ratte.  All  these 
families  we  encounter  as  the  history  of  Quebec  pro- 
ceeds, but  greatly  increased  in  numbers  and  vitality. 




THE  year  1665  opened  auspiciously  in  Quebec. 
First,  there  was  the  arrival  of  four  companies 
of  the  Carignan  Regiment,  comprising  between  twelve 
and  thirteen  hundred  men.  Then  came  the  Governor 
de  Courcelles,  and  the  Intendant  Talon,  with  eight 
companies  of  soldiers  in  their  train,  and,  later,  two 
hundred  and  twelve  persons  of  title  or  fortune.  In  a 
single  year  the  population  of  New  France  had  doubled, 
and  it  was  evident  that  the  mother  country  was  begin- 
ning to  manifest  a  deeper  interest  in  her  possessions. 
The  character  and  ability  of  the  men  in  authority  at 
this  time  were  of  a  high  standard.  The  Governor  and 
the  Intendant  were  each  unusually  gifted  men,  and 


competent  to  administer  the  aff airs  of  the  colony,  while 
the  Marquis  de  Tracy,  who  had  been  named  Lieutenant 
General  of  the  King  in  America,  was  an  able  adminis- 
trator, a  brave  soldier,  and  a  scholar.  The  annalist  of 
the  Hotel  Dieu,  in  describing  the  character  of  these 
three  men,  says  :  —  "  They  were  of  prepossessing 
appearance,  of  great  intelligence  and  prudence,  and 
were  eminently  fitted  to  convey  a  proper  idea  of  royal 
power  and  majesty."  It  is  not  surprising,  therefore, 
to  find  that  under  the  guidance  of  these  three  men, 
the  government  of  the  country  was  established  upon  a 
sound  basis,  and  that  Quebec  entered  upon  an  era  of 

Talon  undoubtedly  contributed  more  than  any 
other  Intendant  towards  the  progress  of  New  France. 
He  honestly  endeavoured  to  promote  the  welfare  of 
the  people.  He  placed  himself  at  the  head  of  every 
movement  in  the  direction  of  the  public  good  ;  caused 
the  land  to  be  cleared  ;  encouraged  the  cultivation  of 
flax  ;  built  a  tannery  and  a  brewery  ;  and  endeavoured 
to  maintain  friendly  relations  with  the  West  Indies. 
He  was  particularly  zealous  in  promoting  the  cause  of 
education,  and  nothing  afforded  him  greater  pleasure 
than  to  be  present  at  the  public  examinations  of  the 
pupils  of  the  Jesuits,  and  to  take  part  in  philosophical 
discussions.  Talon  served  his  country  as  Intendant  for 
five  years — from  1665  to  1668,  and  from  1670  to  1672. 
At  the  time  of  his  arrival  in  Quebec  the  population  of 
the  colony  was  3215,  and  in  1672,  it  was  almost  twice 
that  number.  In  the  year  1670,  nearly  seven  hundred 



births  were  registered,  and  the  people  were  becoming 
more  and  more  attached  to  their  new  homes.  Great 
regret  was  shown  when  the  Intendant  left  the  shores 
of  New  France.  "  M.  Talon  is  leaving  ",  wrote  Mere 
Marie  de  1' Incarnation,  "  and  returns  to  France,  to  the 
sorrow  and  loss  of  all  Canada,  for  since  he  has  been 
here  in  his  capacity  of  Intendant  the  country  has 
prospered  more  than  at  any  time  since  the  French  have 
inhabited  it." 

Jacques  Duchesneau  was  appointed  to  succeed 
Talon.  His  commission  invested  him  with  the  title  of 
President  of  the  Sovereign  Council,  an  office  which  had 
hitherto  been  filled  by  the  Governor.  I,ouis  de  Buade, 
Comte  de  Frontenac,  a  man  of  dominant  spirit,  was 
the  Governor  of  New  France  at  this  time,  and  in  the 
natural  progress  of  events  interminable  disputes  arose 
between  the  Governor  and  the  Intendant  touching 
questions  of  precedence,  which  disturbed  the  harmony 
of  the  government.  For  a  long  time  there  had  been 
a  difference  of  opinion  between  Frontenac  and  Mon- 
seigneur  de  Laval,  regarding  the  sale  of  intoxicants  to 
the  Indians,  and  as  Duchesneau  supported  the  action 
of  the  Bishop,  the  relations  between  the  Governor  and 
the  Intendant  became  even  more  strained.  Frontenac 
seized  every  opportunity  to  show  his  resentment  until, 
for  the  sake  of  preserving  internal  peace,  the  Govern- 
ment of  France  ordered  the  recall  of  both  the  Governor 
and  the  Intendant  in  the  year  1682.  This  adl  was  most 
unfortunate  for  the  colony,  for  at  the  time  the  Iroquois 
were  assuming  a  war  like  attitude  towards  the  inhab- 



itants,  and  no  one  was  more  able  to  suppress  these 
savage  tribes  than  Frontenac. 

Lefebvre  de  la  Barre  was  named  Governor  of  New 
France,  and  de  Meulle  succeeded  Duchesneau  as 
Intendant.  The  Governor  was  old,  and  utterly  unfit 
to  lead  an  army  against  such  wily  foes  as  the  Iroquois. 
Nevertheless,  he  made  hasty  preparations  and  led  his 
men  to  the  attack,  but  neither  he  nor  his  troops  won 
glory  in  the  campaign.  At  the  end  of  the  year,  de  la 
Barre  was  replaced  by  the  Marquis  de  Denonville,  a 
man  of  great  courage,  His  intentions  towards  the 
colony  were  good,  but  in  carrying  out  the  instructions 
of  the  King,  he  adopted  a  severe  policy  in  dealing  with 
the  Indians.  The  horrible  massacre  of  L,achine  was 
one  of  the  unforeseen  consequences  of  Denonville 's 

The  residence  of  the  Governor  and  his  family 
was  at  the  Chateau  St.  Louis,  but  apartments  were  set 
aside  therein  for  the  deliberations  of  the  Sovereign 
Council.  The  affairs  of  the  colony  had  now  assumed 
sufficient  importance  to  demand  a  separate  building 
for  the  use  of  the  Council.  To  facilitate  the  public 
service  de  Meulle  proposed  to  purchase  the  old  brewery 
erected  by  Talon,  and  convert  it  into  a  palace  for  the 
Intendant,  with  accommodation  for  the  Sovereign 
Council.  The  situation  of  this  building  was  advanta- 
geous. It  was  near  the  shores  of  the  St.  Charles  and 
the  St.  Lawrence  and  only  a  short  distance  from  the 
Upper  Town,  and  there  were  suitable  grounds  ad  joining 
for  gardens  which  could  be  purchased  from  Talon. 



It  is  more  than  two  hundred  years  ago  since  the 
brewery  was  converted  into  a  palace.  The  palace  in 
its  turn  has  long  since  disappeared,  and  the  building 
is  again  occupied  as  a  brewery.  About  this  time  de 
Meulle  returned  to  France  and  was  replaced  by  Jean 
Bochard  de  Champigny. 

On  the  fifth  of  August,  1682,  nearly  all  the  L,ower 
Town  was  destroyed  by  fire.  According  to  a  chronicle 
of  the  day  ' '  more  riches  were  destroyed  during  that 
sad  night,  than  the  whole  of  Canada  possessed  eight 
years  later." 

On  the  1 5th  of  October,  1689,  the  boom  of  cannon 
and  the  fire  of  musketry  announced  the  arrival  of  the 
Count  de  Frontenac,  who  for  the  second  time  had  been 
appointed  Governor  of  New  France.  At  eight  o'clock 
in  the  evening  a  torchlight  procession  was  formed 
headed  by  members  of  the  Sovereign  Council  and 
prominent  citizens,  to  conduct  the  Governor  to  his 
residence.  The  city  was  illuminated  and  all  the  religious 
and  civil  corporations  assembled  to  give  an  enthusiastic 
welcome  to  Frontenac.  At  this  time  the  lower  town 
had  recovered  from  the  disastrous  effects  of  the  fire  ; 
the  houses  had  been  rebuilt,  and  a  notable  addition 
was  the  little  church  afterwards  called  Notre-Dame  de 
la  Victoire,  which  was  now  complete. 

Twelve  months  passed  under  Frontenac 's  regime 
without  the  occurence  of  any  noteworthy  event.  The 
Governor  was  still  vigorous,  his  orders  were  obeyed,  his 
word  was  respected,  and  he  enjoyed  the  confidence  of 
the  people. 



But  New  France  was  not  yet  to  enjoy  the  blessings 
of  a  lasting  peace.  Early  in  the  month  of  October 
disquieting  rumors  reached  Quebec.  An  Abenakis 
Indian  arrived  in  the  city  with  the  intelligence  that  an 
English  fleet  had  laid  waste  the  habitations  of  Port- 
Royal  in  Acadia,  and  was  now  sailing  towards  the  St. 
Lawrence  to  besiege  Quebec.  The  intelligence  was 
confirmed  on  the  yth  of  October  by  Simon  Soumande, 
sieur  de  Cananville.  Days  of  despair  and  anxiety 
followed  the  reception  of  this  news,  but  on  the  1 6th  of 
the  month  the  suspense  was  relieved  by  the  appearance 
of  the  British  ships,  under  Admiral  Phips  off  the  Island 
of  Orleans. 

Frontenac,  bold,  fearless  as  ever,  preserved  a  war 
like  attitude,  and  sent  a  defiant  answer  to  the  British 
officer  who  demanded  his  surrender.  Phips  commenced 
the  siege  in  earnest,  but  Frontenac,  with  a  show  of 
strength  which  he  did  not  really  possess,  was  able  to 
overawe  the  enemy,  and  soon  he  had  the  satisfaction 
of  seeing  the  British  ships  retreat,  leaving  a  few  pieces 
of  artillery  upon  the  Beauport  shore.  In  two  weeks 
the  city  had  regained  its  normal  condition,  and  the 
voice  of  weeping  gave  place  to  a  song  of  praise.  The 
Te  Deum  was  sung  in  the  Cathedral,  and  an  image  of 
the  Blessed  Virgin  was  carried  in  procession  to  the 
four  churches  in  the  Upper  Town.  At  night  a  fire  was 
lit  upon  the  heights  of  Quebec  which  could  be  seen 
from  Charlesbourg  and  from  Beauport,  as  a  sign  of 
public  rejoicing.  In  commemoration  of  the  victory 
over  Phips,  the  little  church  in  the  Lower  Town  was 



dedicated  to  Notre-Dame  de  la  Victoire,  and  the  ladies 
fulfilled  their  vows  by  making  a  pilgrimage  to  its 

Wonderful  progress  had  been  made  in  the  city 
since  the  death  of  Champlain.  Martin,  Couillard, 
Nicolet,  Marsolet,  Bourdon,  Morin,  were  no  more,  but 
their  families  were  still  represented.  The  offspring  of 
these  hardy  settlers  could  already  count  their  grand- 

The  population  had  also  been  increased  by  a  steady 
tide  of  immigration,  which  commenced  in  the  days  of 
Talon.  From  the  regiment  of  Carignan  many  officers 
and  soldiers  of  worth  had  chosen  New  France  as  their 
home.  Some  of  the  officers  were  of  noble  families,  and 
by  forming  alliances  with  the  middle  classes  had  given 
an  elegance  of  manner  to  Quebec  society,  besides 
having  had  the  effect  of  preserving  the  purity  of  the 
French  language.  Father  Charlevoix  during  his  visit 
to  the  capital  of  New  France  in  1720,  wrote  that  the 
French  spoken  by  the  Canadians  was  remarkably  pure 
and  that  no  accent  was  noticeable. 

It  is  reasonable  to  suppose  that  similar  conditions 
prevailed  in  Quebec  during  the  second  regime  of  Fron- 
tenac,  since  the  leading  families  were  still  living  in 
the  days  of  Charlevoix,  and  there  had  been  little 
immigration  since  the  death  of  Frontenac,  to  counteract 
the  tendency  of  the  times.  A  glance  at  the  parish 
registers  shows  that  the  number  of  births  was  sufficient 
to  account  for  the  increase  in  the  population,  and  it 
is  a  fact  worthy  of  note  at  this  time,  that  one  may 



turn  over  page  after  page,  recording  the  entries  for 
several  months  without  finding  the  notice  of  a  single 

The  population  of  Quebec  at  this  time  was  1,500, 
while  that  of  the  whole  of  the  colony  was  about  10,000. 
The  peculiar  advantages  offered  by  the  country  to 
those  who  were  tempted  to  seek  adventure  or  fortune, 
probably  accounted  for  the  small  number  who  settled 
down  to  a  quiet  life  in  Quebec.  Under  the  vigorous 
policy  of  Talon,  commerce  had  received  an  impetus 
which  was  steadily  developed  by  his  successors.  Regular 
intercourse  had  been  established  between  New  France 
and  the  West  Indies,  Madeira,  and  several  countries  of 
America.  An  association  of  Fur  Traders  had  been 
formed  by  Quebec  merchants,  the  most  prominent  of 
whom  were  Pachot,  Hazeur  and  Macart.  Cod  fishing 
was  another  industry  which  proved  remunerative,  and 
the  fisheries  of  the  St.  Lawrence  yielded  a  substantial 
revenue.  One  of  the  most  wealthy  merchants  was 
d' Amours,  who  owned  large  fisheries  at  Matane.  The 
land,  too,  was  well  adapted  for  agricultural  purposes, 
and  the  forests  abounded  in  valuable  timber.  Canada, 
with  its  numerous  and  varied  resources,  was  beginning 
to  be  known  as  a  land  worthy  of  possession,  and  already 
England  was  looking  towards  it  with  covetous  eyes. 
The  British  had  endeavoured  to  capture  the  prize  in 
1690,  and  again  in  1711,  when  Walker's  powerful  fleet 
was  destroyed  before  it  entered  the  channel,  but  the 
time  for  separation  from  France  had  not  yet  come. 

Quebec   was   the   seat    of    Government    for    the 



colony,  and  also  the  residence  of  the  Governor,  the 
Intendant  and  the  officers  of  state,  of  the  members  of 
the  Sovereign  Council,  and  the  petty  officers  of  the 
courts.  The  two  other  courts  in  Quebec  were  the 
Court  of  Prevote  and  the  Admiralty  Court.  The 
professions  were  well  represented  by  Doctors,  Notaries 
and  Architects. 

The  Sovereign  Council  which  was  charged  with 
the  administration  of  the  affairs  of  the  colony,  was 
composed  of  the  Governor,  the  Bishop,  the  Intendant 
and  several  councillors,  all  residing  in  Quebec.  The 
dean,  or  first  councillor,  in  1690,  was  Louis  Rouer  de 
Villeray,  a  man  highly  regarded,  especially  by  the 
Bishop,  to  whom  he  was  devoted.  "  He  was  one  of 
those,"  wrote  Frontenac,  "  who  without  wearing  the 
garb  of  the  Jesuits,  had  nevertheless  taken  their  vows. ' ' 
Among  the  other  councillors  of  note  we  find  the  name 
of  Nicolas  Dupont,  sieur  de  Neuville  and  Mathieu 
d' Amours,  sieur  de  Chauffeurs,  the  father  of  a  large 
family  all  of  whom  married  well. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  of  the  five  councillors 
present  at  the  first  meeting  of  the  Sovereign  Council 
held  in  the  37ear  1663,  four  were  still  members  in  the 
year  1690,  namely  Villeray,  d' Amours  and  Ruette 
d'Auteuil.  The  fourth  member  was  le  Gardeur  de 
Tilly,  the  father  of  the  illustrious  family  bearing  the 
titles  of  Repentigny,  de  Beauvais,  de  1'Isle,  and  de 
Courtemanche.  Charles  Denis  de  Vitre,  a  fifth  coun- 
cillor, was  one  of  the  children  of  Simon  Denis,  sieur 



de  la  Trinite.  Paul  Denis,  sieur  de  Saint-Simon, 
was  provost  Marshal,  an  office  which  had  been  estab- 
lished in  1667.  The  court  presided  over  by  Denis  was 
under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Marshal  of  France,  and 
was  really  a  military  court.  The  rank  of  "  Prevost  " 
was  equal  to  that  of  sheriff  in  the  present  day. 

The  notable  families  in  Quebec  at  this  time  in- 
cluded Ruette  d' Auteuil,  solicitor  general  to  the  King  ; 
Claude  de  Bermen,  judge  and  civil  lieutenant  ;  Charles 
de  Monseignat,  secretary  to  Frontenac,  to  whom  we 
are  indebted  for  a  detailed  account  of  the  military 
operations  of  1690  ;  Pierre  Becart,  sieur  de  Grand ville, 
who  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  English  whilst  engaging 
the  fleet  under  Phips,  George  Regnard  du  Plessis, 
Treasurer  of  the  Marine  ;  Paul  Dupuis,  seigneur  of 
Goose  Island,  and  King's  procureur  for  the  Prevote  : 
Michel  L,e  Neuf ,  sieur  de  la  Valliere  et  de  Beaubassin  ; 
Jean-Baptiste  Couillard  de  1'Espinay,  lieutenant  of 
the  Admiralty  ;  Charles- Gaspard  Piot  de  1' Angloiserie, 
King's  lieutenant  and  chevalier  de  St.  Louis  ;  Rene 
Chartier  de  Lotbiniere,  lieutenant  of  the  Prevote  ; 
Francois  Prevost,  major  and  commanding  officer  of 
the  Chateau  St.  Louis  ;  Gervais  Beaudoin,  physician 
of  the  Ursulines  ;  Timothe  Roussel,  physician  of  the 
Hotel-Dieu,  etc.,  etc.  The  merchant  class  was  re- 
presented by  Charles  Perthuis,  Charles  Aubert  de  la 
Chesnaye,  Francois  Hazeur,  Denis  Riverin,  Francois 
Viennay-Pachot,  Guillaume  Bouthier,  Jean  Sebille, 
Nicolas  Volant,  Jean  Gobin,  Pierre  Tetu  du  Tilly, 
Raymond  du  Bosc,  Simon  Soumande,  Charles  Macart 



and  Denis  Roberge.  The  parish  registers  of  1690 
contain  many  important  entries.  On  the  2ist  of 
November  the  marriage  is  recorded  of  Philippe  Rigaud 
de  Vaudreuil  to  L,ouise  Elizabeth  de  Joybert,  daughter 
of  Pierre  de  Joybert,  sieur  de  Marsan.  Mademoiselle 
de  Joybert  was  born  in  Fort  Gemsek,  on  the  River 
St.  John,  New  Brunswick,  where  her  father  was  in 
command.  After  her  removal  to  Quebec  she  entered 
the  Ursuline  Convent  as  a  pupil,  at  the  same  time  as 
Mile  de  Brisay,  the  daughter  of  the  Marquis  Denonville. 
The  Marquise  de  Vaudreuil  was  a  lady  of  remarkable 
beauty,  and  greatly  beloved  by  the  people  of  Quebec 
for  her  many  acts  of  kindness.  In  later  years  she  had 
the  honor  of  instructing  the  grand  children  of  the  King 
of  France.  Mile  de  Brisay  de  Denonville,  also  a  pupil 
of  the  Ursulines,  became  a  Carmelite  nun  after  the 
return  of  her  family  to  France. 

The  clergy  of  Quebec  were  composed  of  religious 
and  secular  priests.  Of  the  sixty  who  remained  in 
Quebec,  only  two  were  Canadians.  The  priests  attached 
to  the  Seminary  exercised,  for  the  most  part,  the  duties 
of  cures  in  the  country. 

The  College  of  the  Jesuits  had  been  established  for 
over  half  a  century.  The  faculty  was  composed  of 
fifteen  members,  and  a  course  of  study  was  prescribed 
which  gave  prominence  to  mathematics  and  physical 
science.  The  young  Canadian,  therefore,  received  a 
practical  education  which  specially  qualified  him  for 
the  duties  of  his  station. 

The  second  body  of  teachers  was  the   Recollet 


Fathers,  who  resided  at  the  convent  of  Notre  Dame 
des  Anges,  upon  the  shores  of  the  St.  Charles. 

In  the  Ursuline  Convent  many  changes  had  taken 
place.  None  of  the  first  members  were  living  in  1690. 
The  Community  was  composed  at  this  time  of  twenty- 
four  professed  nuns  and  six  novices,  all  of  wrhom  were 
of  the  best  families. 

In  the  Hotel  Dieu,  one  of  the  nuns  who  had  seen 
the  foundation  of  the  Hospital,  in  1639,  was  still 
living.  Her  name  was  Mere  Marie  Forestier  de  St. 
Bonaventure,  and  at  this  time  she  had  been  a  nun  for 
sixty-six  years.  Her  death  occurred  eight  years  later. 
There  wrere  twetny- three  professed  nuns  and  one  novice 
in  the  H6tel  Dieu  in  1690. 

The  little  Hospital  of  the  Poor,  in  charge  of  the 
Sisters  of  the  Congregation,  was  situated  in  the  Upper 
Town.  Its  affairs  were  managed  by  a  committee  of 
laymen.  The  General  Hospital  founded  in  1693  by 
Monseigneur  de  Saint  Vallier,  continued  the  work  of 
the  Sisters  of  the  Congregation. 

At  the  time  of  the  arrival  of  Frontenac  the  Chateau 
St.  Louis  and  the  walls  of  the  fort  were  in  a  ruinous 
condition.  In  1693  the  Governor  rebuilt  the  fort,  and 
constructed  a  redoubt,  which  he  named  Cape  Diamond 
Redoubt.  In  1694  the  Chateau  was  demolished  and  a 
new  building  with  a  second  story  was  erected  upon  the 
old  foundations,  with  the  addition  of  a  wing.  The 
large  wing  which  is  shown  upon  some  of  the  plans 
was  not  constructed  until  1723.  From  this  date  until 
the  cession  of  the  country  to  England,  only  slight 



repairs  were  made  to  the  Chateau,  but  much  money 
had  been  expended  upon  the  walls,  as  will  be  seen  in 
the  chapter  devoted  to  the  fortifications. 

The  first  Fort  St.  Louis  was  constructed  by  Cham- 
plain  in  1620,  and  inhabited  by  him  from  1628  to  1629, 
and  from  1633  to  1635.  The  first  Chateau  St.  Louis 
was  built  by  Montmagny  and  afterwards  inhabited 
by  the  Governors  D'Ailleboust,  Lauzon,  D'Argenson, 
D'Avaugour,  de  Mesy,  de  Courcelles,  Frontenac,  de  la 
Barre,  Denonville,  and  was  demolished  by  Frontenac 
during  his  second  term  of  office.  The  second  Chateau 
was  inhabited  by  Frontenac,  Callieres,  Vaudreuil, 
Beauharnois,  la  Galissonniere,  Jonquiere,  Duquesne, 
and  Vaudreuil-Cavagnal. 

The  first  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil,  Callieres,  Fron- 
tenac, and  Jonquiere  died  in  the  Chateau,  and  were 
buried  in  the  Recollet  Church. 

After  the  fire  in  1796  the  remains  of  the  former 
Governors  were  translated  to  the  Cathedral.  The 
remains  of  Governor  de  Me"sy,  who  also  died  in  the 
Chateau  were  deposited  in  the  cemetery  of  the  poor, 
belonging  to  the  Hotel-Dieu,  in  accordance  with  the 
wish  expressed  by  him  shortly  before  he  died. 






FRONTENAC  lived  eight  years  after  the  siege  of 
Quebec  by  Phips.  His  two  most  formidable 
adversaries,  the  English  and  the  Iroquois,  continued 
hostilities,  although  repulsed  on  every  side.  During 
these  years  the  French,  who  were  ever  on  the  alert, 
had  frequent  opportunities  to  display  their  valour. 
L,e  Moine  de  Bienville,  Vuault  de  Varennes,  fought 
bravely  and  checked  the  progress  of  the  invaders. 
The  expeditions  of  the  sieurs  de  Mantet,  de  Courte- 
manche  and  de  la  Noue  against  the  Agniers  inspired 
the  English  with  a  salutary  dread.  But  when  Frontenac 



died  he  had  not  wholly  succeeded  in  taming  the 
ferocious  Iroquois. 

Hector  de  Callieres,  Frontenac's  successor,  was  at 
the  head  of  affairs  for  only  four  years — from  1699  to 
1703, — and  there  is  nothing  of  particular  interest  to 
record.  The  historian  Ferland  says  that  he  left  behind 
him  the  reputation  of  having  been  an  excellent  general, 
an  honest  man  and  a  true  friend  of  the  country  in  which 
he  had  spent  the  greater  portion  of  his  life. 

In  1705  the  Marquis  Philippe  de  Vaudreuil  assumed 
the  Government  of  the  country  in  the  presence  of  three 
Intendants  :  —  Beauharnois,  who  was  leaving  office, 
and  the  joint  Intendants,  Jacques  Raudot,  and  his  son 
Antoine,  who  were  entering  upon  their  duties.  It  was 
during  Vaudreuil' s  administration,  in  the  year  1711, 
that  the  fleet  under  Admiral  Walker  was  wrecked  off 
Egg  Island,  on  its  way  to  besiege  Quebec.  This  terrible 
disaster,  so  unfortunate  for  the  enemy,  had  the  effect  of 
arousing  the  inhabitants  to  consider  their  unprotected 
position.  During  the  following  year  a  subscription 
of  fifty  thousand  ecus  was  raised  by  the  people  to 
surround  the  town  with  a  wall.  The  inhabitants  had 
suggested  a  similar  course  some  time  before,  but  M.  de 
Beaucourt  pretended  that  it  would  be  far  better  for  the 
citizens  to  sharpen  their  swords. 

Like  all  his  predecessors,  Vaudreuil  had  constantly 
to  make  provisions  to  withstand  the  assaults  of  the 
Indians.  In  this  difficult  task  he  displayed  much  zeal. 
He  was  a  man  of  valour  and  was  respected  by  the 
Indians,  and  his  irreproachable  conduct  and  untiring 



energy  made  his  name  dear  to  the  Canadians.  There 
were  few  events  of  an  unfortunate  nature  during  his 
adminisiration.  Vaudreuil  died  in  the  Chateau  St. 
Louis  on  the  loth  of  October,  1725. 

The  death  of  Monseigneur  de  Laval  in  1706, 
deprived  New  France  of  one  of  her  most  illustrious 
figures.  For  many  years  the  noble  and  saintly  prelate 
had  been  unable  to  fulfill  the  active  duties  of  his  office 
which  he  had  resigned  to  Monseigneur  de  Saint  Vallier, 
but  he  had  never  ceased  to  take  a  deep  interest  in  the 
spiritual  welfare  of  the  colony,  so  that  his  life  was  a 
useful  one  until  its  close.  We  have  seen  that,  shortly 
after  his  arrival  in  Quebec,  Monseigneur  de  Laval  had 
undertaken  the  construction  of  two  seminaries,  but  it 
was  not  until  1 698  that  the  stone  building  was  complete 
which  served  as  a  residence  for  the  ecclesiastics  and  the 
pupils  under  their  charge.  On  the  6th  of  October, 
1688,  the  doors  of  the  Little  Seminary  were  thrown 
open  to  the  youth  of  the  colony.  There  were  sixty 
pupils  admitted  during  the  first  year.  The  boys  of  the 
Seminary  wore  a  costume  similar  to  that  worn  to-day, 
namely,  a  blue  coat  with  a  sash.  The  pupils  who  were 
destined  for  the  priest-hood,  served  in  the  choir  of  the 
Cathedral.  They  wore  under  their  surplice  a  red  cas- 
sock, with  a  camail  of  the  same  material.  On  the  25th 
of  November,  1701,  the  Little  Seminary,  which  had 
cost  the  Bishop  so  much  labour,  was  destroyed  by  fire. 
It  was  rebuilt  without  delay,  but  within  the  space  of 
four  years  it  was  again  consumed  by  the  flames.  This 
time,  however,  the  citizens  came  to  the  assistance  of 



the  Bishop,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  he  had  the 
consolation  of  seeing  the  completion  of  a  new  building 
which  was  to  last  for  many  years. 

It  would  require  many  chapters  to  recount  all  the 
good  deeds  of  Monseigneur  de  Laval,  or  to  give  a  just 
estimate  of  his  noble  work.  When  he  first  undertook 
the  direction  of  the  spiritual  affairs  of  the  colony,  the 
Church  in  Canada  was  in  its  infancy  and  without  any 
form  of  organization.  It  was  an  exceedingly  difficult 
task,  but  he  brought  to  the  work  he  had  undertaken 
both  energy  and  ability.  It  required  a  firm  hand  to 
establish  authority  in  a  new  country  where  discipline 
was  unknown,  and  where  extraordinary  powers  were 
perforce  given  to  individuals  that  would  not  even  have 
been  suggested  under  more  settled  conditions.  In  the 
pursuance  of  his  policy  Mgr.  de  Laval  naturally  came 
into  conflict  with  various  elements  of  opposition,  and 
in  consequence,  even  to  this  day,  there  are  those  who 
have  not  hesitated  to  censure  the  line  of  action  which 
the  Bishop  followed.  However,  the  impartial  historian, 
with  the  light  which  is  now  thrown  upon  the  history 
of  the  times,  a  light  which  has  compelled  even  the  most 
conservative  to  revise  their  judgment  both  of  men  and 
of  events,  must  admit  that  Mgr.  de  Laval  was  the  one 
man  who  could  successfully  establish  the  Church  in 
Canada,  and  the  perfection  of  the  organization  which 
he  left  at  his  death,  is  sufficient  justification  of  his 
numerous  acts. 

The  Recollets  resumed  their  labors  in  1670  and 
took  up  their  abode  in  their  former  convent  of  Notre 



Dame  des  Anges,  which  had  been  entirely  rebuilt.  The 
Jesuits  College  was  still  the  great  centre  of  education 
and  many  priests  and  laymen  of  distinction  had  been 
trained  within  its  walls.  When  the  Abbe"  de  Saint  Vallier 
came  to  Quebec  in  1686  he  found  the  organization  of 
the  various  institutions  highly  satisfactory,  and  he  said 
that  if  he  could  continue  the  good  work  carried  on  by 
the  Bishop  he  would  deem  himself  happy. 

Monseigneur  de  Saint  Vallier  presided  over  the 
building  of  the  church  in  the  Lower  Town  in  1688, 
and  founded  the  General  Hospital  at  his  own  cost. 
The  Bishop's  Palace  at  the  top  of  Mountain  Hill  was 
built  during  his  residence  in  Quebec.  Several  of  the 
mandements  which  he  composed  are  read  in  our  churches 
even  to  this  day.  Four  synods  were  held  during  his 
term  of  office.  The  first  in  Quebec,  on  the  gth  of 
November,  1690  ;  the  second  at  Montreal,  on  the  loth 
and  nth  of  March,  1694  ;  the  third  in  Quebec,  on  the 
27th  of  February,  1698  ;  and  the  fourth  in  Quebec,  on 
the  8th  of  October,  1 700. 

Mgr.  de  Saint- Vallier  was  an  able  administrator, 
and  his  episcopacy  exceeded  in  duration  the  terms 
of  any  of  his  successors.  He  died  at  the  General 
Hospital  on  the  evening  of  the  25th  of  December, 
1728,  surrounded  by  his  beloved  nuns,  to  whom  he 
left  this  recommendation,  worthy  of  his  noble  heart : 
"  My  daughters,  forget  me  after  my  death,  but  do  not 
forget  my  poor. ' '  The  last  wish  of  the  dying  prelate 
was  only  half  fulfilled,  because  the  Hospitaliers  could 
not  forget  their  generous  founder.  As  to  the  poor,  it 



is  the  mission  of  their  lives  to  care  for  them,  and  the 
entire  population  of  Quebec  ever  since  the  days  of  the 
good  Bishop  have  always  been  willing  to  bear  witness 
to  their  devotion  to  the  cause  they  have  espoused. 

On  his  first  arrival  at  Quebec,  in  1672,  the  Count 
de  Frontenac  wrote  to  the  Minister  in  France  : — 

' '  Nothing  seemed  so  beautiful  and  magnificent  to 
me  as  the  site  of  the  town  of  Quebec,  which  could  not 
be  better  placed  even  were  it  some  day  to  become  the 
capital  of  a  great  empire.  But  it  seems  to  me  that 
hitherto  a  great  error  has  been  committed  in  allowing 
the  houses  to  be  built  according  to  the  whim  of  indivi- 
duals and  without  any  order,  because  in  establishments 
such  as  this  which  may  some  day  become  very  con- 
siderable, one  should,  it  seems  to  me,  think  not  only  of 
the  present  condition  in  which  one  lives  but  also  of 
that  which  may  come." 

Frontenac  therefore  insisted  that  the  streets  should 
follow  regular  lines,  especially  in  the  Upper  Town 
where  the  lack  of  symmetry  was  most  noticeable. 
He  gave  his  own  name  to  Buade  street,  and  when 
Charlevoix  came  to  Quebec  fifty  years  later,  he  found 
the  streets  following  regular  lines,  and  the  names 
which  they  then  bore  have  been  scrupulously  handed 
down  to  our  own  times.  Charlevoix  was  not  less 
impressed  than  Frontenac  by  the  magnificent  situation 
of  Quebec.  He  wrote  : — 

"I  am  going  to  say  something  about  Quebec. 
All  the  descriptions  that  I  have  read  are  so  imperfect, 
that  I  am  sure  you  will  be  pleased  to  receive  a  true 
picture  of  the  Capital  of  New  France.  It  deserves  to 
be  better  known,  if  only  for  the  singularity  of  its 



situation.  It  is  the  only  town  in  the  world  that  can 
boast  of  a  harbour  in  fresh  water  at  one  hundred  and 
twenty  leagues  from  the  sea,  and  capable  of  containing 
one  hundred  ships,  and  it  is  situated  near  the  most 
navigable  river  in  the  world." 

Peter  Kalm,  in  his  "Travels,"  gives  this  inter- 
esting description  of  the  city  : 

' '  The  shores  of  the  river  become  more  sloping  as 
' '  you  come  nearer  to  Quebec.  To  the  northward 
"  appears  a  high  ridge  of  mountains.  About  two 
"  French  miles  and  a  half  from  Quebec  the  river 
"becomes  very  narrow,  the  shores  being  within  the 
' '  reach  of  a  musket  shot  from  each  other.  The  country 
"  on  both  sides  was  sloping,  hilly,  covered  with  trees, 
' '  and  had  many  small  rocks ;  the  shore  was  stony. 
"  About  4  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  we  happily  arrived 
"  at  Quebec.  The  city  does  not  appear  till  one  is 
"  close  to  it,  the  prospect  being  intercepted  by  a  high 
"  mountain  on  the  south  side.  However,  part  of 
"the  fortifications  appear  at  a  good  distance,  being 
"  situated  on  the  same  mountain.  As  soon  as  the 
"  soldiers  who  were  with  us  saw  Quebec,  they  called 
' '  out,  that  all  those  who  had  not  been  there  before 
"  should  be  ducked,  if  they  did  not  pay  something  to 
1 '  release  themselves.  This  custom  even  the  Governor 
"  General  of  Canada  is  obliged  to  submit  to,  on  his 
"first  journey  to  Montreal.  We  did  not  care  when 
' '  we  came  in  sight  of  this  town  to  be  exempted  from 
"  this  old  custom,  which  is  very  advantageous  to  the 
"  rowers  as  it  enables  them  to  spend  a  very  merry 
' '  evening  on  their  arrival  at  Quebec,  after  their  trou- 
' '  blesome  labour. 

' '  Quebec,  the  chief  city  of  Canada,  lies  on  the 
"western  shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  close  to  the 
"  water's  edge,  on  a  neck  of  land,  bounded  by  that 


"  river  on  the  east  side,  and  by  the  St.  Charles  on  the 
"north  side;  the  mountain,  on  which  the  town  is 
"  built,  rises  still  higher  on  the  south  side,  and  behind 

' '  it  begin  great  pastures The  upper  city  lies 

"  above  the  other,  on  a  high  hill,  and  takes  up  five  or 
' '  six  times  the  space  of  the  lower  though  it  is  not 
"  quite  so  populous.  The  mountain,  on  which  the 
"upper  city  is  situated,  reaches  above  the  houses  of 
' '  the  lower  city.  Notwithstanding  the  latter  are  three 
"  or  four  stories  high,  and  the  view,  from  the  palace, 
"  of  the  lower  city,  (part  of  which  is  immediately 
"  under  it)  is  enough  to  cause  a  swimming  of  the 

Charlevoix  was  a  keen  observer,  and  as  he  lived 
among  the  people  for  many  years,  his  opinion  deserves 
weight.  We  therefore  quote  another  passage  from  one 
of  his  letters. 

"  But  we  find  here  a  little  chosen  World,  which 
' '  wants  nothing  to  make  an  agreeable  Society.  A 
"  Governor- General  with  his  Attendants,  Nobility, 
"Officers  of  the  Army,  and  Troops:  An  Intendant 
"  with  an  upper  Council,  and  the  inferior  Jurisdictions  : 
' '  A  Commissary  of  the  Marine  :  A  Grand  Provost : 
' '  A  Grand  Surveyor  of  Highways,  and  a  Grand  Master 
"  of  the  Waters  and  Forests  whose  Jurisdiction  is 
"  certainly  the  most  extensive  in  the  world  :  Rich 
"  Merchants,  or  who  live  as  if  they  were  such  :  A 
"  Bishop  and  a  numerous  Seminary  :  Recollets  and 
"  Jesuits  :  Three  Societies  of  Maidens,  well  composed  : 
"  Circles  as  brilliant  as  in  any  other  place,  at  the 
"  Governor's,  and  the  Intendant's  Ladies.  Here  seems 
' '  to  me  to  be  every  thing  for  all  Sorts  of  People  to  pass 
"  their  Time  very  agreeably.  And  so  they  do  in  reality, 
"  and  every  one  endeavours  to  contribute  what  they 



'can  towards  it.  They  play,  they  make  Parties  of 
'  Pleasure,  in  Summer,  in  Chariots,  or  Canoes ;  in 
'  Winter,  in  Sledges  on  the  Snow,  or  skating  on  the  ice. 
'  Shooting  is  much  followed ;  Gentlemen  find  this 
'  their  only  Resource  to  live  plentifully.  The  News 
'  current  is  but  little,  because  the  Country  furnishes 
'  scarce  any,  and  the  News  from  Europe  comes  all 
'  together ;  but  this  affords  Conversation  for  a  great 
'  Part  of  the  Year ;  They  make  Political  Remarks  on 
'  things  past,  and  raise  Conjectures  011  future  Events  : 
'  The  Sciences  and  the  fine  Arts  have  their  Turn,  and 
'  Conversation  never  grows  dull.  The  Canadians,  that 
'  is  to  say,  the  Creoles  of  Canada,  breathe  at  the  Birth 
'  an  Air  of  Liberty,  which  makes  them  very  agreeable 
'  in  the  Commerce  of  Life  ;  and  our  Language  is 
'  nowhere  spoken  with  greater  Purity. 

"  There  is  nobody  rich  here,  and  'tis  a  Pity,  for 
'  they  love  to  live  generously,  and  no  one  thinks  of 
'  laying  up  Riches.  They  keep  good  Tables,  if  their 
'  Fortune  will  afford  it,  as  well  as  dress  handsomely  ; 
'  if  not,  they  retrench  the  Expense  of  their  Table  to 
'  bestow  it  on  Dress,  and  indeed  we  must  allow  that 
'  our  Creoles  become  their  Dress.  They  are  all  of  good 
'  Stature,  and  have  the  best  Complexion  in  the  World 
'  in  both  Sexes.  A  pleasant  Humour,  and  agreeable 
•  and  polite  Manners  are  common  to  all  ;  and  Clown- 
'  ishness,  either  in  Language  or  Behaviour,  is  not 
'  known  among  them." 

In  the  time  of  Charlevoix  the  population  of  Quebec 
was  less  than  three  thousand  souls,  including  the  mem- 
bers of  all  the  religious  orders. 

The  following  table  shows  the  population  of 
Quebec  and  of  the  whole  of  Canada  at  the  dates  here 



Quebec  Canada 

1666 547 3,800 

1681 1,381 9,677 

1698 1,988 15,355 

1716 2,500 20,531 

At  this  time  the  town  contained  only  eighteen 
streets,  the  chief,  and  most  populous  ones  being  called  : 
Sault  au  Matelot ;  de  Meulles  and  Champlain  ;  St. 
Louis  ;  Sous  le  Fort  ;  de  la  Montagne  ;  Notre  Dame  ; 
du  Palais,  or  St.  Nicholas ;  Couillard.  There  were 
only  ten  streets  in  the  Upper  Town  :  St.  Louis  ;  St. 
Joseph  ;  St.  Jean  ;  Ste.  Anne  ;  du  Fort ;  des  Pauvres  ; 
des  Jardins  ;  Buade  ;  Couillard  ;  du  Jardin,  and  du  Fort. 
St.  Louis  street  commenced  at  the  Chateau  and  ended 
at  the  residence  of  Louis  Roeur  d'Artigny,  the  special 
lieutenant  of  Prevote.  Amongst  the  most  prominent 
persons  residing  on  St.  Louis  street  were  Dr.  Michel 
Sarrazin,  Councillor  of  the  Superior  Council,  Eustache 
Chartier  de  Lotbiniere,  Councillor,  and  the  demoiselles 
des  Meloizes,  his  sisters  in  law  ;  Hilaire  Bernard  de  la 
Riviere,  usher  of  the  Council,  and  Surveyor  ;  Canon 
Thierry  Hazeur ;  Noel  Levasseur,  sculptor ;  Marie 
Catherine  Ruette  d'Auteuil,  widow  of  M.  de  Celles. 
There  were  fifty  one  dwellings  on  the  street  and  two 
hundred  and  fifty  inhabitants. 

Buade  Street  was  the  fashionable  street,  par 
excellence.  Amongst  its  principal  residents  were  Claude 
de  Bermen,  sieur  de  la  Martiniere,  first  councillor  of 
the  Superior  Council ;  Charles  de  Monseignat,  controller 



of  the  Marine  and  receiver  of  the  Domaine  ;  Henri 
Hiche,  merchant ;  Madame  Denis,  widow  of  M.  de  la 
Valliere  ;  Jean  Vergeant,  dit  Prenoveau,  sergeant  of 
the  troops.  Couillard  Street  extended  from  the  house 
of  the  sietir  de  Belleville,  probably  situated  at  the  foot 
of  the  present  St.  Famille  Street,  to  the  cemetery 
of  the  Hotel  Dieu.  This  quarter  was  inhabited  by 
eighteen  families,  ship  carpenters,  coopers,  soldiers  and 
labourers.  Des  Pauvres  Street  commenced  at  the 
Cathedral,  corresponding  with  the  present  Fabrique 
Street  and  extending  to  part  of  St.  John  Street. 
Chaussegros  de  Lery,  the  engineer,  lived  in  this  street 
near  the  Parish  Church.  Jean  Chandelier,  an  inn- 
keeper ;  Jean  Baptiste  Brassard,  the  beadle  ;  a  mason, 
a  shoemaker,  and  an  armourer  also  resided  there.  In 
that  part  of  St.  Jean  Street  which  commenced  at  the 
Hotel  Dieu,  there  were  two  English  residents,  Thomas 
le  Golden,  a  labourer,  and  John  Willy,  a  shoemaker. 
Paul  Denis  de  St.  Simon,  a  councillor,  a  merchant,  and 
a  blacksmith,  resided  in  the  same  quarter. 

The  St.  Nicolas  suburb,  or  Palais  quarter,  was 
inhabited  by  carters,  roofers,  masons,  blacksmiths  and 
port  wardens. 

The  streets  in  the  Lower  town,  six  in  number, 
were  called,  de  la  Montagne  ;  de  Meulles  and  Cham- 
plain  ;  Cul-de-sac  ;  Notre  Dame  ;  Sault  au  Matelot,  and 
Sous  le  PAort. 

In  Sault  au  Matelot  lived  Charles  Denis  de  St. 
Simon,  grand  Provost  of  the  Marshals  of  France  ;  Jean 
Maillou,  architect ;  Vital  Caron,  mariner  and  merchant ; 



Anne  Macart,  widow  of  Pierre  B£cart  de  Granville  ; 
the  widow  [of  M.  de  Soulanges  ;  Franyois  Aubert, 

De  la  Montagne  (Mountain  Hill)  extended  from 
the  gate  of  the  Bishop's  palace  to  the  garden  of  M.  de 
Lino,  at  the  foot  of  the  hill.  The  principal  residents 
were  Gaspard  Emeri,  surgeon  ;  Jacques  Barbel,  Notary 
and  secretary  of  the  Intendant ;  Foucault,  Merchant ; 
Richard  Testu  de  la  Richardiere,  mariner.  There  were 
also  blacksmiths,  shoemakers,  watchmakers,  lock- 
smiths, barbers  and  nailers. 

Notre  Dame  Street  was  the  commercial  street. 
The  leading  merchants  were  Charles  Perthuis,  Nicolas 
Pinault,  Charles  Goutard,  Pierre  Normandin,  Etienne 
de  Grandmenil,  Jean  Fournel  and  Joseph  Fleury  de  la 
Gorgendiere.  There  were  also  several  notaries,  amongst 
others  Florent  de  la  Citiere,  Pierre  Rivet  Cavelier  ; 
four  councillors — Martin  Cheron,  Francois  Mathieu 
Martin  de  Lino,  Charles  Macart  and  Francois  Hazeur. 

De  Meulles  and  Champlaiii  Street,  leading  from 
the  flight  of  steps  to  Cape  Diamond,  was  the  most 
populous.  In  it  lived  two  physicians,  Jourdain  La  jus 
and  Pierre  du  Verger.  The  remainder  of  the  population 
in  that  quarter  was  composed  of  mariners,  ship  car- 
penters, labourers  and  an  old  fortune  teller  named 
Heli,  seventy-six  years  of  age. 

Cul-de-Sac  was  the  quarter  of  the  inn-keepers, 
butchers  and  mariners.  Dr.  Soupiran  also  had  his 
residence  there.  Sous-le-Fort  Street  contained  mer- 
chants and  navigators.  Amongst  the  former  were 



Francois  Perrot,  Etienne  Mirabeau,  Etienne  Thibierge, 
Gabriel  Greyssac,  Pierre  Haimard,  Pierre  Perreault  dit 
Dresil,  Pierre  Baraguet  and  Louis  Gosselin.  The  notary 
Rageot,  M.  de  Lino,  the  King's  procurator,  Jean 
Baptiste  Couillard  1'Espinay,  lieutenant  of  the  troops, 
resided  in  this  quarter. 

The  Parish,  at  this  time  comprised  both  the  Upper 
and  Lower  Towns  and  the  Suburbs,  la  Canardiere, 
St.  Jean  Suburb,  la  Petite  Riviere  and  Saint-Michel. 
The  latter  place  was  the  favourite  promenade  of  the 
directors  and  pupils  of  the  seminary.  Seven  families 
only  were  grouped  along  the  St.  Charles  river  forming 
a  population  of  forty  four. 

The  names  of  several  families  of  that  period  are 
still  borne  by  citizens  of  Quebec  to-day.  Then  as  now, 
we  find  the  names  of  Alary,  Amiot,  Aubert,  Baby, 
Beaudoin,  Bergeron,  Bernier,  Blondeau,  Bonneau, 
Bouchard,  Boucher,  Bourget,  Brousseau,  Bruneau, 
Brunet,  Bureau,  Caron,  Casgrain,  Charest,  Charland, 
Chaussegros  de  Lery,  Constantin,  Cote,  Couillard, 
Dassilva,  Deguise,  Desjardins,  Deslauriers,  Dion, 
Drouin,  Ducharme,  Dufresne,  Dumontier,  Fontaine, 
Gagnon,  Gosselin,  Gourdeau,  Guillot,  Hamel,  Huot, 
Jolicoeur,  Laberge,  L,acasse,  Lafrance,  Languedoc, 
Langevin,  Lemieux,  Lemoine,  L,esage,  Lessard,  Levas- 
seur,  Lortie,  Malouin,  Marois,  Montambault,  Moreau, 
Morin,  Martineau,  Pampalon,  Parent,  Pelletier  Per- 
rault,  Proulx,  Racine,  Renaud,  Robitaille,  Rousseau, 
Routier,  Samson,  Sasseville,  Tourangeau,  Vallee, 
Valliere,  Vermette,  Voyer. 





THE  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil  was  succeeded  by  the 
Marquis  de  Beauharnois  as  Governor,  on  the  nth 
of  June,  1726.  He  came  to  Quebec  at  the  same  time 
as  Dupuy,  who  replaced  Michel  B£gon  as  Intendant. 
Since  the  days  of  Talon  there  had  been  seven 
Intendants,  and  in  the  work  of  each  we  find  some 
achievement  in  the  interest  of  the  people.  The  office 
of  Intendant  was  a  peculiar  one,  and  diplomacy  was 
often  necessary  to  preserve  harmony  in  the  government. 
Hitherto,  although  there  had  been  friction  occasion- 
ally, the  Intendants  appear  to  have  had  the  welfare 
of  the  colony  at  heart.  Quebec  was  soon  to  realise 
how  shamefully  the  office  could  be  abused,  and  the 
darkest  days  of  New  France,  which  brought  about  her 

4  49 


downfall,  may  be  traced  directly  to  the  exercise  for 
evil,  of  the  power  vested  in  the  last  of  her  Intendants. 
The  only  instance  of  a  joint  appointment  was  when 
Antoine  and  Jacques  Raudot  were  named  Intendants. 
These  two  men  were  particularly  successful  in  con- 
dueling  the  affairs  entrusted  to  them.  The  elder 
Raudot  reserved  for  himself  the  administration  of 
justice,  the  police  and  general  business,  while  his  son 
undertook  the  control  of  marine  and  commerce.  The 
firm  stand  taken  by  Antoine  Raudot  in  simplifying 
the  procedure  in  the  courts  ;  in  diminishing  the  juris- 
dictions and  in  putting  an  end  to  the  vexatious  pro- 
ceedings of  pettifoggers,  earned  for  him  the  gratitude 
of  the  inhabitants.  Raudot,  the  younger,  improved  the 
financial  condition  of  the  colony  and  aided  commerce 
by  consolidating  the  military  and  commercial  establish- 
ments. With  a  desire  to  curb  the  mania  for  trading 
with  the  Indians  he  encouraged  the  people  to  follow 
agricultural  pursuits. 

In  the  history  of  the  Hotel  Dieu  we  find  this 
passage  referring  to  the  elder  Raudot  : 

' '  He  was  a  very  witty  old  man ,  fluent  and  agreeable 
in  conversation  and  he  spoke  well  on  every  subject. 
He  knew  the  history  of  every  country,  and  chatted 
familiarly  with  everybody.  He  was  of  a  kind  dispo- 
sition and  inclined  to  render  service  to  all  with  great 
uprightness.  Both  the  Intendants  gave  us  proof  of 
their  esteem  while  in  Canada,  and  after  they  returned 
to  France  they  have  written  us  kind  letters  and  have 
made  themselves  useful  to  us  whenever  they  had  an 
opportunity. ' ' 



Raudot,  the  elder,  died  in  1728,  and  his  son  in 


Their  successor,  Michel  Begon,  appointed  in  1712, 
was  singularly  unfortunate.  In  the  fire  which  des- 
troyed the  Intendant's  Palace,  he  lost  all  his  worldly 
goods,  but  what  he  most  regretted  was  the  destruction 
of  a  fine  collection  of  books,  which  at  that  particular 
time  was  an  irreparable  loss.  Personally  he  had  a 
very  narrow  escape  from  the  flames,  and  both  he  and 
his  wife  took  up  their  abode  at  the  Bishop's  Palace, 
The  members  of  the  Superior  Council  also  accepted 
the  hospitality  of  the  prelate.  Begon  was  a  patron 
of  the  industrial  arts,  and  did  his  best  to  promote 
home  manufactures. 

"The  excessive  cost  of  merchandise,"  he  wrote 
to  the  Minister, ' '  has  made  the  inhabitants  industrious  ; 
they  make  coarse  cloth  with  thread  and  the  wool 
obtained  in  the  country  ;  they  likewise  make  a  great 
deal  of  linen.  The  Sisters  of  the  Congregation  showed 
me  some  light  woollen  cloth  they  made  for  their  own 
clothing  which  is  as  good  as  that  made  in  France,  and 
black  stuff  is  made  here  for  priests'  cassocks,  and  blue 
material  for  their  scholars.  Necessity  has  given  rise 
to  this." 

Dupuy,  who  succeeded  Begon,  was  not  successful 
in  his  administration.  He  quarrelled  constantly  with 
the  Governor  and  with  the  religious  authorities,  and 
in  consequence  he  was  soon  recalled. 

Hocquart  was  chosen  as  the  successor  of  Dupuy, 
and  his  administration  was  marked  by  many  public 


He  caused  a  breakwater  to  be  constructed  in  the 
river  St.  Charles  for  the  protection  of  the  shipping. 
This  breakwater,  which  was  still  visible  in  1830,  was 
built  of  large  stones  taken  from  the  river.  It  now 
forms  a  part  of  the  Palais  Wharf.  Hocquart  encouraged 
ship  building  in  Quebec,  and  between  1732  and  1733, 
twenty  vessels  were  built  ranging  from  forty  to  fifty 
tons  burden,  which  were  used  principally  in  the  coasting 
trade  between  Quebec  and  Montreal. 

The  mining  industry  was  developed  under  his 
regime,  and  discoveries  of  copper,  lead  and  iron  were 
made.  In  Talon's  time  some  prospecting  had  been 
done,  but  at  this  period  no  one  seemed  to  consider  the 
working  of  the  mines  practicable. 

The  St.  Maurice  Forges  were  opened  at  this  time. 
They  were  in  operation  for  many  years,  and  to-day 
they  are  still  very  active. 

Hocquart  was  probably  the  most  remarkable  Inten- 
dant  after  Talon.  He  took  a  deep  interest  in  everything 
that  he  thought  would  benefit  the  colony.  He  was 
zealous  in  aiding  the  cause  of  education,  and  at  his 
request  Leverrier  gave  public  lectures  on  law.  He  soon 
discovered,  however,  that  this  method  of  instruction 
was  not  in  harmony  with  the  tastes  of  the  people. 
The  Canadian  youth  as  a  rule,  was  not  inclined  to 
study.  The  free  and  open  life  of  the  forest  made  him 
brook  restraint,  and  he  was  often  tempted  either  to 
seek  adventure  in  travel,  or  fortune  in  trade,  rather 
than  endure  the  drudgery  necessary  to  fit  him  for  a 
professional  career.  In  1744  the  census  showed  that 



there  were  nearly  a  thousand  men  engaged  in  trading 
with  the  Indians. 

Charles  de  Beauharnois  was  Governor  of  the  colony 
for  over  twenty  years.  His  many  and  noble  qualities 
won  for  him  the  esteem  of  the  Canadians,  a  striking 
manifestation  of  which  was  given  on  his  departure  for 
France  in  1747. 

His  successor,  the  Count  de  la  Galissonniere,  who 
occupied  the  office  for  two  years  was  distinguished  for 
his  wisdom  and  ability  as  an  administrator.  His  first 
act  on  arriving  in  Quebec  was  to  study  the  needs  of  the 
country  and  its  resources.  He  saw  at  a  glance  the 
moral  value  of  the  people,  and  realized  their  aptitude 
for  war  and  navigation. 

"  If  other  colonies,  he  said,  produce  more  wealth, 
this  one  produces  men,  a  far  more  desirable  wealth  for 
a  king  than  sugar  or  indigo,  or  even  than  all  the  gold 
of  the  Antilles. ' '  The  Count  de  la  Galissonniere  strove 
to  increase  the  power  of  France  in  Acadia  by  inducing 
the  Acadians  to  settle  on  the  debated  ground  which  was 
claimed  by  England,  between  the  peninsula  of  Nova 
Scotia  and  the  river  St.  John. 

He  wished  to  establish  definitely  the  extent  of  the 
possessions  of  France  in  the  new  world,  and  had  already 
begun  to  determine  the  western  boundaries.  He  claimed 
for  his  country  the  Ohio  valley  which  would  facilitate 
communication  with  Louisiana,  and  he  limited  the 
English  possessions  to  the  chain  of  the  Alleghanies. 
Had  Galissonniere  remained  in  Canada,  it  is  probable 



that  new  France  would  have   escaped   much  of  the 
misery  of  the  next  ten  years  of  her  existence. 

Galissonniere  was  devoted  to  natural  science,  and 
placing  himself  at  the  head  of  a  number  of  highly 
cultured  men,  he  formed  an  Academy  of  Science, 
which  was  not  unworthy  of  being  compared  with  the 
Academic  des  Sciences  in  Paris,  at  that  time  rendered 
illustrious  through  the  membership  of  such  men  as 
Re'aurnur,  Tournefort,  Halley,  Newton,  the  two  Jussieu 
and  Mariotte.  "  Never,"  wrote  Kalm,  "  has  natural 
history  had  a  greater  protector  in  this  country  and  it 
is  doubtful  whether  it  will  ever  see  his  equal."  It 
should  be  observed  that  since  the  days  of  Galissonniere 
the  natural  sciences  have  not  received  official  recog- 
nition in  Canada  to  the  same  extent. 

Canon  Gosselin  assisted  the  Governor  in  preparing 
a  herbarium  of  Canadian  plants  for  a  museum  in  Paris. 
Dr.  L,acroix  sent  to  France  a  box  of  our  most  valuable 
plants  ;  acorns,  walnut  seeds  ;  samples  of  copper  from 
Lake  Superior,  and  specimens  of  lead  from  Baie  St. 
Paul.  The  Jesuit  Father  L,afitau,  who  was  well  versed 
in  botany,  discovered  in  Canada  the  ginseng,  that  his 
colleague,  Father  Jartoux,  had  seen  in  Tartary,  and 
the  shipments  of  which  were  to  exceed  a  half  million 
francs  annually.  Dr.  Gaulthier  gave  his  name  to  the 
plant  at  present  known  to  naturalists  as  the  Gaultheria 
procumbens,  or  winter  green.  Dr.  Sarrazin  made  known 
to  European  savants  the  curative  properties  of  a  plant 
called  saracenia,  in  cases  of  small-pox.  He  also  sent 
to  the  Academic  des  Sciences  valuable  notes  on  the 



anatomy  of  the  beaver,  wolverine,  musk  rat,  seal  and 
porcupine,  and  on  the  habits  of  the  denizens  of  our 

While  these  savants  vied  with  each  other  in 
extending  the  field  of  their  knowledge,  the  Intendants 
strove  to  make  the  resources  of  the  country  known 
abroad.  The  ecclesiastical  authorities  sent  forth  mis- 
sionaries to  the  Mississippi  and  to  the  Arkansas  posts, 
and  the  Hospitalier  Brothers  developed  a  taste  for 
education  wherever  they  set  foot.  The  affairs  of  the 
colony  appeared  to  be  exceedingly  prosperous  when 
the  Count  de  la  Galissonniere  handed  over  the  admin- 
istration to  his  successor,  the  Marquis  de  la  Jonquiere. 

The  new  Governor  soon  won  public  favour  by  his 
affable  manners.  His  arrival  in  Quebec  on  the  evening 
of  the  1 5th  of  August,  1749,  was  the  occasion  of  a 
splendid  demonstration.  Kalm,  the  Swedish  savant, 
has  left  a  circumstantial  account  of  it  in  his  ' '  Travels 
into  North  America  ' ' : 

' '  The  new  Governor- general  of  all  Canada,  the 
marquis  de  la  Jonquiere,  arrived  last  night  in  the 
river.before  Quebec  ;  but  it  being  late,  he  reserved 
his  public  entrance  for  to-day.  He  had  left  France 
on  the  second  of  June,  but  could  not  reach  Quebec 
before  this  time,  on  account  of  the  difficulty  which 
great  ships  find  in  passing  the  sands  in  the  river  St. 
Lawrence.  The  ships  cannot  venture  to  go  up, 
without  fair  wind,  being  forced  to  run  in  many 
bendings,  and  frequently  in  a  very  narrow  channel. 
To-day  was  another  great  feast,  on  account  of  the 
Ascension  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  which  is  very  highly 



celebrated  in  Roman  Catholic  countries.  This  day 
was  accordingly  doubly  remarkable,  both  on  account 
of  the  holiday,  and  of  the  arrival  of  the  new  Governor 
general,  who  is  always  received  with  great  pomp,  as 
he  represents  a  vice-roy  here. 

"  About  eight  o'clock  the  chief  people  in  town 
assembled  at  the  house  of  Mr.  de  Vaudreuil,  who  had 
lately  been  nominated  Governor  of  Trois  Rivieres, 
and  lived  in  the  L,ower  Town,  and  whose  father  had 
likewise  been  governor-general  of  Canada.  Thither 
came  likewise  the  Marquis  de  la  Galissonniere,  who 
had  till  now  been  governor- general,  and  was  to 
sail  for  France  with  the  first  opportunity.  He  was 
accompanied  by  all  the  people  belonging  to  the 
government.  I  was  likewise  invited  to  see  this 
festivity.  At  half  an  hour  after  eight  the  new 
governor- general  went  from  the  ship  into  a  barge, 
covered  with  red  cloth,  upon  which  a  signal  with 
cannons  was  given  from  the  ramparts,  for  all  the 
bells  in  the  town  to  be  set  a-ringing.  All  the  people 
of  distinction  went  down  to  the  shore  to  salute  the 
governor,  who,  after  alighting  from  the  barge,  was 
received  by  the  marquis  de  la  Galissonniere.  After 
they  had  saluted  each  other,  the  commandant  of  the 
town  addressed  the  new  governor-general  in  a  very 
elegant  speech,  which  he  answered  very  concisely  ; 
after  which  all  the  cannons  on  the  ramparts  gave  a 
general  salute.  The  whole  street,  up  to  the  Cathe- 
dral, was  lined  with  men  in  arms,  chiefly  drawn  out 
from  the  burghesses.  The  governor-general  then 
walked  towards  the  cathedral,  dressed  in  a  suit  of 
red,  with  abundance  of  gold  lace.  His  servants  went 
before  him  in  green,  carrying  fire  arms  on  their 
shoulders.  On  his  arrival  at  the  cathedral  he  was 
received  by  the  bishop  of  Canada,  and  the  whole 
clergy  assembled.  The  bishop  was  arrayed  in  his 



pontifical  robes,  and  had  a  long  gilt  tiara  on  his 
head,  and  a  great  crozier  of  massy  silver  in  his  hand. 
After  the  bishop  had  addressed  a  short  speech  to  the 
governor-general,  a  priest  brought  a  silver  crucifix 
on  a  long  stick  (two  priests  with  lighted  tapers  in 
their  hands  going  on  each  side  of  it)  to  be  kissed 
by  the  governor.  The  bishop  and  the  priests  then 
went  through  the  long  walk  up  to  the  choir.  The 
servants  of  the  governor-general  followed  with  their 
hats  on,  and  arms  on  their  shoulders.  At  last  came 
the  governor- general  and  his  suite,  and  after  them 
a  crowd  of  people.  At  the  beginning  of  the  choii 
the  governor-general,  and  the  general  de  la  Galis- 
sonniere,  stopped  before  a  chair  covered  with  red 
cloth,  and  stood  there  during  the  whole  of  the  cele- 
bration of  the  mass,  which  was  celebrated  by  the 
bishop  himself.  From  the  church  he  went  to  the 
palace,  where  the  gentlemen  of  note  in  the  town, 
afterwards  went  to  pay  their  respects  to  him.  The 
religious  of  the  different  orders,  with  their  respective 
superiors,  likewise  came  to  him,  to  testify  their  joy 
on  account  of  his  happy  arrival.  Among  the  numbers 
that  came  to  visit  him,  none  staid  to  dine,  but  those 
that  were  invited  beforehand,  among  which  I  had 
the  honour  to  be.  The  entertainment  lasted  very 
long,  and  was  as  elegant  as  the  occasion  required." 

When  Jonquiere  arrived,  Quebec  had  undergone 
many  improvements  since  the  adlive  regime  of  Fron- 
tenac,  but  very  little  alteration  in  the  town  had  been 
made  after  1720.  The  Jesuits  had  built  a  new  college, 
and  the  Intendants  palace,  destroyed  by  fire  in  1726, 
had  been  rebuilt,  but  with  these  exceptions  the  public 
buildings  remained  the  same.  A  very  detailed  account 
of  the  city  about  the  year  1750  is  to  be  found  in  Kalm's 



travels,    and    from    this    work  we   make   a   further 
extract  : — 

"  The  Palace  (Chateau  St.  Louis),  is  situated  on 
"  the  west  or  steepest  side  of  the  mountain,  just  above 
'  the  lower  city.  It  is  not  properly  a  palace,  but  a 
'  large  building  of  stone,  two  stories  high,  extending 
'  north  and  south.  On  the  west  side  of  it  is  a  court 
'  yard,  surrounded  partly  with  houses.  On  the  east 
'  side,  or  towards  the  river,  is  a  gallery  as  long  as  the 
'  whole  building,  and  about  two  fathom  broad,  paved 
'  with  smooth  flags,  and  included  on  the  outsides  by 
'  iron  rails,  from  whence  the  city  and  the  river  exhibit 
'  a  charming  prospect.  This  gallery  serves  as  a  very 
'  agreeable  walk  after  dinner,  and  those  who  come  to 
'  speak  with  the  Governor-general  wait  here  till  he  is 
'  at  leisure.  The  Palace  is  the  lodging  of  the  Governor- 
'  general  of  Canada,  and  a  number  of  soldiers  mount 
'  the  guard  before  it,  both  at  the  gate  and  in  the  court 
'  yard  ;  and  when  the  Governor,  or  the  Bishop,  comes 
'  in  or  goes  out,  they  must  all  appear  in  arms,  and 
'  beat  the  drum.  The  Governor-General  has  his  own 
'  chapel  where  he  hears  prayers  ;  however,  he  often 
'  goes  to  mass  at  the  church  of  the  Recollets,  which 
'  is  very  near  the  palace. 

"  The  house  of  the  Intendant  is  a  public  building, 
'  whose  size  makes  it  fit  for  a  palace.  It  is  covered 
'  with  tin,  and  stands  in  a  second  lower  town,  situated 
'  south-ward  upon  the  river  St.  Charles.  It  has  a 
'  large  and  fine  garden  on  its  north  side.  In  this 
'  house  all  the  deliberations  concerning  this  province 
'  are  held  ;  and  the  gentlemen  who  have  the  manage- 
'  ment  of  the  police  and  the  civil  power  meet  here,  and 
'  the  Intendant  generally  presides.  In  affairs  of  great 
'  consequence  the  Governor  General  is  likewise  here. 



"  On  one  side  of  this  house  is  the  storehouse  of  the 
<(  Crown,  and  on  the  other  the  prison." 

"The  Cathedral  Church  is  on  the  right  hand, 
"  coming  from  the  lower  to  the  upper  city,  somewhat 
"  beyond  the  Bishop's  house.  On  the  west  side  is  a 
"  round  steeple,  with  two  divisions,  in  the  lower  of 
"  which  are  some  bells.  The  pulpit,  and  some  other 
' '  parts  within  the  church,  are  gilt.  The  seats  are  very 
"  fine. 

' '  The  Jesuits  Church  is  built  in  the  form  of  a 
"  cross  and  has  a  round  steeple.  This  is  the  only 

' '  church  that  has  a  clock 1  attended  divine  service 

<l  in  their  church,  which  is  a  part  of  their  house.  It  is 
"  very  fine  within,  though  it  has  no  seats;  for  every 
<(  one  is  obliged  to  kneel  down  during  the  service. 
"  The  building  the  Jesuits  live  in  is  magnificently 
"  built,  and  looks  exceedingly  fine,  both  within  and 
' '  without,  which  gives  it  a  similarity  to  a  fine  palace. 
<(  It  consists  of  stone,  is  three  stories  high,  exclusive 
"  of  the  garret,  covered  with  slates,  and  built  in  a 
"  square  form,  like  the  new  palace  at  Stockholm, 
"  including  a  large  court.  Its  size  is  such,  that  three 
' '  hundred  families  would  find  room  enough  in  it ; 
' '  though  at  present  there  were  not  above  twenty  Jesuits 
"  in  it.  Sometimes  there  is  a  much  greater  number  of 
"  them,  especially  when  those  return,  who  have  been 
"  as  missionaries  into  the  country.  There  is  a  long 
"  walk  all  along  the  sides  of  the  square,  in  every  story, 
"  on  both  sides  of  which  are  either  cells,  halls,  or 
' '  other  appartments  for  the  friars,  and  likewise  their 
"  library,  apothecary  shop,  &c.  Everything  is  very 
' '  well  regulated  and  the  Jesuits  are  very  well  accomo- 
' '  dated  here.  On  the  outside  is  their  college,  which 
"  is  on  two  sides  surrounded  with  great  orchards  and 
"  kitchen  gardens,  in  which  they  have  fine  walks. 



'  A  part  of  the  trees  here,  are  the  remains  of  the  forest 
'  which  stood  here  when  the  French  began  to  build 
'  the  town.  They  have  planted  a  number  of  fruit 
'  trees,  and  the  garden  is  stocked  with  all  sorts  of 

'  plants  for  the  use  of  the  kitchen The  Jesuits 

'  are  commonly  very  learned,  studious,  and  very  civil 
'  and  agreeable  in  company.  Their  conversation  is 
'  very  entertaining  and  learned,  so  that  one  cannot  be 
'  tired  of  their  company. 

' '  The  Recollets  Church  is  opposite  the  gate  of  the 
'  palace,  on  the  west  side,  and  looks  well,  and  has  a 
'  pretty  high  pointed  steeple,  with  a  division  below 
'  for  the  bells.  They  have  a  fine  large  dwelling 
'  house.  Near  it  is  a  large  and  fine  garden  which  they 
'  cultivate  with  great  application. 

' '  The  church  of  the  Ursulines  has  a  round  spire. 
"  The  Hotel  Dieu,  where  the  sick  are  taken  care 
'  of,  shall  be  described  in  the  sequel ....  We  first  saw 
1  the  hospital  which  I  shall  presently  describe,  and 
then  entered  the  convent  which  forms  a  part  of  the 
hospital.  It  is  a  great  building  of  stone,  three  stories 
high,  divided  in  the  inside  into  long  galleries,  on 
both  sides  of  which  are  cells,  halls,  and  rooms.  The 
cells  of  the  nuns  are  in  the  highest  story,  on  both 
sides  of  the  gallery  ;  they  are  but  small  ;not  painted 
inside  but  hung  with  paper  pictures  of  saints  and  of 
the  Saviour  on  the  cross...  In  the  middle  story  is  a 
balcony  where  the  nuns  are  allowed  to  take  air. 
The  prospect  from  the  convent  is  very  fine  on  every 
side  ;  the  river,  the  fields,  and  the  meadows  out  of 
town,  appear  to  a  great  advantage.  On  one  side  of 
the  convent  is  a  large  garden,  in  which  the  nuns  are 
at  liberty  to  walk  about  ;  it  belongs  to  the  convent, 
and  is  surrounded  with  a  high  wall." 

"  The  house  of  the  clergy  is  a  large  building,  on 



"  the  north  east  side  of  the  cathedral.  Here  is  on  one 
"  side  a  spacious  court,  and  on  the  other,  towards  the 
<(  river,  a  great  orchard  and  kitchen  garden. 

"  The  civility  of  the  inhabitants  here  is  more 
"  refined  than  that  of  the  Dutch  and  English,  in  the 
"settlements  belonging  to  great  Britain;  but  the 
"  latter  on  the  other  hand,  do  not  idle  their  time  away 
' '  in  dressing  as  the  French  do  here. 

"  The  ladies,  especially  dress  and  powder  their 
"  hair  every  day,  and  put  their  locks  in  papers  every 
"  night ;  which  idle  custom  was  not  introduced  into 
' '  the  English  settlements.  The  gentlemen  wear  gen- 
' '  erally  their  own  hair,  but  some  have  wigs. 

The  government  of  the  Marquis  de  la  Jonquiere 
was  not  beneficial  to  the  people  in  general,  although  he 
and  several  of  his  followers  are  credited  with  having 
derived  profit  from  it.  The  governor  was  accused  of 
carrying  on  trade  with  the  western  countries,  and 
consequently  his  departure  was  not  regretted. 

The  Marquis  Duquesne  de  Menneville  was  named 
governor  in  1752,  after  an  interval  filled  by  Charles 
L,emoyne,  first  Baron  de  L,ongueuil.  The  new  governor 
was  harsh  in  his  measures  and  out  of  sympathy  with 
the  Canadians.  They  therefore  rejoiced  when  one  of 
their  own  people,  Vaudreuil-Cavaignal,  was  named 
governor.  The  Canadians  have  always  been  loyal  to 
their  traditions,  nor  can  we  blame  them  over  much  for 
upholding,  as  long  as  possible,  their  faith  in  this  poor, 
weak  individual. 

The  Canadians,  however,  owe  no  debt  of  gratitude 
to  their  last  governor.  It  was  under  his  administration 



that  their  life  became  one  of  slavery  and  bodily  suf- 
fering, and  while  he  may  not  personally  have  received 
any  profit  from  the  wholesale  plunder  of  the  times,  it 
must  be  remembered  that  he  refused  to  allow  the 
mother  country  to  relieve  them  from  their  misery,  by 
assuring  the  Minister  in  France  that  the  affairs  of  the 
colony  were  being  administered  honestly.  Whereas, 
when  at  last  enquiry  could  be  stifled  no  longer,  and 
France  sent  out  a  man  to  investigate  the  accounts  of 
her  officials,  it  was  proved  immediately  that  a  gigantic 
system  of  fraud  had  been  carried  out  in  almost  every 
department  of  the  public  service,  at  the  expense  of  the 
bodily  suffering,  and  oftentimes  at  the  sacrifice  of  the 
lives  of  the  poor  Canadians. 

The  career  of  Vaudreuil  is  almost  inexplicable, 
and  the  only  solution  possible  is  that  in  some  way  he 
became  involved  in  the  intrigues  of  Bigot,  which  pur- 
chased his  silence. 

On  his  arrival  Vaudreuil  was  received  with  open 
arms,  and  so  implicit  was  the  confidence  reposed  in 
him,  that  in  the  change  which  was  slowly  creeping 
over  new  France,  a  change  which  gradually  sapped 
its  energy,  the  people  bowed  to  what  appeared  to  them 
inevitable,  instead  of  rising  in  revolt  against  a  regime 
of  tyranny  and  oppression. 

The  name  of  Bigot  is  associated  with  one  of  the 
most  melancholy  pages  of  the  history  of  France.  The 
record  of  his  transactions  in  Quebec  is  one  of  heartless 
peculation  and  fraud.  The  result  of  recent  research 
shows  that  for  several  years  he  systematically  and 



successfully  endeavoured  to  create  a  condition  of  famine 
and  distress  in  the  colony  in  order  to  render  possible 
his  scandalous  course  of  action.  Examples  are  not 
wanting  in  history,  of  men  holding  important  public 
positions  who  have  turned  their  office  into  profit,  even 
on  a  larger  scale  than  Bigot ;  but  it  is  very  doubtful 
whether  the  history  of  any  other  dishonest  official 
furnishes  a  parallel  to  the  last  of  the  Intendants.  In 
his  nefarious  schemes  he  had  the  hearty  co-operation 
of  one,  Joseph  Cadet,  the  son  of  a  Quebec  butcher 
who,  after  having  been  condemned  to  the  Bastile,  and 
ordered  to  restore  six  millions  of  his  fraudulent  gains, 
had  still  the  means,  in  1778,  to  purchase  the  time 
honoured  Barony  de  la  Touche  d'Avrigny  ;  and  who, 
through  the  assistance  of  the  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil, 
became  a  noble  of  Old  France. 

Gigantic  schemes  have  been  invented  from  time  to 
time  to  defraud  the  public,  and  the  list  of  sufferers  has 
often  been  large,  but  in  the  majority  of  instances  the 
schemes  have  been  accomplished  by  playing  upon  the 
credulity  of  the  victims.  In  Bigot's  case  it  was  far 
different.  The  petty  savings  of  the  inhabitants  were 
of  small  account,  although  in  the  course  of  time  they 
were  gathered  in  to  swell  his  coffers.  The  Treasury 
of  France  would  alone  satisfy  his  ambition,  and  in 
order  to  enable  him  to  draw  freely  from  this  inexhaus- 
tible fund,  it  was  necessary  to  accustom  thousands  of 
the  people  to  a  long  regime  of  abject  misery  and 
suffering.  So  skilfully  were  his  plans  carried  out,  that 
many  of  the  leading  authorities  and  some  even  of  his 



associates  were  in  ignorance  of  the  means  that  he  had 
adopted  ;  and  at  his  trial,  though  some  of  his  methods 
were  exposed,  and  the  miserable  condition  of  the 
people  was  made  evident,  Bigot  was  not  charged  nor 
even  suspected  of  having  been  directly  responsible  for 
that  deplorable  condition. 

Legend  and  romance  have  invested  Bigot  with  a 
peculiar  interest  which  has  no  foundation  in  fact,  and 
it  is  quite  safe  to  say  that  the  Intendant  never  resided 
in,  or  had  any  connection  with,  the  famous  Chateau 
with  which  his  name  is  associated  in  the  pages  of 
fiction.  When  the  history  of  this  remarkable  individual 
is  written,  it  will  be  found  that  actual  facts  are  far 
more  startling  than  any  of  the  most  interesting  pages 
of  the  novelists  who  have  woven  stories  around  his 

Francois  Bigot,  who  had  acted  as  Commissary  at 
Louisbourg  in  1744  and  1745,  when  that  place  was 
taken  by  Pepperell,  became  Intendant  in  1748,  in 
succession  to  Hocquart.  His  record  at  L,ouisbourg  had 
not  been  a  good  one,  and  he  was  suspected  of  corrupt 
practices,  which,  however,  were  only  preliminary  to 
those  which  he  was  about  to  undertake  in  his  larger 
field.  His  powers  as  Intendant  were  extraordinary. 
He  had  the  control  of  the  finances  of  the  colony,  the 
purchase  and  distribution  of  supplies  for  the  troops 
and  for  the  various  military  posts,  and  the  importation 
from  France  of  such  merchandize  as  was  required  for 
the  public  stores,  which  included  all  articles  which  the 
colony  could  not  supply. 



Bigot  soon  discovered  that  the  Province  was  very 
fertile ;  that  there  was  an  abundance  of  grain  and 
cattle  ;  and,  moreover,  that  the  Canadians  were  a  hardy 
race  and  could  subsist  without  complaint  upon  a  meagre 
fare.  His  first  tactics,  therefore,  were  to  remove  these 
two  most  important  articles  of  consumption  beyond  the 
reach  of  the  people.  Bigot  consequently  made  large 
levies  upon  the  inhabitants  under  the  pretence  that 
the  grain  was  required  for  the  service  of  the  King, 
paying  whatever  price  he  liked  for  it.  When  these 
levies  had  been  repeated  in  every  part  of  the  Province, 
and  all  the  available  grain  had  been  collected,  it  was 
shipped  to  France  by  his  agents,  to  be  repurchased 
from  his  associates  for  the  use,  and  for  the  purpose 
of  maintaining  the  very  people  from  whom  it  had  been 
taken.  The  grain  remaining  in  the  villages  was  then 
gathered  in  and  sold  to  the  people  at  exhorbitant 
prices,  until  the  Intendant  had  received  authority  for 
the  purchase  of  the  grain  in  France,  which  had  actually 
been  sent  out  of  the  Province. 

Bigot's  next  move  was  to  create  a  scarcity  of  cattle. 
This  was  done  by  gradually  requiring  all  the  animals 
to  be  sent  to  Quebec  for  the  use  of  the  troops,  and  they 
were  then  placed  beyond  the  reach  of  the  inhabitants. 
Under  the  pretext  of  a  lack  of  provisions,  horses  were 
killed  indiscriminately  for  food,  and  thus  the  habitants 
were  deprived  of  a  ready  means  of  communicating  with 
the  capital.  During  the  siege  of  Quebec,  women  and 
children  were  compelled  to  draw  loads  of  provisions  in 
carts,  over  rough  roads,  because  there  were  no  horses 

5  65 


for  the  purpose.  And  yet,  when  the  British  took 
possession  they  found  cattle  in  abundance,  sufficient 
for  the  commander  in  chief  to  affirm  that  there  was 
no  occasion  for  a  single  horse  to  have  been  slain, 
notwithstanding  that  the  army  had  lived  upon  the 
country  for  nearly  two  years,  except  as  a  cloak  for  the 
knavery  of  the  Intendant. 

But  Bigot's  methods  were  not  to  be  satisfied  with 
the  gradual  starvation  of  the  people.  He  found  it 
expedient  to  attempt  to  destroy  their  manhood  by 
imposing  tasks  upon  them  by  which  he  could  obtain  a 
large  revenue,  and  at  the  same  time  prevent  them  from 
cultivating  their  land  or  providing  for  their  families. 
Horses  had  been  reduced  to  a  minimum,  but  never- 
theless large  quantities  of  provisions  must  be  conveyed 
to  the  numerous  and  distant  military  posts. 

Under  the  pretext  of  conferring  a  benefit  upon 
these  wretched  people,  Cadet  exempted  large  numbers 
of  men  from  military  service,  upon  the  condition  that 
they  would  convey  the  provisions  to  the  different  posts 
as  ordered,  and  give  him  a  receipt  for  the  amount  which 
the  Intendant  collected  from  the  King  for  the  purpose. 
By  this  means,  an  enormous  revenue  was  accumulated, 
while  the  condition  of  the  people  was  the  worst  kind 
of  slavery.  While  these,  and  many  other  similar 
methods,  were  been  carried  out,  Bigot  was  posing  as 
the  real  deliverer  of  the  people,  and,  indeed,  without 
his  assistance  hundreds  of  the  inhabitants  would  have 
perished  ;  but,  he  had  first  created  this  condition,  and 
relieved  them  only  as  a  part  of  the  detestable  plan  that 



he  was  persistently  carrying  out.  The  misery  and 
suffering  of  the  poorer  class  was  not  the  only  means  by 
which  the  Intendant  enriched  himself  and  his  asso- 
ciates. Amongst  the  members  of  the  army,  and  the 
public  officials,  there  were  men  of  means,  and  these 
were  made  to  contribute  to  the  common  fund  of  this 
carnival  of  corruption  presided  over  by  Bigot.  The 
gambling  and  vice  practiced  at  the  Intendant's  palace 
gradually  debauched  the  army  till  even  Bigot  was 
astounded  at  its  depths  and  seriously  thought  of  calling 
a  halt.  It  is  not  our  purpose  in  this  small  work  to 
attempt  to  write  the  biography  of  the  last  of  the 
Intendants,  although  much  material  is  now  available  ; 
but  we  have  given  a  sufficient  indication  of  his  character 
to  show  that  in  his  actions,  and  in  the  result  of  his 
administration  we  must  look  for  the  real  cause  of  the 
downfall  of  New  France. 

The  fact  that  Bigot  was  a  scoundrel  should  not 
close  our  eyes  to  the  fact  that  he  was  a  man  of  extra- 
ordinary executive  ability,  and  had  he  chosen  to  direct 
his  talents  and  energy  towards  the  development  of  New 
France  he  might  have  become  her  dictator.  In  a  recent 
work  it  has  been  claimed  that  the  downfall  of  New 
France  was  owing  solely  to  the  indifference  of  the 
mother  country.  This  statement  is  misleading.  If 
France  is  to  be  blamed  at  all,  it  is  in  the  selection  of 
the  men  she  appointed  to  administer  the  affairs  of  the 
colony,  rather  than  in  any  indifference  to  the  demands 
of  her  chosen  representatives,  in  whom  she  placed 
implicit  confidence.  When  serious  charges  were  made 



against  the  administration  of  Bigot,  charges  upon 
which  he  was  subsequently  convicted,  the  Marquis  de 
Vaudreuil,  the  Governor  of  New  France,  denied,  in 
the  strongest  terms,  the  accusations  which  were  made 
against  the  Intendant. 

France  cannot  surely  be  condemned  for  accepting 
the  guarantee  of  her  highest  official  against  the  evidence 
offered  by  those  who  might  be  considered  as  interested 
parties.  When  she  discovered  that  the  word  of  her 
Governor  in  this  respect  was  worthless,  it  was  too  late 
to  remedy  the  evil,  and  the  only  course  open  to  her  was 
to  recover  as  much  as  possible  of  the  money  out  of 
which  she  had  been  defrauded.  But  no  measure  of 
human  justice  could  compensate  the  thousands  of 
Canadians  who  had  been  starved  into  submission  to 
the  tyrant^  of  Bigot,  and  who  had  sacrificed  their 
lives  and  their  all  to  maintain  his  shameless  prodigality. 

The  conduct  of  the  inhabitants  during  all  this 
terrible  ordeal  is  a  striking  proof  of  the  deep  rooted 
loyalty  of  the  Canadian  nature.  Strangers,  even  to 
the  meaning  of  political  liberty,  reduced  to  an  indis- 
cribable  condition  of  misery  and  starvation,  leading 
almost  the  life  of  serfs,  they  steadfastly  refused  every 
bribe  that  was  offered  to  them  by  the  enemies  of  their 
country  during  the  siege  of  Quebec.  And  these  bribes 
were  not  offered  to  them  to  purchase  their  cooperation 
against  France,  but  simply  to  obtain  their  neutrality. 
And,  at  last,  when  seductive  arguments  had  proved 
unavailing,  and  the  torch  of  the  destroyer  was  the 
signal  for  whole  villages  and  parishes  to  be  consumed 



in  flames,  these  devoted  children  of  New  France  wept 
tears  of  regret  as  every  vestige  of  their  homes  dis- 
appeared ;  but,  even  then,  since  their  hands  were 
powerless  to  stay  the  work  of  the  avenger,  so  should 
their  tongues  refuse  to  utter  the  word  which  would 
purchase  all  that  they  held  most  dear,  at  the  cost  of 
disloyalty  to  their  ungrateful  country. 

For  over  a  century  the  French  arms  had  succeeded 
in  keeping  in  check  the  Iroquois  tribes  and  the  English 
colonists  of  New  England,  whose  reigning  passion,  as 
Bancroft  expresses  it,  was  to  take  possession  of  Canada. 
The  final  blow  was  at  last  to  be  struck.  England  set 
her  fleets  in  motion  and  armed  her  militia  for  a  supreme 
effort.  New  France,  under  her  boastful  Governor,  had 
neglected  proper  means  of  defence,  except  those  which 
were  hurriedly  undertaken  when  the  enemy  was  almost 
at  the  door.  The  mother  country  had  previously  sent 
out  some  of  her  best  and  most  skilful  officers,  amongst 
whom  was  the  illustrious  and  ever  gallant  Montcalm, 
whose  loyalty  and  devotion  to  the  cause  of  France 
were  without  an  equal  in  these  degenerate  days. 

The  first  military  operations  were  encouraging  to 
the  French  arms.  Montcalm  had  laid  siege  to  Fort 
Chouagouen  in  1756,  and  taken  possession  of  it.  In 
the  following  spring  he  hastened  to  Fort  George,  and 
effected  its  surrender  after  a  week's  siege.  To  these 
two  important  acquisitions  was  added  the  vidlory  of 
Carillon  where  Montcalm  defeated  the  English  army 
and  covered  himself  with  glory.  L,ess  fortunate  in 
Cape  Breton,  in  Acadia,  and  in  Detroit,  where  the 



genius  of  Montcalm  was  lacking,  France  saw  that  her 
star  was  waning  and  that  of  England  was  in  the 
ascendant.  Then  Wolfe  came  before  Quebec  with  a 
powerful  fleet  and  army,  and  the  end  was  not  far  off. 





IN  the  spring  of  1759,  preparations  were  made   in 
England  and  in  Canada  for  tue  last  great  drama 
destined  to  determine  the  fate  of  France  in  the  New 

The  military    operations  of  the  previous    year, 
resulting  in  the  reduction  of  L/ouisbourg  and  of  Fort 

(i)  For  a  full  account  of  the  campaign  in  1^59,  see  "  The 
Siege  of  Quebec  and  the  Battle  of  the  Plains  of  Abraham." 



Duquesne,  had  encouraged  Great  Britain  to  pursue  her 
advantages  in  America  and,  if  possible,  to  establish 
her  supremacy  by  a  decisive  victory.  Quebec,  the 
stronghold  of  Canada,  was  to  be  the  object  of  attack, 
either  by  the  forces  under  General  Wolfe,  or  in  con- 
jundlion  with  those  under  General  Amherst. 

On  the  6th  of  February  the  secret  instructions  of 
the  King  relating  to  the  plan  of  campaign  were  delivered 
to  General  Wolfe,  and  on  the  i4th  day  of  the  month 
sixty  transports,  six  sail  of  the  line,  and  nine  frigates, 
sailed  from  Portsmouth  for  America.  Three  days 
after,  Admiral  Saunders,  General  Wolfe,  Brigadier 
Townshend,  and  other  officers  selected  to  serve  in  the 
expedition,  sailed  from  the  same  port,  on  board  the 

L,ouisbourg  was  appointed  as  the  place  of  rendez- 
vous, but  owing  to  the  quantities  of  ice  in  the  harbour, 
the  Admiral  was  obliged  to  proceed  to  Halifax,  where 
he  arrived  after  a  very  stormy  passage,  on  the  first  of 
May.  The  fleet  began  immediately  to  refit,  and  on 
the  3rd  of  May,  Admiral  Durell  was  dispatched  to  the 
Lower  St.  Lawrence  to  cut  off  the  approach  of  French 
vessels  which  were  expected  to  convey  provisions  to 
the  distressed  colony.  In  the  meantime,  Brigadiers 
Monckton  and  Murray  were  actively  engaged  in  pur- 
chasing supplies  for  the  army,  so  that  by  the  last  day 
of  May,  Wolfe's  forces,  consisting  of  8,535  men,  were 
ready  to  proceed  on  their  fateful  expedition. 

While  all  was  activity  along  the  coast  of  Acadia, 
the  French  upon  the  banks  of  the  St.  Lawrence  were 



eagerly  awaiting  the  opening  of  navigation  for  news 
from  France.  Montcalm,  the  commander  of  the  French 
forces,  had  witnessed  with  dismay  the  baneful  influence 
of  the  regime  of  Bigot  and  Vaudreuil,  and  the  increasing 
misery  of  the  people,  and  it  appeared  to  him  that  the 
only  hope  for  New  France  was  in  a  powerful  army 
of  French  regulars.  The  troops  of  the  colony  were 
brave  enough,  but  the  unfortunate  conflict  of  authority, 
fostered  by  the  Governor,  created  a  division  in  the 
interests  of  the  common  cause  of  the  country.  Bougain- 
ville had  been  dispatched  to  France  to  urge  upon  the 
mother  country  the  necessity  of  sending  reinforcements. 
His  mission  would  probably  have  proved  successful  if 
it  had  not  been  for  the  duplicity  of  Vaudreuil  who, 
while  professing  to  endorse  the  mission  of  Bougainville, 
warned  the  Minister  to  take  no  notice  of  his  repre- 
sentations. Thus  the  afflicted  colony  was  deprived  of 
the  assistance  it  had  a  right  to  expect,  by  the  very  man 
who  was  pledged  to  safeguard  its  interests.  Bougain- 
ville returned  to  Quebec,  on  the  loth  of  May,  with  the 
intelligence  that  France  found  it  impossible  to  send 
further  aid,  and  the  suggestion  was  made  to  Montcalm, 
that  he  should  retire  from  his  outposts  and  concentrate 
his  power  in  order  to  preserve  a  foothold  in  America. 
This  news  was  no  doubt  gratifying  to  Vaudreuil, 
whose  inordinate  vanity  led  him  to  pose  as  the  saviour 
of  Canada,  while  his  actions  contributed  largely  to  the 
loss  of  the  country. 

Montcalm  immediately  proceeded  to  Quebec  and 
assumed  the  direction  of  the   campaign.     Five  bat- 



talions  were  brought  from  Montreal,  and  a  body  of 
cavalry  was  raised  and  placed  under  the  command  of 
de  la  Roche  Beaucour.  The  Beauport  side  of  the  river 
was  fortified  with  extensive  earth  works  from  the 
river  St.  Charles  to  the  Falls  of  Montmorency.  A 
bridge  of  boats  was  built  across  the  St.  Charles,  and 
an  entrenchment  was  made  in  the  meadow  of  Monsieur 
Hiche,  and  carried  from  St.  Roch's  to  the  bridge. 
The  entrance  to  the  river  St.  Charles  was  secured  by 
a  boom  defended  by  two  hulks,  mounted  with  cannon. 
Several  boats  were  put  upon  the  stocks  and  mounted 
with  12  and  14  pounders.  A  floating  battery  was 
designed  by  Captain  Duclos,  of  the  Chezine,with  twelve 
embrasures  for  12,  18,  and  24  pounders.  Batteries  were 
constructed,  communications  were  opened,  and  the 
breaches  in  the  walls  were  repaired.  These  various 
works  were  executed  with  remarkable  promptitude, 
but  they  were  scarcely  completed  when  the  French 
received  intelligence  of  the  approach  of  the  British  fleet. 
The  navigation  of  the  river  St.  Lawrence  had  always 
been  regarded  as  difficult,  and  in  portions  exceedingly 
dangerous,  but  at  the  present  time  it  was  considered 
quite  impracticable,  since  all  the  buoys  and  directions 
for  sailing  had  been  removed.  Great  alarm  was  there- 
fore felt  when  the  British  fleet  came  to  anchor  off  the 
Island  of  Orleans,  on  the  eve  of  the  26th  of  June. 

The  view  that  met  the  gaze  of  the  invaders  was 
one  of  unusual  beauty,  and  drew  forth  expressions  of 
delight  from  several  chroniclers.  "It  is  a  beautiful 
island,"  said  one,  and  well  cultivated  and  produces  all 



kinds  of  grain,  pasture  and  vegetables."  Another,  a 
British  officer,  said  :  ' '  Here  we  are  entertained  with 
a  most  agreeable  prospect  of  a  delightful  country  on 
every  side  :  windmills,  watermills,  churches,  chapels, 
compadl  farm  houses,  all  built  with  stone,  and  covered, 
some  with  wood  and  some  with  straw. ' '  The  church 
near  them  was  the  parish  church  of  St.  Laurent,  from 
which  the  city  could  not  be  seen.  From  the  western 
point  of  the  island,  a  few  miles  distant,  the  city  of 
Quebec,  with  its  cathedral,  its  colleges,  its  public  and 
private  buildings,  rose  against  the  horizon,  in  reality, 
a  city  set  upon  a  hill.  The  walls  were  guarded  with 
batteries,  which  swept  the  river,  and  which  in  them- 
selves were  so  high  as  to  be  beyond  the  elevation  of 
cannon  upon  the  vessels  in  the  river  below. 

The  appearance  of  the  fleet  in  the  St.  Lawrence 
so  near  the  city  was  a  serious  menace  to  the  inhab- 
itants, it  was  also  a  reproach  to  the  governor.  A  short 
time  before  Vaudreuil  had  boasted  "  There  is  no  ruse, 
no  resource,  no  means  which  my  zeal  does  not  suggest 
to  lay  snares  for  them,  and  finally,  when  the  exigency 
demands  it,  to  fight  them  with  an  ardour,  and  even 
a  fury,  which  exceed  the  range  of  their  ambitious 

The  pilot  of  the  port  upon  being  questioned  as  to 
how  it  was  possible  for  the  fleet  to  pass  the  traverse 
in  safety,  replied,  that  he  had  not  taken  soundings  for 
twenty-five  years,  and  that  when  he  had  proposed  to 
do  so,  he  had  been  refused  the  necessary  expenses. 



Vaudreuil's  zeal  was  confined  to  an  unceasing  reiter- 
ation of  his  devotion  to  the  colony,  and  to  a  scrupulous 
avoidance  of  its  dangers. 

Although  the  prospect  spread  out  ^before  the 
British  was  pleasing  to  the  eye,  Wolfe  must  have  been 
considerably  perplexed  with  the  situation  as  he  found 
it.  He  had  written  to  his  uncle  a  few  weeks  previously 
that  ' '  to  invest  Quebec  and  shut  off  all  communication 
with  the  colony,  it  will  be  necessary  to  encamp  with 
our  right  to  the  river  St.  Lawrence,  and  our  left  to 
the  river  St.  Charles.  From  the  river  St.  Charles  to 
Beauport  the  communications  must  be  kept  open  by 
strong  intrenched  posts  and  redoubts. ' ' 

This  plan  was  very  good,  but  Wolfe  now  saw  that 
it  was  impossible  for  him  to  occupy  his  chosen  ground, 
and  he  was  soon  to  realize  the  difficulties  presented  by 
the  shore  line"  above  the  city.  The  lower  town  was  a 
narrow  strip  upon  the  water's  edge,  bounded  by  the 
cliff,  which  rose  abruptly  to  a  height  of  300  feet. 

As  the  youthful  commander  viewed  this  naturally 
fortified  city,  it  seemed  to  stand  upon  an  immense 
plateau,  which  disappeared  towards  the  southern  side. 
Could  he  have  looked  beyond,  he  would  have  seen  the 
same  high,  forbidding  cliffs,  inclining  towards  the  west 
from  the  city,  and  continuing  for  miles  to  form  a  barrier 
to  the  plateau  above,  a  barrier  he  could  hardly  pass  if 
unmolested,  and  which  he  could  not  hope  to  pass  at 
all  if  opposed. 

Between  him,  and  the  city  on  his  right,  was  a  broad 
sweeping  bay  whose  muddy  banks  were  bared  by  the 



receding  tide.  Here  landing  from  shallow  boats  would 
at  all  times  be  laborous  and  slow,  and  in  the  face  of  a 
fair  defence  impossible.  But,  now,  earth  works  had 
been  thrown  up  extending  from  the  river  Montmorency 
to  the  St.  Charles,  almost  opposite  the  British  vessels  ; 
and  encamped  within  the  protection  thus  afforded,  was 
the  French  army  under  the  command  of  a  skilful, 
experienced,  and  frequently  victorious  general,  whose 
reputation  was  greater  than  that  of  the  commander  of 
the  British  forces. 

Montcalm's  position  was  exceedingly  strong.  The 
centre  of  his  camp  was  at  Beauport  church,  his  right 
extended  to  the  river  St.  Charles,  his  left  to  the  Falls 
of  Montmorency,  and  his  whole  camp  was  protected 
by  strong  lines  crowning  the  gradually  sloping  shore. 
With  the  great  distance  he  had  to  protect  and  the 
number  of  men  at  his  disposal,  it  is  evident  that  he 
made  the  best  possible  disposition  of  the  forces  under 
his  command.  Indeed,  until  the  hour  of  his  death, 
his  actions  were  characterized  by  coolness  and  excel- 
lent generalship. 

When  Wolfe  found  that  his  chosen  ground  was 
already  occupied  by  the  French,  he  immediately  pro- 
ceeded to  land  upon  the  Island  of  Orleans,  which  two 
days  before  had  been  abandoned  by  the  orders  of  the 
Marquis  de  Vaudreuil. 

Why  this  strong  position  should  have  been  left 
open  appears  inconceivable,  but  it  furnishes  another 
instance  of  the  incapacity  of  the  Governor.  Perhaps 
Vaudreuil  had  unbounded  faith  in  the  success  of  the 



fire  ships  which  he  ordered  to  be  put  in  operation  on 
the  next  day.  Four  of  Cadet's  vessels  had  been  pur- 
chased by  Bigot,  with  four  others,  at  a  total  cost  of 
640,000  livres,  (*)  payable  in  bills  of  exchange  falling 
due  one  year  from  date.  Montcalm,  however,  had  little 
faith  in  their  utility.  It  was  the  intention  of  the 
French  to  float  these  vessels  down  with  the  tide  and 
current  into  midst  of  the  British  vessels,  now  riding  at 
anchor,  and  unable  to  move  freely,  and  thus  to  fire  the 
whole  fleet  as  it  lay  helpless. 

A  meeting  was  held  for  the  purpose  of  devising  a 
suitable  plan  for  conducting  the  adventure  :  A  man  of 
rare  courage  and  coolness  was  required  as  commander 
of  the  little  squadron  of  fire  ships.  One,  Captain 
Delouche,  a  young  man  of  zeal,  enthusiasm  and  confi- 
dence, was  convinced  that  he  could  succeed.  He  had 
under  his  command  Grandmont,  Leseau,  Berthelot, 
Sabourin,  Desormeau,  Marchand  and  Dubois  de  la 
Multiers.  His  own  opinion  of  himself  was  accepted, 
and  Vaudreuil  gave  him  directions.  The  plan  adopted 
was  simple,  but  there  was  a  lack  of  definite  organiza- 
tion. The  only  detail  agreed  upon  was  that  the  Cap- 
tain of  the  foremost  ship  should  ignite  his  vessel,  and 
by  firing,  give  the  signal  to  the  others.  The  seven 
rafts  approached  at  some  distance  from  each  other 
until  the  first  had  passed  Point  Levis  and  was  still  a 
long  way  from  the  British  vessels  when,  through  fear 

(1)  For  the  usual  cost  of  Fire  ships,  see  note  on  Fire  Ships  by 
Major  Wood 



—  it  would  be  charitable  to  say  through  an  error  of 
judgment  —  the  commanding  officer  ignited  his  vessel 
and  deserted  it.  This  was  accepted  as  a  signal  by  five 
others  from  whose  ships  projectiles  were  soon  flying 
in  every  direction.  The  panic  did  not  strike  Captain 
de  la  Multiers,  a  hero  whose  name  should  be  preserved 
from  oblivion.  He  continued  on  his  way  for  half  an 
hour  hoping  to  come  within  reasonable  distance  of  the 
vessels  before  igniting  his  ship.  Finally,  he  found 
himself  beset  in  front  and  rear  by  the  burning  ships, 
and  being  unable  to  escape  he,  his  second  officer  and  a 
sailor,  perished.  The  French  had  gathered  to  watch 
this  unusual  method  of  attack  ;  Montcalm  and  his 
officers  having  stationed  themselves  upon  a  command- 
ing height  near  Beauport  Church.  They  were  much 
disappointed  at  the  failure  of  this  costly  enterprise  and 
roundly  denounced  Delouche  and  his  associates.  How- 
ever, the  French  citizens  were  not  less  disappointed 
than  the  officers.  They  assembled  at  the  Chateau  St. 
Ivouis  in  a  great  state  of  indignation,  and  demanded 
the  punishment  of  the  officers  concerned  in  the  in- 
glorious attempt.  They  even  insulted  the  officers  who 
had  charge  of  the  boats,  greeting  them  with  cries  of 
' '  treason  ' '  and  ' '  treachery. ' ' 

Vaudreuil  promised  to  examine  their  complaints, 
but  as  usual  in  such  cases,  no  one  could  be  found 

Wolfe  now  ordered  a  detachment  under  Monckton 
to  proceed  to  L,evis  and  establish  a  camp  there.  The 
inhabitants  endeavoured  to  resist  this  move  on  the 



part  of  the  British,  but  found  that  their  numbers  were 
insufficient,  and  Mr.  Charest  undertook  to  present  a 
demand  for  reinforcements  to  the  Governor. 

Vaudreuil  listened  to  his  request  for  six  hundred 
men,  and  seemed  at  first  inclined  to  grant  it.  How- 
ever, he  decided  to  examine  a  British  prisoner  as  to 
the  probable  movements  of  the  enemy.  The  prisoner 
informed  the  Governor  that  an  attack  was  meditated 
at  Beauport  that  night.  Vaudreuil  refused  the  demand 
and  hastened  to  the  camp  at  Beauport,  which  was 
perfectly  secure  and  not  in  need  of  his  assistance.  On 
the  following  day  Mr.  Charest  renewed  his  demand 
and  brought  several  articles  from  the  British  camp  in 
support  of  his  claim  that  it  was  unprotected.  Vaud- 
reuil was  still  undecided,  and  again  questioned  the 
prisoner  who  informed  him  that  an  attack  would 
surely  be  made  at  Beauport.  Mr.  Charest's  request 
was  refused  for  the  second  time,  and  Vaudreuil  spent 
the  night  at  Beauport  vainly  awaiting  the  arrival  of 
the  British.  On  the  third  morning  the  Governor  was 
willing  to  grant  the  assistance  necessary,  but  it  was 
found  that  Levis  had  been  strongly  fortified  in  the 
meantime.  Vaudreuil's  actions  throughout  this  cam- 
paign are  inexplicable,  but  the  British  profited  thereby, 
and  in  consequence,  they  were  allowed  to  occupy  the 
Island  of  Orleans  and  Point  Levis  without  opposition. 
On  the  2nd  of  July  Montcalm  had  urged  Vaudreuil  to 
fortify  Point  Levis,  but  no  notice  was  taken  of  his 

Wolfe  being  now  in  the  undisputed  possession  of 



two  camps  made  preparations  to  take  the  offensive. 
He  had  issued  a  proclamation  on  the  28th  of  June 
assuring  the  inhabitants  that  if  they  remained  neutral 
their  property  would  be  protected,  but  if  on  the  other 
hand  they  took  up  arms,  they  would  be  severely  dealt 
with  and  their  possessions  would  be  destroyed. 

His  appeal  to  the  people  was  useless.  With  all 
the  faults  of  the  administration  they  were  strongly 
attached  to  France,  and  they  resorted  to  arms  when- 
ever an  opportunity  occurred. 

Several  batteries  were  erected  at  Point  des  Peres 
to  destroy  the  town,  and  while  the  work  was  in  pro- 
gress Wolfe  sent  a  message  to  the  Governor  under 
cover  of  a  flag  of  truce,  setting  forth  the  objects  of  the 
campaign.  On  the  ninth  of  July,  after  the  batteries 
were  completed  and  in  operation,  Wolfe  crossed  over 
to  the  Montmorency  shore  where  he  established  a 
third  camp.  The  movement  of  the  troops  and  their 
equipment  was  conducted  without  loss,  and  it  was  here 
that  the  excellent  generalship  of  Wolfe's  second  Brig- 
adier, George  Townshend,  was  manifested.  When 
Townshend  landed  at  Montmorency  he  found  that  no 
guard  had  been  left  to  point  out  the  route  taken  by 
the  first  Brigade,  although  the  night  was  dark.  The 
baggage  too,  of  the  Grenadiers  and  Light  Infantry, 
had  been  left  in  a  meadow  with  no  officer  in  charge, 
so  that  a  few  savages  might  have  plundered  the  whole. 
Townshend  immediately  collected  the  baggage  and 
left  a  guard  in  charge.  He  then  pressed  on  to  the 
higher  ground  and  as  soon  as  his  regiment  had 

6  81 


ascended  the  hill  he  called  a  halt,  and  sent  a  detach- 
ment to  haul  up  the  guns.  Upon  arriving  in  camp 
after  daybreak  he  received  a  mild  reprimand  from 
Wolfe  in  the  form  of  a  hint  that  he  had  been  dilatory, 
while  in  fact  he  had  only  halted  to  place  a  proper 
guard  over  the  baggage,  and  to  haul  up  the  guns, 
which  Wolfe  had  neglected  to  do.  In  the  morning  a 
detachment  of  Canadians  and  Indians  that  had  been 
sent  across  the  ford  to  annoy  the  British  advance, 
rushed  upon  the  rear  of  Wolfe's  lines,  and  drove  a 
few  Rangers  down  to  Townshend's  quarters  for  refuge. 
Here  the  Savages  scalped  14  men  and  wounded  two 
officers  before  they  could  be  driven  off.  (*) 

In  this  situation  Townshend  remained  until  dusk, 
when,  although  he  had  no  orders  to  entrench,  he 
thought  it  necessary  to  provide  against  a  night  attack. 
In  less  than  three  hours  he  ran  up  a  parapet  with 
retiring  angles  to  cover  the  face  of  the  two  battalions 
facing  the  accessible  part  of  the  country.  During  the 
night  there  were  no  attacks  owing  to  the  precautions 
taken.  Wolfe  retired  early  that  night,  and  in  the 
morning  visited  Townshend's  camp  and  received  his 
report  of  the  means  he  had  taken  to  protect  the  camp. 
Wolfe  disapproved  of  the  method  of  defence  which  he 
considered  of  far  greater  strength  than  necessary,  but 
it  is  evident  that  the  General  was  not  in  a  mood  to 
favour  any  independent  action  on  the  part  of  his 
Brigadiers.  In  a  short  time  the  British  position  at 

( i )  See  note  on  Oecrge  Townshend  in  the  appendix. 


Montmorency  was  secure,  and  they  had  three  distinct 
camps  in  the  presence  of  the  enemy.  The  left  of  the 
French  camp  was  threatened  by  this  new  position, 
although  there  was  a  strong  barrier  between  the  two 
armies  presented  by  the  Falls. 

Vaudreuil  suggested  attacking  the  British  in  force, 
but  the  only  man  who  supported  this  course  was  Bigot 
who,  it  is  said  desired  to  diminish  the  number  of  rations 
he  had  to  supply.  While  various  expeditions  were 
proposed,  nothing  of  importance  was  accomplished  on 
either  side.  Montcalm  realised  the  strength  of  his 
position,  and  Wolfe  the  difficulty  of  an  attack.  In  the 
meantime  the  batteries  from  the  town  maintained  a 
heavy  fire  against  the  works  at  Point  des  Peres ;  and 
on  the  fifteenth  of  the  month  no  less  than  ninety-six 
shells  and  seven  cascades  were  thrown  into  the  town, 
which  resulted  in  the  loss  of  many  houses  in  the  lower 
town,  and  great  damage  to  the  Cathedral,  and  to  the 
houses  in  its  vicinity. 

The  appearance  of  the  fleet  in  the  Basin  had  been 
a  surprise  to  the  French,  but  on  the  iSth  of  July  they 
were  seriously  alarmed  when  several  vessels  passed  the 
town  in  safety  under  a  heavy  fire  from  the  batteries. 
By  this  means  they  recognized  that  communication 
with  Montreal  by  water  could  be  cut  off  and  famine 
threatened  ;  moreover,  an  attack  by  land  and  water 
might  be  made  along  the  unprotected  shore,  which 
would  involve  a  division  of  the  forces.  The  drum  was 
beaten  calling  all  to  arms,  and  five  hundred  men  under 
Dumas,  marched  to  the  Foulon,  but  although  Wolfe 



appears  to  have  considered  the  possibility  of  an  attack 
at  this  place,  the  time  was  not  yet  ripe. 

The  month  of  July  was  drawing  to  a  close,  nearly 
half  the  summer  was  over,  and  the  eager,  restless 
British  commander  found  himself  no  nearer  victory 
than  when  he  landed  upon  the  Island  of  Orleans, 
nearly  five  weeks  before. 

Montcalm,  who  was  usually  eager  to  fight,  refused 
to  be  tempted  to  a  decisive  action.  On  the  2Qth  of 
July  Wolfe  evolved  a  plan  which  he  intended  to  put 
into  operation  on  the  next  day,  but  the  preparations 
being  incomplete  it  was  deferred  until  the  3ist.  His 
general  plan  was  to  bring  Monckton's  brigade  over 
from  Levis  to  Orleans,  and  thence  to  a  point  about 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  west  of  the  Montmorency 
river,  where  the  troops  were  to  land  upon  the  shore  near 
a  French  redoubt.  The  landing  of  this  brigade  was  to 
be  protected  by  three  vessels  which  were  to  run  in  as 
far  as  possible  in  advance  of  the  transports,  and  even 
to  ground  if  necessary.  Townshend  and  Murray  were 
to  ford  the  river  below  the  Falls,  and  march  along  the 
bank  to  join  Monckton's  brigade,  and  support  it.  In 
order  to  prevent  Montcalm  from  massing  his  troops  at 
the  left  of  the  line  where  the  attack  was  intended,  a 
regiment  was  to  march  up  the  bank  of  the  Montmo- 
rency river  on  the  east  shore  in  view  of  the  enemy,  as 
if  with  the  intention  of  crossing  above  the  Falls  to 
attack  the  rear.  They  were  then  to  return  by  another 
route  to  join  Townshend's  brigade.  Another  body 
was  to  march  westward  along  the  banks  of  the  St. 


6y  permission    of 


Lawrence  to  occupy  the  attention  of  the  right  of  the 
French  army.  The  plan  seemed  good,  but  a  series  of 
mishaps  attended  its  execution,  resulting  in  the  loss  to 
the  British  of  427  men  and  30  officers  killed  and 
wounded  ;  while  the  French  loss  was  only  66  killed 
and  wounded.  This  was  the  first  serious  attempt  to 
attack  the  stronghold  of  the  French,  and  its  termina- 
tion was  disastrous  to  the  hopes  of  Wolfe. 

The  month  of  August  opened  inauspiciously  for 
the  besieger  and  the  besieged.  On  the  French  side 
there  had  been  little  loss  of  life,  but  many  of  the  inha- 
bitants were  ruined  and  homeless  ;  moreover,  they 
were  experiencing  the  horrors  of  famine.  The  British 
were  in  an  unenviable  position.  The  severe  repulse  at 
Montmoreiicy  had  thinned  the  ranks  and  damped  the 
ardour  of  the  soldiers.  Again,  the  inclemency  of  the 
weather,  and  the  exposure  of  the  camps  during  a 
summer  of  excessive  rain  had  threatened  the  health  of 
the  army.  In  order  to  relieve  suffering  as  much  as 
possible,  the  sick  in  the  British  camp  were  removed  to 
the  Island  of  Orleans. 

Wolfe  adopted  another  method  at  this  time  to  try 
to  draw  Montcalm  from  his  intrenchments.  Murray  was 
sent  with  a  strong  detachment  to  Deschambault  to  try 
to  effect  a  landing,  and  if  possible  force  his  way  towards 
the  city  from  that  quarter.  Great  preparations  were 
made  for  this  expedition  from  the  fact  that  Descham- 
bault was  the  base  of  stores  for  the  French.  For  two 
days  the  British  had  caused  their  boats  to  ply  to  and 
fro  along  the  north  shore  in  order  to  allay  suspicion. 



On  the  eighteenth  of  August  the  signal  was  given  to 
embark,  and  at  midnight  the  expedition  started.  At 
day  break  on  the  igih  the  boats  drew  near  the  shore, 
and  an  hour  later  a  landing  was  effected  two  miles  below 
St.  Joseph's  Church.  The  French  were  surprised,  and 
believing  that  a  much  larger  force  had  landed,  retired 
to  the  shelter  of  a  wood.  Near  the  Church,  in  a  house 
occupied  by  Madame  Cadet,  wife  of  the  army  contractor, 
the  British  found  clothing  ammunition  and  arms, valued 
at  ninety  thousand  pounds,  which  they  destro3red  by 
fire.  About  this  time  it  became  known  that  Wolfe 
was  suffering  from  a  slow  fever,  and  the  soldiers  were 
disheartened  at  the  news,  for  there  had  been  little 
progress  made,  and  the  prospects  looked  dark.  The 
destruction  of  property  threatened  by  Wolfe  was  now 
put  into  terrible  effect.  Parties  were  sent  out  daily  to 
lay  waste  the  villages  and  farms,  but  still  the  Canadians 
would  not  remain  neutral.  On  the  29th  of  August 
Wolfe  found  himself  too  ill  to  direct  the  campaign,  and 
he  requested  the  general  officers  to  consult  for  the  good 
of  the  service,  enclosing  to  them  a  plan  of  campaign. 
The  Brigadiers  rejected  the  suggestions  of  Wolfe  and 
stated  in  writing  their  reasons  for  so  doing.  In  conse- 
quence, a  plan  was  drawn  up  by  the  brigadiers  in 
which  Wolfe  acq uiesced.  By  this  plan  it  was  proposed 
to  make  a  descent  either  at  Pointe  aux  Trembles  or  at 
St.  Augustin. 

In  the  early  days  of  September,  after  the  camp  at 
Montmorency  had  been  broken  up,  active  preparations 
were  made  for  putting  the  Brigadier's  plan  into  opera- 



tion.  This  plan  has  been  the  cause  of  much  confusion, 
and  the  Brigadiers  have  been  given  credit  thereby  for 
the  plan  by  which  Quebec  was  eventually  taken.  On 
the  eight  of  September  Wolfe  was  so  far  recovered  as 
to  be  able  to  resume  command,  and  he  then  appears  to 
have  considered  the  plan  of  his  officers  impraticable. 

On  the  loth  of  September  he  abandoned  their 
scheme  and  selected  the  Foulon  as  the  place  of  attack. 

It  soon  became  known  that  a  change  was  proposed, 
but  the  Brigadiers  were  in  ignorance  of  Wolfe's  inten- 
tions. On  the  1 2th,  orders  were  given  for  embarkation, 
and  the  three  Brigadiers  Monckton,  Townshend  and 
Murray,  addressed  a  letter  to  Wolfe  in  which  they 
requested  information  both  as  to  the  nature  and  the 
place  of  the  attack.  Wolfe  replied  to  this  communica- 
tion two  hours  before  the  boats  containing  the  troops 
were  put  in  motion,  stating  that  he  had  chosen  the 
place  where  he  thought  he  was  most  likely  to  succeed, 
and  that  it  was  not  the  duty  of  officers  to  enquire  when 
not  particularly  charged  with  the  task  of  conducting 
an  expedition.  He  further  stated  that  the  place  was  the 
Foulon,  and  gave  all  the  directions  which  he  thought 
necessary.  These  two  important  letters  which  forever 
set  at  rest  the  disputed  question  as  to  the  authorship 
of  the  plan  by  which  Quebec  was  taken,  have  only 
recently  been  brought  to  light  ;  but  their  publication 
has  proved  that  the  Brigadiers  had  no  desire  to  claim 
any  share  in  the  plan. 

Shortly  after  these  letters  had  been  written,  the 
troops  embarked  in  the  flat  bottomed  boats  from  the 



ships  off  Cape  Rouge,  and  awaited  the  order  to  proceed. 
For  two  or  three  days  the  ships  had  been  in  the  vicinity 
of  Cape  Rouge,  and  during  the  day  the  men  had  been 
put  ashore  at  St.  Nicholas  ;  and  returned  to  the  vessels 
towards  evening.  The  ships  would  then  make  various 
movements  which  were  followed  by  de  Bougainville. 
Towards  dusk  on  this  evening  the  troops  as  usual  had 
rejoined  their  ships,  but  as  soon  as  it  was  dark,  the 
men  were  lowered  into  the  boats  and  sent  over  to  the 
south  shore.  When  this  had  been  accomplished  the 
vessels  began  to  move  slowly  towards  St.  Augustin,  as 
they  had  done  before,  except  the  Sutherland,  which 
remained  anchored  in  mid  stream. 

Bougainville  immediately  set  his  troops  in  motion 
to  follow  them  in  accordance  with  his  instructions,  not 
knowing  that  the  men  had  been  removed. 

At  midnight  the  small  boats  formed  in  line  between 
the  Sutherland  and  the  south  shore,  and  at  a  given 
signal  fell  down  with  the  tide  towards  the  town. 
Bougainville  by  this  time  was  far  way,  and  so  long  as 
silence  was  preserved  there  was  little  fear  of  detection. 
The  boats  passed  on  their  way,  but  when  writhin  about 
a  mile  of  the  place  of  landing  an  incident  occurred 
which  threatened  not  only  to  cut  short  the  career  of 
the  youthful  commander,  but  also  to  destroy  all  his 
carefully  laid  plans  for  the  reduction  of  Quebec.  ( l ) 
The  landing  place  was  reached  at  length,  and  soon 

(i )  See  the  Siege  of  Quebec  and  the  Battle  of  the  Plains  of 



the  twenty  four  men  selected  as  pioneers  were  scaling 
the  naked  rock,  about  two  hundred  yards  to  the  east 
of  the  foot  of  the  winding  path.  As  soon  as  these  men 
had  gained  the  height  they  attacked  and  overpowered 
the  posts  which  defended  the  path,  and  cleared  the 
way  for  the  ascent  of  the  remainder  of  the  troops. 
The  men  formed  as  early  as  possible  and  marched 
straight  across  the  plateau  until  they  came  to  the  St. 
Foy  road,  led  by  the  General.  They  were  then  ordered 
to  face  to  the  right  and  march  along  the  St.  Foy  road 
until  they  came  to  the  house  of  M.  Borgia,  situated 
near  the  corner  of  Maple  Avenue.  This  house  was 
taken  possession  of  by  the  British,  and  Wolfe  imme- 
diately formed  a  line  of  battle  across  the  plateau,  with 
the  hill  upon  which  the  Gaol  now  stands,  at  his  rear. 
Here  he  awaited  the  arrival  of  the  troops  which  were 
crossing  over  from  L,evis  under  the  direction  of  Carleton. 
Brigadier  Townshend  attended  to  the  disembarkation, 
and  by  eight  o'clock  the  whole  of  Wolfe's  forces  were 
in  battle  array  on  the  heights  of  Quebec. 

In  the  meantime  the  French  had  learned  that  the 
enemy  had  landed,  and  were  making  preparations  to 
oppose  them,  but  long  before  any  of  Montcalm's  men 
had  crossed  the  river  St.  Charles  all  Wolfe's  arrange- 
ments had  been  completed,  and  he  was  beginning  to 
entrench  his  position.  At  a  quarter  to  seven  the  Mar- 
quis de  Vaudreuil,  who  was  at  Beauport,  had  addressed 
a  letter  to  de  Bougainville  in  which  he  informed 
him  of  the  landing  of  the  enemy  ;  but  Vaudreuil  was 
under  the  impression  that  he  was  at  Cape  Rouge, 



while  he  was  actually  at  this  time  at  least  fifteen  miles 
from  the  city. 

When  the  French  at  last  arrived  upon  the  heights 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  Drill  Hall,  they  found  that  the 
British  were  in  a  strong  position.  Wolfe  had  been  in 
almost  undisputed  possession  of  the  field  for  over  three 
hours,  and  he  had  wisely  made  choice  of  the  most 
advantageous  position.  Montcalm  took  in  the  situation 
at  a  glance,  and  recognized  as  a  prudent  general,  that 
immediate  action  was  necessary.  The  action  of  the 
French  General  has  been  severely  criticised  by  those 
unfamiliar  with  the  true  state  of  affairs  at  this  moment. 
It  has  been  contended  that  Montcalm  should  have 
waited  the  arrival  of  de  Bougainville  who  it  is  claimed 
was  at  Cape  Rouge.  Bougainville,  however  was  not  at 
Cape  Rouge,  but  many  miles  distant,  where  he  had 
been  drawn  by  the  clever  ta<flics  of  Wolfe. 

Had  Montcalm  waited  two  hours  longer  his  chances 
of  defeating  Wolfe  would  have  been  much  less  than 
they  were  at  this  time,  for  every  hour  Wolfe  was 
strengthening  his  position  and  he  would  soon  have 
been  able  to  defy  a  very  powerful  army.  General 
Murray's  statement  made  during  the  following  year 
when  the  French  were  in  a  similar  position  to  the 
English  at  this  time,  is  a  testimony  of  the  soundness 
of  Montcalm' s  judgment  in  immediately  attacking  the 

The  peculiar  position  chosen  by  Wolfe  made  it 
imperative  for  the  attacking  army  to  abandon  the 
advantages  afforded  by  the  rising  ground  upon  which 



the  Martello  Towers  are  situated  and  to  descend  into 
the  hollow,  where  a  much  larger  army  might  have 
been  liable  to  defeat.  To  have  left  the  British  alone 
would  have  been  to  court  disaster,  for  the  navy  was 
already  preparing  to  bring  up  a  quantity  of  field  pieces, 
and  in  a  short  time  Wolfe  would  have  been  able  to 
fortify  his  position  which  was  so  favoured  by  nature. 
Montcalm,  therefore,  decided  to  bring  on  the  action 
while  there  was  a  fighting  chance.  His  men  came  on 
briskly  to  the  attack,  but  when  they  were  within  about 
forty  yards  of  the  British,  near  de  Salaberry  street, 
Wolfe  gave  the  order  to  fire,  and  the  whole  of  his  line 
fired  as  one  man.  The  effect  of  this  volley  at  so  short 
a  range  practically  decided  the  fate  of  the  day.  By  the 
time  the  smoke  had  cleared  away, — not  more  than  six 
minutes, — it  was  discovered  that  nearly  the  whole  of 
the  front  rank  of  the  French  army  had  been  mown 
down,  and  that  the  remainder  of  the  troops  were  dis- 
organized thereby.  At  that  instant  Wolfe  gave  the 
order  to  advance,  and  before  Montcalm  could  rally  his 
men,  the  British  were  in  pursuit. 

Wolfe  had  scarcely  given  the  order  to  advance 
when  he  received  his_Jhird  and  mortal  w^tild,  and  he 
was  conveyed  to  the  rear  where  he  died  shortly  after. 
Within  those  few  moments  the  flower  of  the  French 
army  was  cut  down,  the  British  General  was  dying, 
and  the  heroic  Montcalm  had  received  his  mortal  wound. 
With  his  face  to  the  foe,  he  manfully  endeavoured  to 
rally  his  men  for  a  second  attack,  but  the  havoc 
wrought  amongst  his  men  was  too  great,  and  he  was 


forced  by  the  retreating  army  towards  the  city  and 
sorrowfully  conducted  within  its  walls,  where  he 
expired  early  on  the  following  morning. 

The  pursuit  soon  became  general,  and  Townshend 
who  had  assumed  command,  owing  to  the  fact  that 
Monckton  was  disabled  at  the  same  time  as  Wolfe,  was 
obliged  to  recall  his  troops  to  prepare  for  the  return 
of  Bougainville,  who  was  expected  at  any  moment. 
By  this  judicious  movement  he  was  removed  from  the 
dangers  of  the  batteries  of  the  town,  and  he  was  also 
prepared  for  any  attack  in  the  rear.  Townshend  chose 
the  same  place  as  Wolfe  had  first  selected,  to  meet 
Bougainville,  which  was  a  tribute  to  the  generalship  of 
the  dead  commander.  Townshend  had  scarcely  com- 
pleted his  dispositions  when  de  Bougainville  appeared 
on  the  St.  Foy  road  in  the  rear,  and  came  on  to  attack. 
He  soon  realised  that  his  position  was  untenable  for 
Townshend  occupied  the  high  ground,  while  he  was 
on  the  edge  of  the  cliff.  However  he  made  an  attempt 
and  a  brief  engagement  ensued  in  which  he  lost  thirty 
men.  He  thereupon  retired  in  the  hope  of  rejoining  the 
main  army.  When  he  reached  the  camp  at  Beauport 
he  found  that  the  army  had  abandoned  their  camp  and 
retired  to  Jacques  Carder. 

After  the  battle  Townshend  formed  his  camp  upon 
the  battle  field,  and  fortified  himself  against  further 

Early  on  the  morning  of  the  i4th,  Montcalm 
breathed  his  last.  A  few  hours  before  his  death  he 
had  written  to  Townshend  informing  him  that  the 



French  were  obliged  to  capitulate,  and  desired  him  to 
execute  the  cartel  of  exchange.  Montcalm  realised 
from  the  first  that  the  cause  was  lost,  particularly  since 
the  city  had  been  abandoned  by  the  army.  Vaudreuil 
who  had  boasted  so  much  of  the  plans  he  had  taken, 
and  would  take  to  save  the  city,  had  been  tried  and 
found  wanting,  and  in  the  hour  of  the  city's  greatest 
need  he  sought  personal  safety  in  flight.  From  his 
place  of  security  he  began  to  urge  upon  the  helpless 
citizens  the  necessity  of  resisting  to  the  last,  whilst  he 
had  withdrawn  from  them  the  only  means  by  which 
they  could  hope  to  make  resistance  effective. 

At  day-break  on  the  i4th  of  September  the  Heights 
of  Abraham  presented  a  dismal  sight.  Far  and  wide 
over  the  field  of  battle,  the  blue  and  white  uniforms  of 
the  heroic  dead  bore  mute  testimony  to  the  havoc  that 
followed  in  the  wake  of  victory.  The  British  had 
buried  their  own  dead  and  those  of  the  French  who 
were  within  their  own  lines.  At  noon  a  flag  of  truce 
came  from  the  city,  and  hostilities  were  suspended 
while  the  remainder  of  the  victims  of  the  battle  were 
consigned  to  the  grave.  Within  the  walls  of  the  city 
were  scenes  of  distress  and  excitement.  From  the 
batteries  the  terrified  people  saw  that  the  British  had 
thirty  pieces  of  canon  directed  against  the  feeble  forti- 
fications, and  were  hourly  making  a  closer  investment. 
The  army  in  the  rear  had  been  withdrawn,  so  that  the 
people  were  entirely  abandoned  to  their  own  resources. 
All  hopes  of  succour  failed  the  citizens,  and  general 
discouragement  pervaded  the  whole  population.  The 



women  and  children  suffering  with  hunger,  cried  for 
bread.  The  merchants,  impoverished  by  the  bom- 
bardment which  had  destroyed  their  shops,  their  homes, 
and  their  merchandize,  viewed  with  anxiety  the 
preparations  which  were  made  for  a  general  assault  by 
land  and  by  water,  and  begged  de  Ramezay  to  capitulate 
while  yet  there  was  time  ;  but  he  still  bravely  held  out. 
At  length,  after  a  council  of  War,  de  Ramezay  signed 
and  gave  out  the  following  decision  : — 

"  Considering  the  instructions  I  have  received 
from  the  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil,  and  the  scarcity  of 
provisions  proved  by  the  returns  to  me  furnished,  and 
the  searches  I  have  made,  I  conclude  to  endeavour  to 
obtain  from  the  enemy  the  most  honourable  capitu- 

On  the  eighteenth  the  city  formally  capitulated, 
and  the  British  took  possession. 

Monseigneur  Pontbriand,  writing  to  the  Minister 
in  France  two  months  after,  said  : — 

"  Quebec  has  been  bombarded  and  cannonaded 
for  the  space  of  two  months ;  a  hundred  and  eighty 
houses  have  been  burned  by  cascades,  all  the  others 
riddled  by  cannon  and  bombs.  Walls  six  feet  thick 
have  not  withstood  ;  vaults  in  which  private  persons 
had  placed  their  effects,  have  been  burned,  broken 
down  and  pillaged  during  the  siege  and  after  it. 
The  Cathedral  has  been  entirely  consumed.  In  the 
Seminary,  there  is  no  part  habitable,  except  the  kitchen, 
where  the  cure  of  Quebec  and  his  vicar  have  retired. 
The  church  in  the  Lower  Town  is  entirely  destroyed  ; 
those  of  the  Recollets,  the  Jesuits  and  of  the  Seminary 
are  not  in  a  state  to  be  used  without  very  extensive 



repairs.  There  is  only  the  Ursuline  Church  in  which 
services  can  be  held  with  any  decency,  although  the 
English  make  use  of  it  for  some  special  ceremonies. 
This  community  and  that  of  the  Hospitaliers  have 
also  been  much  damaged.  However,  the  nuns  have 
found  a  means  of  living  there  through  good  and  bad, 
after  remaining  the  whole  time  of  the  siege  in  the 
General  Hospital.  The  Hotel- Dieu  is  exceedingly 
confined  because  the  English  sick  are  there.  Four 
years  ago  this  community  was  entirely  burned  out. 
The  Bishop's  Palace  is  almost  destroyed  and  has  not 
a  single  habitable  appartment  ;  the  vaults  have  been 
pillaged.  The  establishments  of  the  Recollets  and  the 
Jesuits  are  in  about  the  same  condition  ;  the  English 
have  however  made  some  repairs  to  them  to  lodge 
troops  there.  They  have  taken  possession  of  the  least 
damaged  houses  in  the  city.  They  drive  out  from 
their  own  homes  even  those  citizens  who  at  their  own 
expense  have  had  some  appartment  repaired,  or  so 
limit  them  by  the  number  of  soldiers  billited  upon 
them,  that  almost  all  are  obliged  to  abandon  this 
unfortunate  city  ;  and  they  do  this  all  the  more  willingly 
because  the  English  are  not  willing  to  sell  anything 
except  for  coined  money,  and  it  is  known  that  paper 
is  the  money  of  the  country.  The  Seminary  priests, 
the  canons,  the  Jesuits,  are  scattered  in  the  small 
portion  of  the  country  that  is  not  yet  under  English 
rule.  Private  people  in  the  city  are  without  wood  for 
the  winter,  without  bread,  without  flour,  and  without 
meat,  and  live  only  upon  the  portion  of  biscuit  and 
pork  which  the  English  soldiers  sell  them  out  of  their 
own  rations.  Such  is  the  extremity  to  which  the  best 
citizens  are  reduced." 

The  Prelate  who  wrote  these  despairing  lines  died 
on  the  8th  of  June  in  the  following  )Tear.     He  had 



retired  to  Montreal  in  October,  1759,  almost  broken 
hearted  at  the  sight  of  the  misery  and  suffering  caused 
by  the  war. 

The  British  were  totally  unaccustomed  to  such 
winters  as  they  experienced  in  Quebec,  and  they  found 
it  impossible  to  walk  with  safety.  Captain  Knox 
reports  that  having  been  ordered  to  mount  guard  in 
the  lyower  Town,  he  found  that  the  men  could  not 
descend  Mountain  Hill  on  account  of  the  ice,  and 
they  were  obliged  to  seat  themselves  on  the  ground 
and  slide  one  after  the  other  to  the  foot  of  the  hill. 
The  record  of  the  devices  they  made  to  assist  them  in 
walking,  and  to  keep  from  freezing,  appear  strange  to 
one  accustomed  to  a  Canadian  winter,  and  with  every 
article  of  comfort  at  hand.  Nevertheless,  the  sufferings 
of  these  poor  men  were  not  exaggerated  ;  and,  more- 
over, hundreds  of  them  perished  from  scurvy. 

The  French  had  not  abandoned  all  hopes  of  regain- 
ing Quebec.  From  time  to  time  news  was  received 
that  they  were  gathering  their  forces  for  an  attack, 
and  the  British  were  therefore  kept  continually  in  a 
state  of  suspense. 

On  the  1 7th  of  April  the  Chevalier  de  Levis  left 
Montreal  with  4,500  regular  troops  and  a  few  days 
after  a  large  train  of  supplies  was  embarked  on  board 
a  fleet  of  boats  which  proceeded  to  Jacques  Cartier, 
Deschambault  and  Pointe  aux  Trembles.  The  forces 
of  LeVis  when  he  reached  the  latter  place  amounted  to 
nearly  ten  thousand  men.  On  the  26th  the  army 
landed  at  St.  Augustin  and  after  crossing  the  river 



Cap  Rouge  came  upon  the  English,  who  immediately 
fell  back  to  Ste.  Foy. 

On  the  twenty-seventh,  Murray  was  apprised  of 
the  approach  of  L,evis  in  a  singular  manner.  Early  in 
the  morning,  the  watch  on  board  the  Race  Horse  had 
been  alarmed  by  a  cry  of  distress  which  seemed  to 
proceed  from  the  river.  A  boat  was  put  out  and  pre- 
sently a  man  was  discovered  on  a  floating  piece  of  ice. 
He  was  conveyed  to  the  ship  and  revived,  when  he 
told  the  officer  that  L,evis  was  marching  towards  the 
town  with  a  large  army.  The  man  was  afterwards 
taken  to  General  Murray,  to  whom  he  repeated  his 
story,  and  he  also  described  his  perilous  descent  amidst 
the  floating  ice. 

The  troops  were  called  to  arms,  and  early  in  the 
morning,  Murray  led  his  little  army  consisting  of  three 
thousand  one  hundred  men,  with  a  number  of  pieces 
of  cannon  to  the  attack.  One  column  issued  from  St. 
IvOuis  Gate,  and  one  from  St.  John  Gate,  while  the 
French  came  by  the  way  of  Ste.  Foy  and  Suede  roads. 

There  appears  to  have  been  a  great  deal  of  confusion 
in  the  past,  both  as  to  the  number  of  the  British  at  the 
Battle  of  Ste.  Foy,  and  also  as  to  the  method  of  attack. 
The  question  of  the  number  of  men,  and  the  details  of 
the  battle  are  satisfactorily  settled  by  the  discovery,  in 
the  month  of  November  last,  of  the  original  plan  of  the 
battle,  with  its  detailed  description,  signed  by  Patrick 
Mackellar,  the  chief  engineer  of  the  British  army 
under  Murray  ;  and  also  by  the  discovery  of  General 
Murray's  report  made  on  the  day  after  the  battle. 

7  97 


We  quote  at  some  length  from  Mackellars'  Plan 
and  Report,  because  they  have  not  hitherto  been  made 
use  of  by  any  previous  writer. 

' '  The  action  which  lasted  full  three  hours  was 
chiefly  upon  the  flanks.  There  the  enemy  made  all 
their  efforts  without  making  any  attempt  towards  the 
centre,  tho'  their  numbers  were  sufficient  to  make  a 
push  there  likewise.  But  even  upon  the  flanks  we 
for  some  time  gained  considerable  advantage.  Upon 
the  right  our  infantry  beat  back  their  grenadiers  from 
the  house  and  windmill,  but  they  unluckily  pursued 
too  far  to  be  sustained,  and  suffered  accordingly.  They 
were  beat  back  in  their  turn  and  with  such  a  loss  as  to 
appear  no  more  in  the  action .  Upon  our  left  we  gained 
a  great  deal  of  ground,  the  volunteers  and  grenadiers 
of  the  29th  drove  the  enemy  out  of  the  two  redoubts  y 
and  z.  (l)  They  kept  possession  of  them  for  some 
time,  but  being  at  length  surrounded  they  were  obliged 
to  force  their  way  back. 

' '  The  enemy  had  now  overpowered  our  flanks 
with  such  superior  numbers  as  left  us  no  more  hopes 
of  success.  A  retreat  began  of  its  own  accord  in  which 
it  must  be  observed  that  the  redoubt  w  was  of  great 
service  (2)  and  kept  the  enemy  at  bay  for  about  ten 
minutes,  which  saved  our  rear  and  many  of  our 
wounded  from  being  cut  off  from  the  town.  This  was 
raised  only  a  few  facines  high  on  account  of  the  frosts, 
but  there  being  two  pickets  left  there  during  the  action 
it  deceived  the  enemy  as  a  complete  work.  We  brought 
off  only  two  pieces  of  artillery,  it  was  impracticable  to 

1 i )  The  Redoubts  y  and  z  were  situated  on  the  high  ground 
near  the  Marchmont  property. 

(2)  The  Redoubt  w  was  situated  on  the  site  of  the  gaol.    It 
was  afterwards  called  Wolfe's  Redoubt. 



bring  off  the  rest  on  account  of  the  snow.  X.Y.Z.  are 
redoubts  raised  by  us  during  the  Siege  of  1759,  but 
were  not  thought  of  consequence  enough  to  be  demol- 
ished when  the  other  works  were  .  .  . 

' '  The  first  forming  of  the  British  troops  was  two 
deep,  and  the  French  army  was  at  first  drawn  up  four 
deep. ' ' 

A  study  of  the  plan  proves  that  Murray,  who 
occupied  at  first  a  position  similar  to  Montcalm,  in 
the  previous  September,  had  a  very  advantageous 
ground,  but  he  hoped  to  be  able  to  defeat  Levis  before 
he  had  time  to  form  properly,  just  as  Montcalm  had 
tried  to  prevent  Wolfe.  Murray  was  encumbered  by 
his  cannon,  and  but  for  these  Mackellar  says  he  would 
have  attacked  the  French  earlier.  LeVis  made  a  clever 
movement  which  deceived  Murray  into  the  belief  that 
he  was  about  to  fall  back  upon  another  position,  and 
after  he  had  descended  into  the  hollow  there  was 
nothing  to  do  but  to  fight  as  best  he  could.  In  this 
three  hours  fight  Murray  lost  nearly  one  thousand 
men,  while  the  loss  of  the  French  was  nearly  seven 
hundred  and  fifty.  The  Siege  was  by  no  means  at  an 
end.  Murray  had  now  only  a  miserable  discouraged 
garrison,  while  the  French  under  the  victorious  Levis 
had  renewed  courage.  On  the  same  evening  Levis 
commenced  to  construct  a  parallel  about  eight  hundred 
yards  from  the  walls,  upon  the  foundations  which 
Murray  had  commenced  in  the  autumn  before.  He 
also  erected  a  battery  of  four  guns,  one  of  six  guns, 
and  one  of  three  guns  and  two  mortars  which  were 



opened  between  the  loth  and  i3th  of  May.  Six 
mortars  were  also  set  up  to  prevent  the  shipping  from 
flanking  their  camp,  and  a  provision  magazine  was 
established  at  the  Foulon.  For  six  days  the  enemy 
kept  up  their  fire  against  the  town  ;  but  the  temporary 
works  which  Murray  had  creeled  in  front  of  the  walls 
in  October  1759,  and  the  superiority  of  his  artillery 
prevented  the  fire  of  the  French  from  doing  much 
damage.  On  the  i6th,  three  British  ships  arrived,  and 
ran  some  of  the  French  vessels  aground.  This  caused 
1,6 vis  to  raise  the  siege,  and  he  retired  on  the  night 
of  the  1 6th  and  iyth  of  May,  leaving  his  baggage  and 

Thus  ended  the  Siege  of  Quebec  in  1759  and  1760, 
in  which  so  many  gallant  soldiers  found  that  ' '  the 
paths  of  glory  lead  but  to  the  grave." 








THE  fortifications  of  Quebec  have  always  been  in  an 
intermittent  state  of  development  from  the  time 
when  Champlain  put  up  his  first  palisade  under  the  cliff 
down  to  our  own  day,  when  the  very  idea  of  defending 
the  city  by  a  stone-faced  citadel  and  surrounding  wall 
has  become  as  obsolete  as  the  walls  themselves.  But, 
though  this  three  centuries  of  development  was  in  a 
sense  continuous  ;  yet  its  history  falls  naturally  into 
six  periods,  each  of  which  embodied  its  own  idea, 


either  in  the  form  of  regular  new  works,  or  merely  in 
temporary  shifts  and  expedients  to  meet  the  most 
pressing  necessities  of  the  moment. 

I.  From  1608  to  1689  there  was  nothing  more  than 
an  isolated  fort  into  which  the  people  could  withdraw 
in  case  of  an  Indian  raid,  or  a  stray  attack  from  the 

II.  But  from  1689  to  1759  there  was  a  constantly 
developing    scheme     of   defence,    mainly    concerned 
with  the  protection  of  the  key  of  New  France  against 
regular  British  attacks  in  force. 

III.  From  1759  to  1778  there  was  continual  tinker- 
ing at  the  defences  in  time  of  danger  ;  but  though  the 
old  French  works  were  useless,  no  new  British  scheme 
was  attempted. 

IV.  After  five  years'  work  the  first  comprehensive 
scheme  took  form  in  1783  ;  but  even  then  the  works 
were  not  really  of  a  permanent  nature. 

V.  After  another  forty  years  a  new,  and  much 
more  complete,  scheme  was  undertaken  in  1823,  on  a 
far  greater  scale.  The  result  was  the  Citadel  and  walls 
as  they  stand  to-day,  except  for  the  demolition  of  a 
few  of  the  gates  and  minor  buildings. 

VI.  Finally,  when  modern  conditions  had  made  it 
impossible  to  rely  on  the  present  Citadel  and  walls,  a 
new  scheme  of  distant  detached  defences  was  taken  in 
hand  about  1865-1870  ;  but  never  carried  out  beyond 
the  erection  of  the   present    forts  on  the  heights  of 


A  Le  »,;»;„. 
»  Colombia. 
C  Corp,  delogisoi  font nos 
arrnei,4:  pour  loger  ic$  c-i> 


H  Logis  aaficutde  Cham. 

N  PJittci  focmef.ea  fafon  dc 
[cnatltci  peui  mettle  Ic  CA 

I  LaportedeHwbiution.oa     O  IirJinduCeat  dc  Chtm- 

iljt»Pont-!euis  I      pb,n. 

L  riomenoit  autour  del'Iu-     P  LacuiSnc. 

bimionconicnamio-piedj  |  CJ_Place  decant  I  habicaticn 

dslai^em^ue.  fur  Ic  boi:         Curie  borta.-la  no.erc. 

R  La5rander 
M  t'o&n  tout  aarout  Jel'ru-        Loiens 



The  extremely  interesting  history  of  all  these 
successive  schemes  has  never  been  fully  known  until 
the  present  year,  1903,  when  the  original  plans  and 
documents  have  been  collected  and  studied  in  their 
entirety  for  the  first  time. 

I.  The  tiny  settlement  which  Champlain  founded 
in  1608  was  defended  by  a  sort  of  compromise  between 
a  mediaeval  castle  and  a  backwoods  stockade.  An 
illustration  of  it,  copied  from  the  ' '  Voyages  de  Cham- 
plain,"  published  in  1613,  is  given  in  this  work. 
There  was  a  drawbridge,  a  ditch  and  a  court  yard, 
with  platforms  for  the  cannons  and  loop-holes  for 
musketry  all  complete  ;  but  the  whole  edifice  was 
built  of  wood  and  earth  only.  The  "Habitation," 
with  additions  and  improvements,  served  the  needs  of 
the  colony  until  1620,  when  Champlain  commenced 
on  the  crest  of  the  rock,  a  more  important  structure, 
afterwards  to  be  distinguished  as  the  Fort  St.  Louis. 

The  work  in  connection  with  this  fort  was  necess- 
arily tedious  on  account  of  the  scarcity  of  workmen 
and  the  lack  of  material.  On  the  eve  of  his  departure 
for  France,  in  1624,  Champlain  urged  the  inhabitants 
to  continue  the  building  of  the  fort  during  his  absence 
to  the  best  of  their  ability,  but  upon  his  return,  in  1626, 
he  found  that  no  progress  had  been  made.  He  there- 
fore caused  the  walls  to  be  levelled  to  their  foundations, 
and  commenced  the  construction  of  a  more  spacious 
fortress.  The  new  building  was  at  length  completed 
and  it  served  as  a  residence  for  the  invader,  Kertk, 
from  1629  to  1632.  Champlain  took  up  his  abode  in 



the  fort  in  1633,  and  resided  there  until  his  death,  in 


Montmagny  succeeded  Champlain,  and  it  was 
under  his  regime  that  the  first  stone  fort  was  built. 
In  the  year  1646,  a  contract  was  passed  between  the 
Company  of  New  France  and  certain  contractors,  for 
the  construction  of  more  extensive  works  of  defence. 
In  the  following  year,  1647,  the  foundation  of  the  first 
Chateau  Saint  Louis  (logic)  was  laid.  The  Chateau 
was  erected  within  the  boundaries  of  the  Fort,  and  a 
distinction  between  the  Fort  and  the  Chateau  has  not 
always  been  preserved. 

In  the  course  of  time  it  became  apparent  to  those 
in  authority,  that  if  France  desired  to  retain  a  foot- 
hold in  the  new  world,  the  position  of  Quebec  must  be 

On  the  4th  of  August,  1663,  the  Baron  D'Avau- 
gour  wrote  : — 

"  And  finally,  in  order  to  plant  effectually  the 
'  fleur  de  lys  there,  I  see  nothing  better  than  to  fortify 
'  Quebec  ;  erect  one  fort  at  its  right,  on  the  opposite 
'  of  the  river,  and  another  on  its  left,  at  the  river  St. 
'  Charles,  and  support  these  with  reinforcements  of 
'  three  thousand  men,  as  I  have  already  communicated 
'  to  the  Baron  du  Cochet ;  thus  this  post  would  be 
'  thoroughly  secured,  and  thereby  a  very  important 
'  work  commenced.  To  effect  this,  two  things  are 
1  necessary  : — First,  one  hundred  thousand  /cus,  for 
'  the  fortifications,  and  one  hundred  thousand  francs, 
'  for  munitions  of  war  and  provisions.  Secondly,  it 
'  will  be  necessary  for  the  three  thousand  men  to  be 
'  selected  not  only  for  war  but  also  for  labour. ' ' 



From  this  letter  it  is  evident  that  the  French,  at 
an  early  date,  recognized  the  importance  of  Quebec  as 
a  strategic  point. 

Four  years  passed,  and  no  effect  was  given  to  the 
suggestions  made  by  D'Avaugour.  In  1667,  the  great 
Colbert  wrote  : — 

"  It  is  of  the  greatest  importance  for  the  security 
of  the  colony  to  devise  practicable  means  to  place  the 
fort  of  Quebec  in  a  state  of  defence,  by  constructing 
a  regular  fortification  there,  stocking  it  with  an 
efficient  artillery  and  all  sorts  of  munitions  of  war,  so 
that  it  might  not  only  not  be  insulted,  but  be  capable 
of  a  vigorous  defence,  even  though  the  most  exper- 
ienced nations  of  Europe  laid  a  regular  siege  to  it." 

During  the  next  ten  years  representations  were 
repeatedly  made  to  the  King  setting  forth  the  advis- 
ability of  making  provision  to  withstand  an  assault, 
but  no  aid  was  forthcoming.  In  1681,  Frontenac  com- 
plained that  the  Chateau  was  in  a  deplorable  condition, 
and  that  the  walls  of  the  Fort  were  in  ruins.  A  plan 
was  prepared  by  the  Engineer  Villeneuve  for  extending 
the  boundaries  of  the  Fort,  and  for  providing  suitable 
walls  and  buildings,  but  this  plan,  in  its  entirety,  was 
not  carried  out. 

II.  During  the  seventy  years  between  1689  and 
J759>  Quebec  was  the  constant  objective  of  all  British 
schemes  in  America.  New  England  was  always 
watching  the  opportunity  of  putting  into  practice 
' '  The  Glorious  Enterprise ' '  for  the  final  conquest  of 
New  France.  This  statesmanlike  proposal,  first  form- 
ulated by  Peter  Schuyler,  Mayor  of  Albany,  in  1689, 



was  substantially  the  same  plan  as  that  ultimately 
adopted  by  Pitt  for  the  campaign  of  1759.  The  few 
men  of  true  strategic  foresight  on  both  sides  had  always 
foreseen  that  New  France  could  only  be  struck  down 
for  ever  by  a  simultaneous  attack  along  three  lines  of 
advance.  One  column  was  to  cut  the  French  commu- 
nications with  the  West  along  the  line  of  the  great 
lakes.  Another,  and  much  larger  force,  was  to  move 
on  Montreal  by  way  of  L,ake  Champlain.  And  whilst 
the  French  were  being  seriously  attacked  in  these  two 
places,  a  great  combined  naval  and  military  force  was 
to  strike  directly  at  the  strategic_centre  of  both  sea 
and  land  power  at  Quebec. 

Colbert  had  been  anxious  for  the  safety  of  Quebec 
more  than  twenty-five  years  before  this  ;  and  Fron- 
teuac  was  even  more  alarmed  during  his  first  adminis- 
tration of  New  France,  from  1672-1682.  Things  came 
to  such  a  pass  that  the  inhabitants  at  last  proposed  to 
erect  fortifications  on  their  own  account.  The  paternal 
French  Government  immediately  seized  this  excellent 
chance  of  overworking  the  willing  horse  ;  as  we  can 
see  from  the  letter  authorized  by  the  King  in  1690  : 

"  His  Majesty  having  learned  that  the  inhabit- 
ants of  Quebec  have  made  preparations  to  enclose 
that  town  with  palisades,  they  must  be  obliged  to 
lose  no  time  in  proceeding  therewith,  and  if  they 
should  not  be  absolutely  able  to  complete  the  work 
without  some  help,  the  Sieurs  de  Frontenac  and 
Champigny  will  examine  the  means  of  making  pro- 
vision for  that  purpose." 



Frontenac  entered  upon  the  work  with  character- 
istic energy,  and  in  the  space  of  two  years,  fortifications 
of  an  apparently  solid  nature,  and  upon  an  extensive 
scale,  were  well  advanced.  These  works,  however, 
like  all  those  executed  under  the  French  regime,  were 
constructed  more  with  an  idea  of  profit  than  of  dura- 

Indeed,  from  this  time  on,  when  the  scheme  of 
fortifications  began  to  become  so  important  and  there 
was  plenty  of  money  to  be  made  out  of  contracts,  there 
is  one  long  unvarying  tale  of  shameless  corruption,  in 
nearly  every  department  of  the  public  service  connected 
with  the  defences  of  Quebec.  The  military  chiefs  like 
Frontenac  and  Montcalm,  and  the  later  engineers  like 
Franquet  and  Pontleroy  did  their  duty  honestly.  But 
the  civil  functionaries  and  contractors  were  utterly  and 
shamelessly  corrupt  and  incompetent. 

On  the  23rd  of  September,  1692,  five  men  who 
had  escaped  from  Quebec,  concurred  in  the  following 
statement  made  before  Governor  Fletcher,  of  New  York : 

"  Saith,  that  nine  ships  arrived  at  Quebec  from 
France  on  the  i2th  of  August  last  with  pork,  flour, 
wine,  and  salt  and  fish,  and  all  sorts  of  merchand- 
izes, with  a  supply  of  all  military  stores  for  Count 
Frontenac,  and  that  they  saw  thirty  great  guns 
landed,  twenty  pettarioes,  one  mortar  and  300  bombs 
but  no  men.  That  a  new  stone  fort  is  a  building  at 
Quebec,  and  a  stone  wall  about  the  town,  of  which 
three  hundred  paces  already  made,  ten  paces  high, 
and  seven  bastions,  all  of  stone,  for  which  the  King 
hath  sent  forty  thousand  livres." 



All  operations  had  to  cease  during  the  winter,  but 
as  soon  as  the  snow  disappeared  Frontenac,  or  ' '  the 
Capitaine  reforme*,'  staked  out  the  work  for  the  re- 
mainder of  the  season.  Towards  the  end  of  the  year 
Frontenac  sent  to  France  an  account  of  the  work 
which  he  had  accomplished. 

"  The  Court  will  see  by  the  plans  transmitted,  on 
which  the  whole  of  the  enceinte  is  laid  down  what 
are  the  works  we  have  constructed,  and  it  is  true 
that  including  masonry,  terraces  and  carpentry 
work,  500  men  have  not  been  employed  over  50  or 
60  days,  the  whole  at  a  very  reasonable  cost  to 
Canada. ' ' 

A  copy  of  Frontenac 's  plan  which  is  in  our  pos- 
session, shows  that  the  walls  were  of  a  uniform  height 
all  round  the  city,  following  the  level  of  the  ground. 
The  area  embraced  was  not  as  large  as  that  enclosed 
by  De  L,ery,  nearly  thirty  years  later. 

Frontenac 's  walls,  the  first  ever  made  round 
Quebec,  crowned  the  water  front  for  three  quarters  of 
a  mile  ;  starting  from  the  present  Chateau  Frontenac 
Hotel,  running  north  for  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  along  the 
present  terrace,  across  the  top  of  Mountain  Hill  and 
round  the  front  of  the  old  Parliament  grounds.  Then 
they  turned  westward,  following  the  line  of  the  present 
Rampart  Street  till  they  stopped  at  Palace  Hill,  where 
they  protected  the  road  to  the  fords  of  the  St.  Charles. 
On  the  landward  side,  starting  again  from  the  present 
Chateau  Frontenac  Hotel,  they  ran  westward  between 
Mount  Carmel  and  St.  Louis  Streets,  across  Haldimand 

1 08 


Hill,  and  then  curved  into  St.  L,ouis  Street  on  reaching 
the  corner  of  Ste.  Ursule  Street.  Thence  running  north 
westward  inside  the  line  of  Ste.  Ursule  Street  and 
trending  slightly  more  and  more  in  a  northerly  direc- 
tion, they  ran  nearly  through  the  intersections  of  Ste. 
Anne  and  Ste.  Angele  Streets  and  then  to  the  lower 
end  of  St.  Stanislas  Street,  whence  they  curved  north 
to  Palace  Hill.  The  total  circuit  was  about  a  mile  and 
a  half,  and  the  area  enclosed  about  half  that  contained 
by  the  present  walls,  exclusive  of  the  Citadel.  The 
landward  faces  were  particularly  weak,  little  danger 
being  feared  from  any  force  coming  from  that  direc- 

Frontenac,  no  doubt,  took  every  precaution  to 
safeguard  his  designs,  but,  nevertheless,  a  full  descrip- 
tion of  the  nature  and  the  strength  of  the  defences  of 
Quebec  was  transmitted  to  the  British  authorities 
through  the  treachery  of  one,  de  Nelson.  This  man 
had  succeeded  in  gaining  the  friendship  of  Frontenac 
in  order  to  betray  him,  and  he  finally  confessed,  after 
imprisonment  in  the  Bastile,  the  methods  he  had  em- 
ployed to  secure  the  information. 

During  the  summer  of  1693,  Peter  Schuyler  wrote 
from  Albany  : 

"  Jurian  tells  me  that  the  messenger  at  Oneyde 
' '  braggs  much  of  his  strength  ;  of  their  fortifications 
•'  at  Quebec  ;  number  of  men  firing  mortar  pieces,  and 
' '  such  like  stratagems. ' ' 

And  in  the  month  of  August,  Governor  Fletcher, 
wrote : 



"  Count  Frontenac  is  busy  with  his  fortifications 
"  at  Quebec,  and  if  left  alone  a  year  or  two  more,  it 
' '  will  require  an  experienced  officer  and  considerable 
' '  force  to  turn  him  out. ' ' 

The  British  evidently  emplo3*ed  every  means  at 
their  disposal  to  keep  in  touch  with  the  progress  of 
events  at  Quebec.  Amongst  the  papers  referring  to 
Quebec  in  the  Public  Record  Office,  London,  there  is 
a  report  of  the  affairs  in  1694,  obtained  from  two  men, 
examined  before  the  Governor  of  New  York,  from 
which  this  extract  is  made  : 

' '  Q.  How  is  Quebec  fortified  ? 

"A.  By  the  waterside  there  is  platform.  A  stone 
'  breast  work,  very  low,  which  will  give  shelter  to 
'  their  men.  The  greatest  has  twelve  guns  which 
'  will  throw  a  ball  of  30  pounds.  The  fort  stands 
'  very  high  in  the  upper  town,  which  is  fortified  to 
'  the  landside  by  a  wall  of  16  foot  thickness,  of  brush 
'  faggots  and  earth  palisades,  fronting  outwards,  to 
'  prevent  running  over  the  walls  ;  this  wall  is  not  yet 
'  finished,  but  they  have  two  engineers  who  have  come 
'  over  this  summer,  and  we  hear  that  they  intend  to 
'  build  a  stonewall  round  the  town.  In  the  town  and 
'  fort  of  Quebec  there  are  140  guns,  and  not  above 
'  300  inhabitants  who  can  bear  arms." 

The  contractors  entrusted  with  the  construction 
of  the  works  under  Frontenac,  appear  to  have  paid 
more  attention  to  the  price  they  derived  for  their  work 
than  to  its  value.  The  official  correspondence  at  this 
time  reveals  many  scandalous  facts. 

In  October,    1698,  M.   de   Champigny  demanded 


the  sum  of  forty  thousand  livres  to  complete  the  works 
absolutely  neccessary  for  the  safety  of  Quebec,  but 
two  years  later  the  sum  of  one  hundred  thousand  livres 
was  demanded. 

A  few  months  before  his  death  in  1698,  Frontenac 
wrote  that  the  Sieur  LeVasseur  de  Nere  had  been 
instructed  to  prepare  new  plans.  Copies  of  these  plans, 
and  of  the  reports  accompanying  them,  are  before  us. 
The  first  report,  which  is  very  long,  bears  the 
date  Oct.  6th,  1700.  It  commences  as  follows  : 

"  L,' enceinte  fut  tracee  en  1693  par  un  capitaine 
'  reforme  qui  estoit  en  Canada,  il  jetta  la  fortification 
'  au  hazard  sans  avoir  egard  aux  hauteurs  dont  elle 
'  pouvait  estre  commandee  aussy  la  plus  part  des  bas- 
'  tions  si  trouvent-ils  enfillez  et  vous  deriver  a  m'en 
'  pouvoir  approcher." 

After  pointing  out  numerous  other  defects,  and 
estimating  the  cost  of  placing  the  fortifications  in  good 
order  at  one  hundred  thousand  livres,  de  Nere  states 
that  three  or  four  years  will  be  required  to  execute  the 

LeVasseur  transmitted  to  the  King  apian  showing 
the  progress  made  on  the  new  works  in  October,  1701, 
and  he  also  suggested  that  the  inhabitants  should  be 
compelled  to  contribute  their  labour  towards  the 
defence  of  Quebec. 

Early  in  the  year  1 702 ,  the  British  were  informed 
that  the  stone  wall  which  encircled  Quebec  was  com- 
plete, and  that  56  guns  and  82  mortars  were  set  up 
around  the  city.  This  report  was  confirmed  by  the 
Governor  of  New  York,  who  in  June,  1702,  wrote  : — 


"  We  also  informed  ourselves  of  the  state  of 
' '  Quebec.  We  understand  that  the  place  is  well  forti- 
"  fied  with  a  stone  wall  round  it,  and  there  is  a  bridge 
"  over  the  creek,  at  which  place  the  Bostoners  stopped 
"  when  they  attacked  it." 

The  several  improvements  executed  under  L,e 
Vasseur's  first  plan  were  completed  in  1703,  but  soon 
after  a  lengthy  correspondence  commenced  between 
the  Minister  in  France,  and  the  Engineer  and  the 
contractors,  regarding  the  faulty  nature  of  the  work. 
Jealousy,  and  an  unfortunate  system  of  patronage, 
seem  to  have  been  at  the  root  of  the  interminable 
disputes  revealed  by  the  official  correspondence. 

In  1704,  LeVasseur  prepared  another  plan,  and 
certain  new  works  were  commenced  which  were  com- 
pleted in  1707. 

Under  LeVasseur' s  plan  there  were  three  gates, 
but  he  appears  to  have  intended  to  construct  several 
others  to  the  land  side,  as  the  walls  were  never  closed 
in  certain  places,  except  by  temporary  barriers. 

The  King  of  France  had  certainly  every  excuse 
for  exercising  caution  in  supplying  the  constant  de- 
mands for  money  for  the  fortifications  of  Quebec,  which 
seemed  to  require  perpetual  alteration.  Vast  sums 
had  been  expended  upon  Quebec  during  the  space  of 
one  hundred  years,  and  as  soon  as  the  appropriation 
granted  was  exhausted,  an  entirely  different  plan  was 
proposed  as  being  absolutely  essential  for  the  safety  of 
the  colony. 

For  eight  years  there  seems  to  have  been  a  period 



of  comparative  quiet,  but  in  the  year  1715,  in  response 
to  pressing  demands,  the  King  ordered  certain  works 
to  be  carried  out.  Chaussegros  de  Iv£ry,  the  Engineer, 
was  instructed  to  prepare  a  plan,  and  a  report  of  the 
works  considered  necessary. 

A  preliminary  plan  was  made  in  1716,  and  a  full 
report,  was  sent  to  France  during  the  same  year.  In 
1717,  de  L,ery  went  to  France  and  discussed  the  pro- 
ject with  the  Court,  and  obtained  the  sanction  for  the 
works  which  he  proposed. 

A  copy  of  this  report  is  published  herewith,  and 
it  is  somewhat  singular  to  note,  that  de  L,ery  con- 
demned the  plans  of  his  predecessors  for  some  of  the 
faults  for  which  his  own  plans  were  subsequently 
condemned.  The  report  is  as  follows  : 

"  The  situation  of  the  place  is  favourable  on  the 
'  side  of  the  St.  I^awrence,  and  unfavourable  on  that 
'  of  the  land,  as  the  locality  is  difficult  of  fortification, 
'  there  being  a  great  pitch  from  the  summit  at  Cape 
'  Diamond  to  Coteau  de  la  Potasse,  and  as  the  works 
'  will  be  partially  commanded  by  the  hill  at  Artigny's 
'  mill,  and  by  another  hill  imdermarked  17  ;  the 
'  ground  rising  according  as  it  recedes  from  the  place, 
'  it  is  favourable,  inasmuch  as  nearly  two-thirds 
'  of  its  circuit  does  not  require  to  be  fortified.  All  the 
'  portion  from  the  Coteau  de  la  Potasse,  marked  S, 
'  which  fronts  the  river  St.  Charles  around  to  the 
'  redoubt  marked  H,  or  top  of  Cape  Diamond,  and 
'  beyond  that  height,  in  front  of  the  river  St.  Law- 
'  rence,  has  no  need  of  any  other  fortifications  than 
'  that  of  the  batteries  already  there,  as  it  is  percipi- 
'  tous,  and  there  are  three  good  batteaux  in  the  lower 

8  113 


"  town,  at  high  water-mark,  marked  F,  D,  E.  Those 
"  on  the  escarpment,  in  the  upper  town,  are  not  so 
"  well  situated,  being  too  high,  especially  that  of  the 
' '  Chateau.  The  works  on  the  land  side,  between  the 
"  Cape  Diamond  redoubt  H,  and  Coteau  de  la  Potasse 
"  S,  do  not  amount  to  much,  being  open  in  several 
' '  places,  through  which  the  town  is  entered  ;  some  of 
"these  were  left  as  entrances  to  the  town,  they  have 
"  no  gates,  not  even  a  miserable  barrier  ;  the  space 
"between  Cape  Diamond  redoubt  H,  and  the  edge  of 
"  the  escarpment  2,  is  open,  so  that  thirty  men  could 
"  enter  the  town  abreast,  that  point  having  never  been 
"  closed.  This  redoubt,  though  badly  turned,  having 
"  its  left  face  undefended,  is  fit  for  use,  being  in  good 
' '  repair  ;  and  though  it  were  well  turned,  flank  3  is 
' '  situated  too  low  to  defend  this  left  face. 

"  Curtain  R,  and  flank  3,  and  face  4,  are  cotn- 
"  manded  by  the  hill  5  of  Cape  Diamond,  or  more 
"  strictly  speaking,  concealed  by  that  height  in  con- 
' '  sequence  of  its  proximity  ;  the  Curtain  is  raised  only 
"  four,  five,  or  six  feet  above  ground,  and  at  one  place 
as  far  as  the  cordon,  as  appears  by  the  draft  of  the 
actual  works,  having  a  large  breach  towards  its 
centre,  some  earth  has  been  thrown  up  behind,  which 
does  not  touch  the  wall ;  the  flanks  and  faces  of  the 
teuail  have  open  embrassures  ;  to  make  use  of  them, 
it  would  be  necessary  to  put  some  earth  there  for  a 
platform  and  to  construct  the  merlons.  These  works 
are  without  a  ditch. 

"  The  mill  battery,  marked  G,  is  fit  for  service, 
and  though  it  forms  a  dead  angle,  it  is  no  less 
effectual,  being  greatly  elevated.  All  the  fortifica- 
tions. 6,  7,  8,  to  complete  the  inclosing  of  the  town, 
consist  merely  of  an  elevation  without  a  ditch  in 
front,  open  and  crumbling  in  many  places,  having 
in  one  part  a  bad  upright  pallisade  at  the  foot,  which 



"  can  be  scaled  without  any  difficulty,  there  being 
"  nothing  to  prevent  it.  Royal  Redoubt,  marked  I. 
"  The  barracks  are  good.  This  redoubt  is  not  com- 
"  pleted,  as  some  earth  still  remains  to  be  put  up  on 
"  the  terreplain,  and  the  merlons  are  to  be  constructed, 
' '  some  doors  and  windows  are  to  be  inserted  and  the 
"  flanks  of  the  barracks  to  be  finished.  The  Dauphin 
' '  Redoubt  is  incomplete,  much  being  still  to  be  done  to 
"it.  Its  location  is  bad,  being  on  the  slope  of  a  rising 
"  ground.  The  plans,  profiles,  elevations  and  drafts 
"  which  I  have  drawn  exhibit  the  actual  condition  of 
' '  these  two  redoubts.  Saint  Ursula' s  Redoubt,  marked 
"  L,  for  the  reception  of  cannon,  consists  merely  of 
' '  one  double  faced  platform  with  embrasure  of  gabions, 
"  without  a  ditch,  being  enclosed  by  a  miserable  pal- 
' '  lisade  stuck  upright  ;  it  has  no  communication  with 
"  the  place  and  is  open  at  its  gorge  ;  the  guns  that 
' '  might  be  put  there  in  time  of  need  \vould  be  soon 
"  captured  ;  as  this  redoubt  is  at  a  distance  from  the 
"  place,  without  communication,  and  without  a  ditch, 
"  and  surrounded  by  a  wretched  pallisade,  it  would  be 
"  cannon  and  people  lost. 

"  The  fortification  to  enclose  the  palace  is  not 
"  advanced,  having  only  the  ditch  which  is  marked  ; 
"  it  is  excavated  some  2  and  3  feet  ;  the  rampart  is 
"  not  begun,  the  earth  which  has  been  removed  from 
' '  the  ditch  having  been  used  to  repair  the  gardens  and 
"  fill  up  a  pond,  so  that  there  is  only  this  excavation 
"  of  two  and  three  feet. 

"  St.  Roch  Redoubt,  marked  M,  is  surrounded  by 
"  a  small  ditch  ;  the  parapet,  almost  entirely  in  ruins, 
<(  is  made  of  gabions. 

"  The  Potasse  tenail,  marked  ff,  is  badly  turned, 
"  not  being  defended  at  any  point. 

"  The  fortification  raised  on  Coteaude  la  Potasse, 
"  which  occupies  the  border  of  the  escarpment,  is  too 


44  low,  being  in  some  places  only  6  feet  high  above  the 
' '  escarpment,  which  can  be  made  use  of  at  this  point. 
"  The  fortification,  Q.  O.  P.,  is  imperfect  ;  Jou- 
"  belt's  demi-bastion,  Q.,  has  neither  its  rampart  nor 
44  parapets  completed  ;  it  forms,  on  its  left,  a  dead 
"  angle  towards  the  escarpment,  marked,  9,  10,  n, 
' '  where  there  is  a  gate  ;  the  approach  to  this  angle  is 
"  by  a  covert  way  along  the  escarpment,  and  there  is 
"  a  passage  of  7  and  8  feet  between  the  end  of  the 
44  wall,  which  goes  down  to  this  escarpment,  and  the 
"  edge  of  the  escarpment,  12,  behind  this  wall,  10,  u  ; 
"it  is  difficult  to  construct  a  rampart  there,  and  at 
"  present  there  is  no  chemin  des  tondes  from  which  we 
' '  could  fire  over  its  parapet ;  there  are  some  loop  holes, 
"  beside  the  gate,  but  they  are  situated  too  low,  so 
44  that  the  fire  would  be  completely  traversed  from 
"  without  ;  the  curtain,  13,  is  raised  six  feet  over  the 
"  ground  ;  in  bastion  O,  the  ramparts  are  not  built  ; 
"  the  curtain,  14,  is  not  formed,  except  by  aretrench- 
"  ment  the  same  as  that  of  the  Palace  ;  the  bastion  F, 
44  is  not  finished  ;  it  is  raised  over  the  ground,  as  shown 
44  in  the  sketch.  This  bastion  is  entirely  opposed  to 
"  the  hill  at  Artigny's  mill,  being  raised  above  the 
' '  ground,  like  all  the  fortification,  but  without  a  ditch, 
"  it  being  impossible  to  make  any  at  the  right  face  of 
"  the  Bastion  O,  which  is  situate  on  the  brow  of  the 
' '  hill  which  is  very  percipitous  ;  from  the  height  at 
"  Artigny's  mill,  the  faces  of  Bastion  O  could  be  easily 
•'  destroyed.  All  the  front  from  15  to  16,  is  exposed 
"  to  this  hill,  the  fortification  not  being  covered  by 
4 '  any  ditch  ;  and  if  it  were  desirable  to  construct  one 
"  to  Bastion  F,  it  would  be  necessary  to  lower  the 
"  faces  of  said  bastion,  or  to  raise  the  counterscarp 
44  which  would  be  built,  and  the  covert  way  of  about 
4 '  twenty  feet  above  the  level  of  the  ground  on  which 
44  the  faces  of  this  bastion  stand  ;  this  would  cause  a 



great  expense,  it  being  necessary  to  prolong  the 
glacis  of  the  covert  way,  which  would  not  prevent 
the  revetment  of  this  bastion  being  always  exposed 
at  the  heights  ;  as  the  bastion  is  situated  in  a  low 
locality,  I  doubt  if  earth  be  found  in  the  neighbor- 
hood within  two  hundred  toises  to  construct  its 
ramparts,  which  will  be  thirty  feet  high,  for  the 
vicinity  of  the  place  is  nothing  but  rock  covered  with 
a  little  soil.  I  have  remarked  that  there  is  neither 
cistern  nor  well  within  the  fort,  and  the  Marquis  de 
Vaudreuil  is  badly  lodged  there." 

The  scheme  of  defence  prepared  by  de  Lery  met 
with  the  approval  of  the  Court,  and  the  work  was 
commenced  in  June,  1720,  a  large  appropriation  having 
been  made  for  the  purpose. 

There  appears  to  have  been  much  confusion  as  to 
the  nature  and  the  extent  of  the  fortifications  con- 
structed by  de  Lery.  His  own  plan  settles  the  question. 

It  has  been  claimed  that  the  walls  of  1720  extend- 
ed only  a  little  beyond  St.  Ursule  street.  This  is  an 
imperfect  description.  From  St.  John's  Gate  to  St. 
Louis  Road,  the  walls  ran  in  this  direction,  but  be- 
tween St.  Louis  Road  and  Cap  Diamond,  Joubert's 
Bastion,  Glaciere  Bastion,  and  St.  Louis  Bastion, 
formed  a  continuous  line  in  the  direction  of  the  present 
road  to  the  Citadel.  This  position  is  also  shown 
on  the  plan  made  by  Nicolas  Bellin,  in  1740,  and  also 
shown  on  the  enlargement  of  this  plan  made  by  Patrick 
Mackellar,  Chief  Engineer,  for  the  use  of  Wolfe  dur- 
ing the  Siege  of  Quebec. 



A  word  concerning  this  plan  which  was  no  doubt 
often  in  the  hands  of  Wolfe,  may  prove  of  interest. 

Before  Wolfe  came  to  Quebec,  Mackellar  had 
secured  a  copy  of  the  plan  made  by  the  French  Engi- 
neer, which  he  enlarged,  and  supplied  with  many 
references  obtained  from  personal  investigation  and 
from  various  other  sources.  To  this  plan  he  attached 
a  report,  the  original  of  which  was  shown  to  the  writer 
by  Colonel  Townshend  during  his  visit  to  Quebec. 
Three  days  after  the  Battle  of  the  Plains,  Brigadier 
General  Townshend  addressed  a  letter  to  Brigadier 
Monckton,  requesting  him  to  send  to  him  the  plan 
made  by  Mackellar,  if  it  were  amongst  the  papers  of 
the  late  General  Wolfe.  Monckton  answered  that  he 
had  not  found  the  plan,  but  possibly  it  might  be  in  the 
hands  of  the  Engineer.  After  much  research  this  plan 
is  now  available  to  the  student  through  the  efforts  of 
His  Excellency,  the  Earl  of  Minto,  and  a  copy  is  in 
our  possession. 

The  plans  prepared  by  de  Lery  provided  for  the 
most  elaborate  works  constructed  under  the  French 
regime,  although  they  did  not  include  any  buildings 
of  importance  upon  Cape  Diamond,  as  we  have  been 
led  to  suppose.  With  the  exception  of  a  small  redoubt 
on  the  Cape,  called  Citadel  Redoubt,  the  works  in  this 
direction  remained  the  same  as  under  the  plan  of  Le 
Vasseur.  It  was  in  the  extent  of  the  outer  walls,  and 
in  the  addition  of  certain  redoubts  and  batteries,  in 
other  parts  of  the  city,  that  de  L,ery's  work  consisted. 
The  walls  themselves,  however,  contained  many  of  the 



defects  of  the  other  plans,  and  the  workmanship  was 
very  faulty. 

While  this  work  was  in  progress,  the  inhabitants 
were  trained  in  the  exercise  of  defence,  as  we  find  by 
the  following  : 

' '  ESTAT  contenant  les  noms  des  Bourgeois  et  habitants 
de  la  ville  de  Quebec  qui  se  sont  pr6sente  pour 
faire  apprentissage  de  1'exercicedu  canon  pendant 
les  annees  1725,  1726  et  1727. 

Premiere  Brigade  : 

Girardin,  forgeron  ; 

L,eGris,  do 

Carpentier,  macon-entrepreneur  ; 

Corbin,  charpentier  du  Roy  et  contradleur  ; 

Corbin,  fils,  charpentier  de  navire  ; 

Maillon,  architecte  du  Roy  ; 

Maillon,  forgeron  ; 

Marchand,  charpentier  du  Roy  maisons  ; 

Langlois,  marchand-bourgeois ; 

L,allemant,  bourgeois. 

Seconde  Brigade  : 

Prieur,  bourgeois  et  perruquier  ; 

Coton,  orfevre  ; 

Saleur,  aubergiste  ; 

Charles  L,eVasseur,  chartier  ; 

Camane,  macon-entrepreneur  ; 

Caron,  bourgeois  et  marchand  ; 

L/Ense,  menuisier ; 

Corbin,  forgeron  ; 

L,ouis  Nadeau,  charpentier  de  navire  ; 

Jean-Baptiste  Normand,  chartier. 



' '  Je  certifie  le  present  R61e  veritable  et  tons  les 
"  hommes  presens  qui  ont  servi  pendant  les  trois 
"  annees  ci-dessus  dite,  a  Quebec,  le  10  8bre  1728. 

"  (Signe}  LENTARD." 

In  "  A  New  Picture  of  Quebec,"  the  author,  Mr. 
Hawkins,  asserts,  "  That  from  the  period  of  their 
renovation  by  descry  (1720)  the  fortifications  were 
maintained  by  the  French  Governors  with  great  care, 
until  the  capture  of  Quebec  in  1759." 

This  statement,  like  many  others  made  by  Mr. 
Hawkins,  is  directly  opposed  to  the  facts.  In  1728, 
the  condition  of  the  fortifications  was  so  defective, 
that  an  urgent  demand  was  made  by  the  Marquis  de 
Beauharnais  and  M.  Dupuy  for  an  enormous  sum  of 
money  to  place  them  in  a  proper  state  of  defence.  The 
King  refused  this  demand,  and  at  the  same  time  said  : 

"  MM.  Beauharnais  and  Dupuy  must  examine  the 
"  project  maturely  in  conjunction  with  the  engineers  ; 
"  draw  up  a  plan  of  fortification  which  will  not  be 
"  susceptible  to  alteration,  like  previous  ones,  and 
"  transmit  it  to  His  Majesty." 

Again  in  1734,  the  Marquis  de  Beauharnais  and 
M.  Hocquart  wrote  to  France  requesting  aid  to  make 
such  works  and  repairs  as  were  absolutely  necessary, 
and  stated  that  as  their  demands  of  the  previous  year 
had  been  denied,  they  would  place  the  batteries  in 
good  order,  and  construct  others  where  necessary.  In 
the  year  1740,  Nicolas  Belin  made  several  improve- 
ments, and  altered  the  position  of  the  batteries  near 
the  palace. 



Notwithstanding  the  assurance  given  to  the  King 
in  1720,  that  the  works  then  commenced  would  meet 
all  requirements,  we  find  that  deLery  himself  found 
that  they  were  defective,  and  on  the  5th  of  June,  1745 
he  wrote  :  "  Vous  verrez,  Monseigneur,  dans  le  me- 
' '  moire  que  la  face  droite  du  Bastion  St-Louis  est  mal 
41  tournee,  je  propose  de  la  placer  autrement." 

A  lengthy  correspondence  ensued  concerning  the 
proposed  changes  in  the  plans,  and  at  last  both  the 
inhabitants  and  the  King  grew  weary  of  the  ceaseless 
burden.  Early  in  the  year  1746  the  King  gave  an 
order  for  all  the  work  to  be  discontinued,  which  seems 
to  have  pleased  the  majority  of  the  inhabitants.  Those 
in  authority,  however,  viewed  this  action  with  alarm, 
and  even  the  Bishop  wrote  to  the  King  setting  forth 
the  gravity  of  the  situation,  and  suggesting  that  if  the 
work  were  continued  the  expense  to  the  King  might 
be  lightened  by  the  imposition  of  a  tax  upon  wine  and 

On  the  26th  and  3Oth  of  July,  a  meeting  was  held 
in  the  Chateau  St.  Louis  to  discuss  the  question  of  the 
fortifications  of  Quebec,  at  which  the  principal  officers 
of  the  colony,  and  the  chief  inhabitants  of  Quebec 
were  present.  At  this  meeting  the  majority  were  in 
favour  of  carrying  out  the  instruction  of  the  King,  and 
they  declined  to  be  further  taxed. 

It  was  proposed  that  if  the  works  were  continued 
to  raise  the  money  upon  a  tax  on  wine,  but  this  was 
not  carried,  and  an  arrangement  was  made  for  the 
payment  of  the  work  already  completed  by  the  con- 


tractors.  The  existing  work,  however,  was  so  defective, 
that  urgent  repairs  were  completed  in  the  following 
year,  and  extra  expense  was  incurred  in  1748  and 

At  the  request  of  the  Court  of  France, the  Intendant 
caused  a  statement  of  the  expenses  of  the  fortifications 
between  1745  and  1749  to  be  prepared  by  de  Lery. 

The  statement  made  is  as  follows  : — 

1745-6 189,257-  6-1 

1747     54,064-12-0 

1748     292,952-15-1 

1749     232,900-11-5 

In  1750,  de  Lery  made  another  estimate  of  the 
cost  of  the  fortifications  for  1750,  placing  the  sum  at 

Franquet,  a  French  Engineer,  was  sent  out  from 
France  to  make  a  report  upon  the  different  works, 
which  he  did  some  time  after.  In  his  first  letter  to  the 
Minister,  before  his  final  report,  he  stated  that  the 
walls  constructed  by  de  Lery  were  evidently  erected 
without  regard  to  the  requirements  of  the  place  or  the 
laws  of  construction.  He  then  points  out  the  various 
defects,  and  the  remedy  which  can  be  applied  under 
the  circumstances.  In  his  examination  of  the  work, 
he  discovered  that  the  builders  were  working  without 
plans,  and  he  communicated  this  intelligence  to  the 
Intendaut,  who,  we  find,  instructed  de  Lery  in  the 
future  to  consult  with  Franquet,  and  to  comply  with 
the  suggestions  he  had  made. 


This  letter  is  a  very  lengthy  one,  and  its  sugges- 
tions seem  to  have  been  acted  upon. 

When  de  Lery  made  another  report,  in  1757,  as 
to  the  urgent  necessity  of  further  works,  the  Court 
determined  to  have  the  operations  in  future  conducted 
under  the  direction  of  Franquet,  who  was  instructed 
to  draw  up  a  plan  of  the  work  necessary.  At  the  time 
that  Franquet  made  his  report,  in  1752,  as  we  find  by 
another  letter,  in  1753,  the  work  under  de  L,ery  was 
too  far  advanced  to  make  much  improvement,  as  the 
walls  were  already  up  nearly  the  height  intended,  and 
the  new  plan  would  entail  the  demolition  of  these  walls. 
These  walls  were  therefore  left  standing  in  the  mean- 
time, and  Franquet's  project  was  postponed.  Vaud- 
reuil,  in  1757,  transmitted  to  France  a  list  of  works 
proposed,  which  he  could  not  execute  for  want  of 
means.  The  Court,  however,  entrusted  the  charge  of 
the  fortifications  of  Quebec  to  Montbeillard,and  ordered 
the  Engineer  Franquet  to  prepare  a  plan  for  restoring 
the  defences. 

Franquet's  plan  was  sent  to  France,  and  received 
the  approval  of  the  King.  In  November  1757,  the 
Marquis  de  Vaudreuil  wrote  to  France  requesting  the 
return  of  Franquet's  plan,  as  it  would  be  of  great 
service  to  the  Engineer  Pontleroy,  in  carrying  out  the 
instructions  of  His  Majesty. 

In  1758,  Pontleroy  was  actively  engaged  in  repair- 
ing the  most  defective  part  of  the  walls,  but  in  many 
places  they  were  so  bad,  that  works  were  erected  in 
front  of  them. 



Towards  the  end  of  the  year  Montcalm  wrote  : 

' '  Les  fortifications  sont  si  ridicules  et  mauvaises 
"  qu'elle  seroit  prise  aussitot  qu'assiegee." 

In  1759,  before  any  assault  had  been  made  upon 
Quebec,  the  breaches  in  the  walls  could  be  seen  at  a 
distance  of  five  hundred  yards  ;  and  Mackellar  reported 
to  Wolfe  that  the  works  would  offer  very  little  resist- 

After  the  Battle  of  the  Plains,  when  the  British 
took  possession  of  the  city,  they  found  that  it  was 
impossible  to  repair  the  walls  because  they  were  so 
badly  constructed. 

Whether  de  Lery  was  personally  to  blame  for  the 
defective  work,  or  whether  it  was  solely  due  to  the 
contractor,  we  do  not  know,  but  Bigot  and  La  Galis- 
sonniere  complained  to  the  Minister  in  France  that 
de  Lery  would  not  render  accounts,  and  Bigot  advised 
him  that  the  earth  required  at  Quebec  would  in  future 
be  paid  for  by  the  toise,  and  not  by  half  loads  contain- 
ing only  a  handful  of  earth.  Vaudreuil  also  stated 
after  the  battle,  that  the  walls  were  badly  constructed. 
Montcalm,  too,  wrote  :  But  how  can  you  expect  that 
M.  de  Pontleroy,  or  any  other  man  in  his  place  can 
with  honesty  remain  in  the  country.  He  must  rob  or  be 
ruined,  for  his  pay  and  allowances  amount  to  only  100 
Louis  d'or :  "You  will  object  to  me  that  these  are  the 
"  emoluments  allowed  to  his  office  since  the  time  of 
"  M.  de  Lery,  senior,  a  great  ignoramus  in  his  pro- 
"  fession  —  it  is  only  necessary  to  look  at  his  works  — 
"  who  robbed  the  King  like  the  rest. 



III.  From  1759  to  1778,  the  British  Commandants 
had  to  make  the  best  of  a  very  bad  state  of  things 
indeed.  The  old  French  works  were  worthless  and 
the  home  authorities  refused  to  carry  out  any  new 
scheme  at  all.  The  only  thing  to  do  was  to  throw  up 
temporary  works  in  front  of  the  French  walls. 

In  1760,  the  Marquis  de  I/evis  evidently  thought 
he  could  batter  down  the  then  existing  works  with 
ease  if  he  had  anything  like  a  proper  siege  train. 
He  says  : 

"  II  fut  decide,  apres  avoir  reconnu  la  place, 
qu'on  couronnoit  par  une  parallele  les  hauteurs  qui 
sont  devant  le  front  des  bastions  St.  L,ouis,  de  la 
Glaciere  et  du  Cap  au  Diamant,  et  qu'on  y  etablirot 
des  batteries,  d'ou  on  esperait,  malgre  1'eloignement 
et  la  faiblesse  du  calibre  denos  pieces,  qu'elles  pour- 
roient  faire  breche,  le  revetement  etant  mauvais 
dans  cette  partie." 

On  the  6th  of  June,  1762,  General  Murray 
transmitted  to  the  King  a  report  of  the  state  of  the 
fortifications  of  Quebec  at  that  time,  from  which  the 
following  is  quoted,  as  it  does  not  appear  to  have  been 
published  hitherto  : 

' '  Cape  Diamond  is  nearest  the  river  St.  Lawrence 
and  is  likewise  the  highest  ground,  from  whence  there 
is  a  continued  slope,  sometimes  very  quick,  towards 
the  river  St.  Charles,  in  consequence  of  which  the 
walls  not  being  built  upon  a  level,  but  humouring  the 
nature  of  the  ground,  the  flanks  of  the  Bastions  cannot 
defend  their  opposite  faces  in  a  proper  manner,  for  the 
flanks  of  the  lower  ones  must  throw  theirs  above  it. 
To  remedy  this  defect,  the  French  built  two  Counter 



guards  or  Faussebrays  with  Casemated  fiankes,  before 
the  right  face  and  flankes  of  la  Glaciere  Bastion,  and 
the  left  face  and  flank  of  Bastion  St.  Louis  ;  this  how- 
ever introduced  another  inconvenience,  of  which  they 
appeared  sensible  when  Monsieur  de  Levis  besieged 
the  Town  in  1760,  as  he  directed  his  fire  to  this  place, 
which  had  such  an  effect,  the  rubbish  of  the  Wall 
filling  the  Counter  guard,  and  that  from  the  lower 
the  ditch,  that  an  easy  ascent  might  have  been  very 
soon  made  to  the  breach. 

"  The  high  grounds  before  Cape  Diamond  and 
Laglaciere  Bastions  command  all  the  lower  fortifica- 
tions toward  the  river  St.  Charles,  and  batteries  for 
battering  in  breach  may  be  erected  at  any  distance,  as 
the  walls  are  high  and  seen  in  many  places  to  the 
bottom  of  the  Ditch,  there  being  no  covered  way  or 
outworks  and  even  the  counterscarp  wall  not  well 
finished,  neither  can  a  covered  way  be  constructed, 
but  at  a  great  expense,  on  account  of  the  scarcity  of 
earth  and  irregularity  of  the  ground,  besides  that  it 
must  be  crowded  with  traverses  to  prevent  its  being 

' '  To  make  up  in  some  measure  the  want  of  out- 
works, in  the  winter  1759,  I  erected  a  line  of  Block- 
houses within  musquet  shot  of  the  capital  wall  to 
secure  the  body  of  the  place  against  surprises,  such 
outworks  are  proof  against  musquetry  only. 

"  The  walls  are  built  of  an  irregular  unwrought 
stone  and  in  many  places  the  work  is  very  badly  exe- 
cuted as  was  sufficiently  visible  from  the  effect  of  the 
fire  from  the  French  batteries  in  1760. 

' '  The  Gates  are  illplaced  and  not  defended.  St. 
Louis  Gate  is  so  near  the  right  face  of  the  Bastion  of 
the  same  name,  that  it  is  beneath  its  fire,  and  the 
opposite  flank  can  have  but  very  little  fire  on  it,  that 



of  St.  Johns  has  the  same  fault,  being  too  near  the 
left  flank  of  St.  Johns  Bastion. 

' '  The  Palace  Gate  is  not  much  better  constructed, 
and  in  general  this  whole  front  of  the  place,  which 
indeed  is  the  only  fortified  one,  is  enfiladed  from  the 
other  side  of  the  river  St.  Charles. 

' '  The  Wall  from  Bastion  Lapotasse  to  Palace  gate, 
is  pierced  with  loop  holes,  and  is  good  in  its  kind.  The 
Barracks  which  are  built  against  it  being  also  provided 
with  loop  holes  serve  as  a  second  fire.  This  wall  is 
continued  to  K  and  is  built  upon  a  Rock. 

' '  From  K  to  L  is  a  very  bad  stockade  on  the  top 
of  an  accessible  rock,  with  one  small  stockaded  place 
of  arms.  This  is  the  part  of  the  Town  most  exposed 
to  a  coup  de  main. 

' '  From  L  to  T  there  is  a  high  Wall  with  a  wooden 
gallery  behind  it,  to  serve  as  a  banquette,  and  beneath 
it  is  a  sally  port  to  communicate  with  the  lower  Town. 

' '  From  T  to  the  sault  au  Matelot  is  a  wall  begun 
but  carried  no  higher  than  a  man  is  able  to  step  upon  it, 
there  are  here  some  plat-forms  for  Cannon  and  Mortars. 
From  M  to  M  (sic)  is  the  Royal  Battery  commanding 
the  River  St.  Lawrence  and  built  upon  an  inaccessible 
rock  adjoining  to  the  Bishop's  palace,  part  of  which 
was  taken  in  during  the  late  siege  to  defend  the  com- 
munication from  the  lower  to  the  higher  Town,  which 
was  also  defended  by  some  Cannon  planted  at  O. 

"  From  O  to  P  takes  in  Fort  St.  Louis  and  a  nine 
gun  battery  ;  it  is  by  nature  inaccessible  except  two 
small  paths  shewn  in  the  plan.  Fort  St.  Louis  is  of 
no  defence  being  the  remains  of  the  earliest  fortifica- 
tions erected  there. 

' '  From  P  to  Q  the  Citadel  or  Redoubt  of  Cape 
Diamond,  is  a  quick  or  rather  steep  ascent,  defended 
by  a  stockade  only.  Betwixt  this  Redoubt  and  the 
Bastions  of  La  Glaciere  and  Cape  Diamond  is  a  com- 



manding  ground  overlooking  the  whole  Town  and 
Fortifications.  This  ground  I  judge  very  proper  for 
the  construction  of  a  Citadel. 

' '  From  Q  to  R  the  same  sort  of  stockade  is  con- 
tinued, and  from  R  to  Cape  Diamond  there  is  a  Wall 
with  loop-holes,  defended  by  two  small  flanks  with 

"  The  rocky  hill  under  these  parts  is  very  high, 
but  accessible  and  in  many  places  covered  with  brush, 
by  the  help  of  which  small  parties  might  advance  to 
the  very  stockades. 

"  The  lower  Town  is  only  cover 'd  by  a  Stockade 
and  some  batteries.  The  Batteries  marked  q  are  to 
defend  the  road  and  annoy  the  shipping  in  passing  the 
Town.  The  Batteries  /,  are  for  the  same  purpose. 
They  serve  likewise  to  flank  the  lower  Town  and  the 
other  Batteries. 

"  From  the  above  report  and  annexed  Plan  it 
appears  that  the  Enceinte  of  Quebec  is  very  large  and 
would  require  a  very  strong  Garrison  to  defend  it  tho 
properly  fortified.  That  at  present  it  is  open  on  two 
sides,  has  no  out  works  not  even  a  cover' d  way  nor 
hardly  a  ditch,  for  the  foot  of  rotten  walls  is  to  be  seen 
from  the  most  of  the  Environs  at  the  distance  of  500 
yards.  That  the  whole  Rampart  is  enfiladed  from  the 
other  side  of  the  River  St  Charles,  and  that  in  its 
present  situation,  with  a  Garrison  of  3000  men  it  is  not 
proof  against  a  well  conducted  Coup  de  main.  Any 
temporary  works  that  can  be  added,  would  be  of  little 
signification,  as  matters  now  stand  ;  and  to  fortify  the 
place  upon  the  old  plans  is  by  no  means  advisable,  the 
situation  never  can  be  render'd  strong,  and  the  attempt 
must  cost  an  immense  sum.  I  therefore  am  of  opinion 
that  if  His  Majesty  shall  think  proper  to  be  at  the 
expense  of  strengthening  Quebec,  the  most  effectual 
method  will  be  to  eredl  upon  the  rising  ground  of  Cape 



Diamond,  a  Citadel  which  will  answer  every  purpose 
of  the  Towns  being  strongly  fortified,  may  be  defended 
4  mouths  at  least  by  a  small  garrison,  awe  the  Inhabit- 
ants, whose  fidelity  in  case  of  an  attack  we  cannot  for 
some  years  rely  on,  and  secure  our  Magazines.  The 
ground  I  propose  for  this  Citadel  commands  the  whole 
Town  and  is  commanded  no  where  from  the  Country  ; 
in  short  it  possesses  every  advantage  to  be  wished  for, 
and  at  a  small  expense  maybe  fortified,  as  the  Inhabit- 
ants of  the  Country  and  the  Troops  in  the  time  of 
peace  may  contribute  their  labor  towards  it  gratis  ;  to 
this  the  former  can  have  no  objection  as  they  were  on 
all  occasions  formerly  liable  to  Military  services  and 
were  all  allow' d  only  provisions. 

"  I  order' d  Captain  Holland  to  take  an  accurate 
survey  of  the  ground  and  have  the  honor  herewith  to 
transmit  (a)  the  several  plans  he  has  drawn  in  con- 

We  have  seen  that  under  the  French  regime, 
representations  which  were  not  always  complied  with, 
were  frequently  made  to  France  for  aid  towards  the 
construction  of  fortifications  at  Quebec.  Under  the 
British  regime,  similar  conditions  prevailed. 

The  official  correspondence  of  the  Governors  from 
1764  until  1811,  is  burdened  with  suggestions  and 
demands  in  this  direction.  On  the  2Qth  of  May,  1769, 
Guy  Carleton  wrote  to  Lord  Hillsborough  concerning 
the  fortifications,  in  these  words  : 

"It  is  now  long  since  I  transmitted  to  Lord 
Shelburue,  accompanying  my  letter  No.  20,  the  plan 
of  a  citadel  for  Quebec  ;  at  that  time,  I  expected  the 
Engineer,  Captain  Gordon,  who  made  but  a  short  stay 
here  in  1767,  agreeable  to  my  orders,  and  his  promise, 

9  129 


would  have  drawn  up  an  estimate  of  the  expense  ;  as 
he  has  never  done  this,  at  least  that  has  come  to  my 
knowledge,  I  again  transmit  said  plan  with  an  estimate 
annexed,  made  out  by  Engineer  Marr,  who  arrived 
here  last  fall  from  Halifax  ;  I  have  already  said  so 
much  of  the  expediency  and  utility  of  such  an  under- 
taking, that  I  have  now  little  to  add,  I  am  however, 
to  observe  to  Your  Lordship,  I  have  found  it  the 
general  opinion  of  the  Canadians  that  if  Admiral 
Durell  had  pushed  up  in  May,  1759,  with  only  a  small 
part  of  the  army,  the  town  might  have  been  taken 
before  the  Governor  in  Chief  could  have  sent  there 
any  assistance  from  Montreal,  where  and  in  the  upper 
Country  all  the  troops  were  collected  to  defend  the 
entrance  by  the  Lakes  ;  that  after  the  defeat  of  their 
army  upon  the  Plains  of  Abraham,  the  i3th  of  Sep- 
tember, altho'  they  had  eight  Battalions  and  forty 
companies  of  regular  troops,  with  fifteen  or  sixteen 
thousand  warlike  tnilitia  in  the  field,  after  having  had 
four  months  time  to  strengthen  the  towrn,  they  appre- 
hended the  same  so  indefensible  that  it  surrendered 
immediately,  before  one  single  battery  could  be  opened 
against  it  ;  and  that  if  in  the  succeeding  year  the 
remains  of  ten  brave  Battalions  were  enabled  to  hold 
out  until  the  arrival  of  our  fleet,  it  was  in  a  great 
degree  owing  to  Monsieur  de  Levis'  army  being  in 
want  of  artillery  and  ammunition. 

"  For  the  foregoing  reasons  therefore  as  well  as 
the  many  others  before  alledged,  I  must  humbly  re- 
commend that  essential  and  salutary  work  to  be  set 
about  as  soon  as  possible. ' ' 

For  twenty  years  after  the  Siege  of  Quebec  no 
repairs  were  made  to  the  French  wTalls,  although 
temporary  works  to  defend  them  were  constructed. 
During  Arnold's  expedition  against  Quebec  the  situa- 



tion  of  the  city  was  indeed  perilous,  and  on  the  6th 
of  December,  1775.  Montgomery  wrote  to"Carleton 
stating  that  he  was  aware  of  its  defenceless  condition. 

The  only  fortifications  which  Montgomery  and 
Arnold  attacked  were  the  two  barricades  in  Lower 
Town,  thrown  up  for  temporary  defence  of  Quebec  in 
1775,  although  Arnold  had  erected  works  in  the  vici- 
nity of  the  present  Parliament  for  the  purpose  of 
attacking  the  walls.  On  the  night  of  the  3ist  of  Dec- 
ember in  that  year,  Arnold  carried  the  Satilt-au-Mat- 
elot  barricade,  which  faced  the  north  east  and  ran  from 
the  cliff  to  the  river  along  the  line  of  the  present  St. 
James  street.  Montgomery's  simultaneous  attack 
failed  before  the  Pres-de-Ville  barricade,  which  faced 
south  and  ran  across  the  present  Champlain  street  from 
the  cliff  to  the  river,  just  under  the  present  Citadel. 
There  was  also  a  one  gun  battery  on  a  ledge  about 
fifty  or  sixty  feet  below  the  present  Citadel.  This  gun 
should  have  supported  the  defence  of  the  barricade  ; 
but  the  officer  in  charge  failed  to  do  his  duty  properly. 

IV.  In  1778,  the  Home  authorities  at  last  began 
to  listen  to  reason  ;  but  their  action  was  dangerously 
slow  for  those  stirring  years.  And  none  of  the  works 
then  made  were  really  permanent. 

During  the  earlier  correspondence  of  the  Governors 
we  come  in  contact  with  a  familiar  figure  during  the 
Siege  of  Quebec,  George  Townshend,  which  proves 
that  his  interest  in  Canadian  affairs  did  not  cease  with 
the  capitulation  of  Quebec.  The  serious  consideration 
of  building  a  citadel  at  Quebec,  under  British  rule, 


dates  from  1778.     In  the  month  of  October,  in  that 
year,  the  Governor  wrote  : 

"  In  obedience  to  the  commands  given  to  me  by 
'  your  lordship,  I  shall  not  fail  to  take  the  proper  steps 
'  for  erecting  a  citadel  at  Quebec  in  such  situation  as 
'  assisted  by  the  Engineers  I  shall  be  able  to  judge  it 
'  most  advantageous,  the  plans  and  estimates  of  which 
'  shall  be  transmitted  as  soon  as  they  can  be  made  and 
'  considered." 

In  a  letter  dated  the  i8th  of  June,  1779,  addressed 
to  Lord  Townshend,  Governor  Haldimand  clearly  sets 
forth  the  condition  of  affairs  in  Quebec,  and  his  require- 
ments at  this  time.  The  letter  is  therefore  quoted  at 
length  :— 

"  Very  soon  after  my  arrival  in  this  Province  I 
was  convinced  that  the  resources  I  was  master  of 
were  by  no  means  adequate  to  begin  the  construction 
of  a  formidable  Citadel  at  Quebec,  so  as  to  afford 
any  reasonable  hopes  that  it  could  assist  us  during 
the  present  Rebellion,  and  therefore  I  immediately 
resolved  to  content  myself  with  making  such  neces- 
sary preparations  as  can  be  done  without  interfering 
with  our  present  Defences,  and  yet  such  as  may 
induce  and  enable  the  Government  to  push  forward 
with  vigour,  when  the  situation  of  public  affairs 
make  it  expedient  so  to  do — by  adopting  this  plan 
there  will  be  sufficient  time  to  obtain  and  compare 
different  ideas,  so  as  at  last  to  determine  upon  some 
thing  which  may  be  adapted  to  the  ground,  the 
climate  and  the  Government,  and  your  Lordship  is 
so  well  acquainted  with  these  particulars  that  I  must 
request  your  assistance,  in  this  difficult  task." 

"  Major  Holland,  who  arrived  here  a  few  days 
"  ago  from  Halifax,  informs  me  that  in  1762,  or  there- 



' '  abouts,  he  gave  General  Murray  Plans,  sections  and 
"  estimates  of  a  Citadel,  all  of  which  were  forwarded 
"  to  England,  and  are  now  in  the  drawing  room  of 
"  the  Tower,  and  as  Major  Holland  has  no  copy,  I  beg 
"  Your  Lordship  to  indulge  we  with  exact  copies  of 
"  the  whole  by  the  first  opportunity,  as  your  lordship 
"  must  be  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  merit  and 
"  ability  of  this  officer,  to  know  that  some  attention 
"  may  be  paid  to  his  opinion.  Captain  Marr,  who  is  at 
"  present  the  Senior  Engineer  in  the  Province,  I  found 
"  stationed  at  Quebec  by  General  Carleton,  and  the 
"  entire  direction  of  all  other  forts,  etc.,  put  under  the 
"  direction  of  Captain  Twiss  I  continued  this  regula- 
' '  tion  both  because  I  thought  it  for  the  good  of  the 
"  service,  and  as  far  as  I  could  learn,  that  it  was  also 
"  your  lordship's  intention  that  it  should  be  so — a 
"  more  thorough  knowledge  of  these  gentlemen  has 
"  convinced  me  that  I  was  right,  and  as  Captain  Marr 
"  is  now  old  and  infirm  I  have  this  summer  consented 
"  to  the  request  he  made  last  fall  (though  late")  of 
"  returning  to  England,  and  I  shall  order  him  to  lay 
"  before  your  I^ordship  his  remarks  upon  Cape  Dia- 
"  mond,  together  with  his  proposals  for  a  Citadel,  and 
"  I  do  earnestly  request  that  your  Lordship  will  apply 
"  to  His  Majesty  to  have  Lieut.  Twiss  appointed  Chief 
"  Engineer  of  this  Province,  as  I  have  found  his  zeal, 
"  activity  and  ability  equal  to  the  important  trust,  and 
"  although  he  has  the  misfortune  to  be  low  in  rank,  I 
"  am  informed  that  he  has  been  19  years  in  the  service, 
' '  and  very  actively  employed  during  the  whole  of  that 
"  time." 

By  a  letter  of  the  i8th  of  June,  1779,  the  Gov- 
ernor informed  Lord  Townshend  that  plans  were  being 
prepared  by  Captain  Twiss  and  Mr.  Hunter,  but  that 
he  hesitated  to  send  them  to  England,  ' '  fearful  lest 



"  they  should  fall  into  improper  hands,  and  for  this 
"  reason,  and  in  consequence  of  his  private  affairs,  I 
"  have  consented  to  give  L,ieut.  Slack  leave  to  go  to 
"  England." 

Very  little  work  could  be  accomplished  on  account 
of  the  lack  of  materials  and  of  tools,  besides  the  scar- 
city of  workmen.  In  order  to  carry  out  the  projected 
works  the  Governor  organized  a  company  of  artificers, 
but  lyord  Townshend  objected  to  its  formation,  and 
instructed  the  Governor  to  employ  loyalists  in  the 
construction  of  any  works  undertaken. 

The  failure  of  the  ' '  True  Britain ' '  to  reach 
Quebec,  deprived  the  Governor  of  a  valuable  cargo  of 
military  supplies,  and  consequently  the  proposed  im- 
provements had  to  be  postponed. 

The  plans  prepared  by  Captain  Twiss  at  this  time, 
provided  for  the  construction  of  those  walls  which 
were  subsequently  built  beyond  the  line  of  the  present 

The  remains  of  these  British  works  are  still  plainly 
visible  on  the  western  side  of  Cape  Diamond.  This 
was  the  first  and  only  time  that  any  fortifications  were 
thrown  up  on  this  spot.  There  were  none  at  all  at 
the  time  of  the  French ;  and  they  were  discarded  in 
the  British  scheme  of  1823.  Their  whole  military 
existence  therefore  is  bounded  by  the  limits  of  the 
period  which  we  are  now  discussing,  viz,  from  1778 
to  1823. 

The  progress  towards  building  the  long  discussed 
citadel  was  very  slow.  By  a  letter  addressed  to  Haldi- 



mand  on  the  3Oth  of  November,  1779,  Lord  Towns- 
hend  does  not  appear  to  have  been  satisfied  with  the 
manner  in  which  his  suggestions  regarding  Quebec 
were  received.  He  writes  : 

'  '  I  hope  my  former  letter  was  received  respecting 
'  '  the  corps  of  artificers  which  you  have  determined  as 
"  necessary  upon  Captain  Twiss's  recommendation  ; 
"all  I  can  say  is,  that  whenever  the  Secretary  of 
'  '  State  for  the  Department  refers  to  me  for  my  opinion 
"  upon  the  subject  of  Canada,  I  shall  give  my  opinion 
"  as  explicitly  and  frankly  as  I  did  some  years  ago 
"  upon  a  Citadel  for  Quebec,  which  I  lament  to  say 
"  has  never  been  done,  and  of  which  I  have  never 
"  heard  anything  after." 

Townshend  refers  to  the  subject  again  in  a 
letter  dated  the  i5th  of  December,  1779  : 

"  With  regard  to  the  Citadel  proposed  at  Quebec, 
"  I  am  happy  to  find  that  a  Post  of  such  importance 
"  is  not  laid  aside.  My  opinion  was  asked  upon  this 
"  subject  some  time  ago,  and  I  should  have  been  sorry 
"  to  have  been  so  ignorant  of  the  place  and  of  the 
"  Province,  to  have  hesitated  giving  my  opinion  in  the 
"  fullest  manner." 

A  year  later,  in  October,  1780,  no  progress  had 
been  made.  General  Haldimand  wrote  to  L,ord  Towns- 
hend as  follows  : 

'  '  In  our  present  situation  your  L,ordship  must  be 
"  sensible  that  we  could  not  begin  the  construction  of 
"  a  regular  Citadel,  but  we  have  endeavoured  to  take 
"  every  possible  advantage  of  the  ground,  and  have 
"  occupied  the  Cape  with  several  detached  redoubts, 
"  which  I  hope  will  soon  be  capable  of  some  defence. 



' '  Captain  Twiss  has  applied  for  permission  to  send  to 
' '  your  Lordship  plans  of  the  works  now  constructing. ' ' 

The  plan  prepared  by  Captain  Twiss,  a  copy  of 
which  is  before  us,  shows  : 

' '  i .  The  condition  of  the  ground  upon  which  it 
is  proposed  to  construct  certain  works  extend- 
ing beyond  the  walls  (that  is,  those  works 
which  have  been  regarded  as  of  French 

"2.  The  nature  of  the  proposed  works  as  sug- 
gested by  Captain  Marr,  distinguished  by 
yellow  lines,  and  those  proposed  by  Captain 
Twiss,  coloured  red." 

The  only  building  within  the  area  of  the  present 
citadel  at  this  time,  of  any  importance,  was  the  Citadel 
Redoubt.  The  Hangman's  Redoubt,  on  Cape  Diamond 
and  the  Powder  Magazine,  were  only  temporary 
affairs,  constructed  between  the  years  1760  and  1769. 
Amongst  the  eighty  manuscript  plans  of  Quebec 
made  by  British  officers,  which  have  recently  been 
collected  through  the  exertions  of  His  Excellency, 
IvOrd  Minto,  is  a  remarkably  fine  plan  in  colours,  bear- 
ing this  title  : 

"  Plan  of  the  Town  and  Suburbs  of  Quebec, show- 
ing the  Fortifications  as  they  were  nearly  completed 
in  October,  1783.  The  Fortifications  of  this  Town 
were  not  in  any  degree  finished  by  the  French,  and 
the  English  never  repaired  any  part  of  them  previous 
to  October,  1779,  when  His  Excellency,  General 
Haldimand  gave  his  instructions  to  Captain  Twiss, 
Commanding  Engineer  in  Canada,  for  the  construc- 
tion of  a  temporary  Citadel  on  Cape  Diamond." 



This  statement  which  is  on  the  plan  made  by 
Captain  Twiss,  the  Commanding  Engineer,  and  bear- 
ing his  signature,  is  in  direct  opposition  to  all  the  local 
historians,  but  the  student,  no  doubt,  will  attach  more 
importance  to  the  writing  of  the  Engineer  and  the 
official  correspondence  of  the  time,  than  to  the  state- 
ments of  those  who  wrote  over  a  hundred  years  after 
the  events,  and  were  not  in  possession  of  the  material 
now  available.  This  temporary  citadel  embraced  near- 
ly the  same  area  as  that  enclosed  by  the  present  walls, 
which  was  at  first  suggested  by  Major  Holland,  and  it 
also  extended  nearly  to  the  steps  leading  to  the  river, 
including  those  works  which  have  been  regarded  as 
belonging  to  the  French  regime. 

These  plans  show  what  works  there  were  upon 
the  Cape  during  the  old  regime,  and  also  the  com- 
mencement and  progress,  and  final  abandonment  of 
these  old  walls. 

On  the  plan  made  by  Captain  Twiss  in  1783,  these 
famous  walls  are  shown  as  being  nearly  complete,  and 
they  are  referred  to  as  follows  : — 

(aa~)  "  New  works  whose  Terre  Plein  are  mostly 
"  excavated  in  the  solid  rock,  they  together  form  a 
"  temporary  Citadel." 

The  buildings  executed  within  these  walls,  which 
extended  beyond  the  present  line,  were  : — 

(££)  "  New  roads  of  communication  for  artillery." 
(The  entrance  to  these  extended  fortifications  was 
behind  the  King's  Field,  a  plot  of  ground  having  a 
frontage  of  550  feet  on  the  south  of  the  Grande  Allee, 
opposite  the  Parliament  ) 



(<?)  ' '  Reservoirs  for  water  which  is  tolerably  good, 
"  though  rather  hard,  however  they  are  at  all  times 
"  tolerably  supplied." 

{mm}  "  Counter  mines  formed  of  cedar  pickets 
"  under  the  Glaciere  bastion." 

These  were  the  works  constructed  by  the  British 
in  1779,  and  completed  in  1783,  the  remains  of  which 
have  been  regarded  as  the  ruins  of  the  French  works. 

The  works  erected  by  the  British  at  this  time 
within  the  main  walls,  that  is,  within  the  area  of  the 
citadel  proper,  were  : 

"(<?£)  Temporary  bomb  proofs  made  of  timber, 
"  and  will  lodge  : 

c.     i,     62  men 
c.    4,     36  men 
c.    7,  205  men 
c.  10,   230  men 

c.    2     82  men 
c.     5  230  men 
c.     8  234  men 
c.  ii     86  men 

c.    3     16  men 
c.     6  125  men 
c..    9  230  men 
c.  12     50  men 

533  men  632  men  421  men 

"  (//)  Sheds  for  carriages. 

"  (£")  Workshops  for  all  branches. 

"  (hfi)  Three  counterguards  to  cover  the  detached 
redoubts  with  curtains  to  cover  the  communication 
from  one  redoubt  to  another,  were  not  finished,  and 
are  almost  the  only  part  of  the  new  works  which 
are  not." 

"  i.  Port  St.  Louis  Gate  from  thence  towards  the 
new  Citadel,  the  ditches  and  glacis  are  levelled  the 
parapets  and  ramparts  are  likewise  completed. 

"  (k}  St.  John's  Gate,  from  hence  to  port  St. 
Louis  Gate  there  is  no  glacis  and  the  ditches  are  in 



' '  so  rude  a  state  by  the  French  having  excavated  the 
' '  earth  from  between  the  rocks  that  they  are  impas- 
"  sable  not  only  for  carriages,  but  also  on  horseback. 
"  The  parapets  and  ramparts  for  this  part  are  finished, 
' '  and  a  very  extensive  Esplanade  with  proper  ramps 
"  is  almost  completed  behind  these  works. 

' '  (/)  Barrack  Bastion  whose  parapet  and  rampart 
"  etc.  are  finished,  but  the  parapet  and  rampart  be- 
"  tween  it  and  St.  John's  Gate  as  well  as  the  ditches 
' '  and  glacis  in  front  of  this  extent  remain  in  the  rude 
' '  state  in  which  the  French  left  them,  and  are  not 
' '  capable  of  any  proper  defence. 

"  (w)  Ground  purchased  by  the  Government  for 
"  a  wharf  not  yet  commenced." 

The  Citadel  constructed  under  Captain  Twiss  was 
never  intended  for  a  permanent  structure,  and  the 
correspondence  between  the  Governors  shows  that  they 
were  repeatedly  making  demands  for  substantial  means 
of  defence.  When  they  realized  that  the  necessary  aid 
was  not  forthcoming,  and  that  repairs  were  urgently 
needed,  the  Governor  ordered  a  complete  survey  to 
be  made  with  a  view  of  again  placing  the  various 
works  in  a  state  of  temporary  efficiency.  This  survey 
was  completed  in  1790,  and  certain  works  were  at  once 

By  a  plan  made  in  1804,  we  find  that  there  were 
very  slight  alterations  effected  between  the  year  1783 
and  1804,  the  most  notable  was  a  battery  on  the  sum- 
mit of  the  extended  walls  overlooking  the  path  to  the 
river.  In  the  citadel  proper,  we  find  and  ordonance 
store,  constructed  in  1800,  and  a  powder  magazine 
built  in  1 80 1. 



In  1804  another  plan  was  drawn  up  for  the  con- 
struction of  three  Martello  Towers.  Towers  No.  i  and 
3  were  commenced  in  1805,  and  finished  in  1810. 
Tower  No.  2  was  commenced  on  the  i  ith  of  May,  1809, 
but  it  was  not  completed  until  1818.  Tower  No.  4 
was  not  completed  until  1823. 

The  Commanding  Engineer  in  Canada,  Captain 
Nicolls,  prepared  an  excellent  plan  of  the  city,  its 
environs,  and  the  whole  of  its  defensive  works.  The 
colours  of  this  plan  are  remarkably  bright,  and  the 
lettering  is  a  fine  specimen  of  the  penman's  art.  It 
bears  the  title,  ' '  Plan  of  Quebec,  showing  the  present 
state  of  the  works  of  Defence,  distinguishing  those 
which  are  complete  and  what  are  in  progress,  with  the 
military  works  and  buildings  that  have  been  ordered, 
1 8th  March,  1816." 

On  this  plan  we  find  that  the  works  beyond  the 
present  line,  which  have  been  hitherto  regarded  as  of 
French  origin,  were  partly  dismantled.  The  reservoirs 
were  removed,  and  the  only  building  was  the  advanced 

Within  the  Citadel  proper,  the  following  works 
are  described  : — 

i.  Telegraph  (on  Cape  Diamond)  ;  2.  Stone  Pow- 
der Magazine  ;  3.  Fire  Proof  Ordnance  Stores  ;  4.  Cape 
Diamond  Bastion  ;  5.  Glaciere  Bastion  and  Barracks ; 
6.  Shot  Yard  ;  7.  Wooden  Ordnance  Sheds  ;  8.  Tem- 
porary Officers'  Barracks  (of  wood)  ;  9.  Casemated 
Barracks  and  Cavalier  ;  10.  Temporary  Barracks  ;  1 1. 
King's  Cavalier;  12.  Another  Powder  Magazine  ;  13. 



St.  Louis  Bastion  with  Bomb  Proof  Barracks,  Guard 
House  and  Cook  House  ;  14.  Wooden  Ordnance  Stores 
and  Sheds  ,-15.  Wheeler's  Shop  ;  16.  Provision  Stores  ; 
17.  Large  Temporary  Powder  Magazine  ;  18.  Tele- 
graph and  Flag  Staff  ;  19.  Powder  Magazine. 

The  large  temporary  Powder  Magazine  occupied 
the  site  of  the  Governor- General's  Quarters.  This  plan 
is  very  detailed,  and  the  names  of  all  Public  Buildings 
in  every  part  of  the  city  are  given.  Amongst  the 
works  described  on  this  plan  are  the  Powder  Magazine 
and  the  Cistern  on  the  Esplanade,  and  a  Powder 
Magazine  at  St.  John's  Gate.  Two  Guard  Houses, 
and  a  Cooking  House  are  shown  in  the  course  of 
construction  near  the  Jesuit's  Barracks. 

These  works  served  until  the  construction  of  the 
magnificent  Citadel,  in  1823,  carried  out  on  the  basis 
of  the  plans  of  Holland  and  Twiss,  by  Lieut. -Col. 
Durnford,  with  additions  by  Colonel  Mann,  the  main 
parts  of  which  are  to  be  seen  to-day,  and  require  no 
further  description. 

V.  In  1823  the  first  and  last  great  permanent 
scheme  was  taken  in  hand  and  carried  out  during  the 
next  nine  years  to  what  was  considered  a  satisfactory 
conclusion.  The  total  cost  was  $35,000,000.00.  All 
the  existing  fortifications  date  from  these  years  and 
nothing  material  has  been  added  since.  The  chief 
changes  have  taken  place  in  the  gates,  most  of  which 
have  disappeared  altogether,  and  others  have  been 
rebuilt  in  ornamental  forms.  Hope  Gate  was  first 
built  in  1786.  It  was  altered  in  1823-32,  and  strength- 


ened  outward  in  1840.  It  was  finally  demolished  in 

St.  John's  Gate  was  first  built  under  Frontenac  ; 
removed  by  de  Lery  in  1720  ;  rebuilt  in  1791  and  again 
in  1867  ;  and  demolished  in  1898. 

St.  Louis  Gate  was  built  under  Frontenac,  appear- 
ing first  in  his  plan  of  1693.  It  was  rebuilt  in  1721  ; 
altered  in  1783  ;  again  rebuilt  in  the  scheme  of  1823-32, 
and  replaced  by  the  present  arch  in  1873. 

Fresco tt  Gate  was  built  in  1797,  rebuilt  in  1823  ; 
and  demolished  in  1871. 

Palace  Gate,  first  built  under  Frontenac,  was 
restored  in  1720  and  again  in  1790.  It  was  rebuilt  in 
1823-32  in  imitation  of  the  Nola  and  Herculaneum 
Gates  of  Pompeii.  It  was  demolished  in  1864. 

Kent  Gate  was  built  in  1879,  Her  Majesty  Queen 
Victoria  contributing  to  the  cost,  in  memory  of  Her 
father,  the  Duke  of  Kent  after  whom  it  was  named. 

Chain  Gate,  forms  a  part  of  the  works  undertaken 
in  1823-32,  and  protects  the  road  to  the  citadel,  known 
as  Citadel  Hill. 

Dalhousie  Gate,  which  forms  the  entrance  to  the 
Citadel,  was  erected  in  1827,  during  the  administration 
of  Lord  Dalhousie. 

VI.  When  the  progress  of  military  science  had 
shown  that  distant  and  detached  fortifications  would  be 
required,  a  new  scheme  was  formulated  for  the  defence 
of  Quebec  and  three  forts  on  the  Levis  heights  were 
erected  between  1865  and  1871.  The  scheme  never 
resulted  in  anything  further.  These  forts  have  never 



been  manned  nor  armed  ;  but  they  are  still  in  fairly 
good  order  and  capable  of  service  in  case  of  necessity. 

Since  then  there  have  been  various  other  schemes 
mooted  ;  but,  as  none  of  them  have  ever  resulted  in 
any  tangible  form,  our  survey  of  the  fortifications  of 
Quebec  must  close  here. 

We  must  once  more  remind  the  reader  that  there 
are  no  old  French  works  of  any  kind  now  in  existence, 
and  that  the  works  on  the  west  face  of  Cape  Diamond 
were  of  purely  British  origin ;  appearing  first  in  the 
temporary  scheme  of  1783  and  disappearing  again  in 
the  permanent  plan  of  1823. 

It  is  impossible  either  to  look  back  on  this  long 
and  stirring  history,  or  to  look  forward  to  the  heritage 
of  Quebec  in  future  generations,  without  entering  a 
strong  protest  against  any  scheme  for  throwing  down 
the  walls,  or  any  portion  of  them. 

It  is  true  that  they  are  not  so  very  old  and  that 
they  lack  the  historic  charm  of  containing  at  least  some 
remains  of  the  old  French  works.  But,  on  the  other 
hand,  they  are  most  interesting  in  themselves,  and 
doubly  so  because  they  still  mark  the  lines  followed  by 
those  wrhich  existed  in  the  days  of  Wolfe  and  Mont- 
calm.  Moreover,  they  have  the  priceless  advantage  of 
making  Quebec  absolutely  unique  among  all  the  cities 
of  America.  It  may  be  that  if  Quebec  were  to  lose  all 
claim  to  being  the  one  walled  city  of  the  western 
world,  she  might  still  remain  a  queen  among  her 
sister  cities.  For  her  superb,  unchallengeable  throne 
was  founded  in  strength  and  set  here  in  beauty  by 



Nature  ages  long  ago.  But  it  was  Man  who  came  and 
crowned  her.  And  where  the  works  of  Nature  and  of 
Man  have  so  perfectly  combined  in  one  befitting  glory, 
it  would  surely  be  an  abject  desecration  to  discrown 
her  now.  For  let  it  be  clearly  understood  that  the 
true  disgrace  of  any  such  schemes  lies  in  their  very 
wantonness.  Of  course  necessity  knows  no  law  ;  and 
of  course  everything  must  accommodate  itself  to  its 
surroundings  in  the  struggle  for  existence,  or  die  out. 
We  all  know  that.  And  of  course  if  war  should  ever 
require  the  destruction  of  the  present  walls  ;  then  they 
must  be  destroyed.  And,  equally  of  course,  if  peace- 
ful traffic  should  ever  really  require  it,  then  they  must 
disappear  just  the  same.  But,  as  a  matter  of  certain 
fact,  neither  war  nor  peace  require  any  such  sacrifice 
at  all.  Modern  defences  would  be  far  away  from  the 
city  ;  and  the  walls  around  it  could  not  do  any  harm, 
and  might  conceivably  do  good.  And,  as  for  peaceful 
every  day  traffic,  it  already  has  all  the  natural  outlets 
that  it  requires,  and  can  pass  freely  to  and  fro  at  will, 
without  let  or  hinderance,  inwards  or  out.  Indeed  it 
may  be  truly  said,  that  the  walls  are  now  no  more  of 
a  material  barrier  to  traffic  to-day  than  their  memory 
would  be  should  they  be  wantonly  thrown  down  to- 
morrow. But  the  greatest  plea  in  their  favour  is  that 
they  are  the  living  symbol  of  a  glorious  past,  in  which 
the  honours  of  war  were  equally  divided  between 
French  and  English,  and  for  the  living  monument  of 
which,  therefore,  French  and  English  alike  should 
stand  united.  The  waterfront  is  the  same  from  which 



Frontenac  hurled  steadfast  defiance  at  the  discomfited 
fleet  and  army  of  England  ;  and  the  landward  face 
follows  the  same  line  of  defence  which  stood  there 
when  the  two  greatest  masters  of  the  art  of  war  ever 
seen  in  Canada  fought  for  the  dominion  of  a  continent 
—  the  profound  and  aspiring  Wolfe,  and  the  equally 
great,  though  unfortunate,  Montcalm. 

And  so  these  present  walls  really  stand  as  a  link 
between  the  twin  honours  of  two  gallant  races,  as  well 
as  what  should  be  a  perpetual  link  between  present, 
past  and  future. 

And  their  own  mute  appeal  is  more  eloquent  of  all 
living  honour  than  all  the  vain  words  that  might  record 
them  after  they  had  disappeared  for  ever. 




NEARLY  every  visitor  to  Quebec  desires  to  see  the 
old  stone  inserted  in  the  walls  of  the  Post  Office, 
bearing  this  inscription  : — 


The  dog,  the  bone,  the  inscription  and  the  house, 
have  given  rise  to  many  conjectures.  In  the  absence 
of  any  satisfactory  solution,  the  imagination  has  been 
pressed  into  service,  and  as  the  result,  we  have  in  the 
pages  of  history  and  of  fiction,  more  than  one  interesting 
story  founded  thereupon. 



The  stone,  we  may  reasonably  suppose,  was  first 
placed  in  position  in  the  year  1735,  over  the  entrance 
of  the  house  built  and  owned  by  Nicolas  Jacquin 
Philibert,  a  merchant  of  Quebec.  A  tragedy  occurred 
in  connection  with  the  house,  resulting  in  the  death 
of  Philibert  by  the  hand  of  Pierre  L,e  Gardeur  de 

Twenty-  three  years  after  the  stone  was  placed  in 
its  position,  the  people  of  Quebec  do  not  appear  to 
have  been  able  to  invent  a  romance  concerning  the 
house,  or  to  recall  any  facts  relating  to  the  golden  dog. 
Captain  Knox,  who  lived  in  Quebec  for  some  time 
after  the  battle  of  the  Plains  of  Abraham,  in  1759,  in 
referring  to  the  inscription  over  the  entrance  to  the 
house  built  by  Philibert,  sa3rs  : — 

"  The  true  meaning  of  this  devise  I  never  could 
"  learn,  though  I  made  all  possible  inquiries,  without 
' '  being  gratified  with  the  least  information  respecting 
"  its  allusion." 

Distance  lends  enchantment,  and  in  the  course  of 
time  picturesque  details  were  forthcoming  in  abund- 

It  became  necessary  to  link  the  facts  with  the 
name  of  some  important  individual,  in  order  to  give 
colour  to  the  stories  that  were  invented.  The  early 
writers  were  content  with  the  modest  name  of  Michel 
Be"gon,  Intendantof  New  France  from  1 7 1 2  to  1726. 

Hawkins,  nearly  always  inaccurate  both  as  to 
circumstances  and  dates,  says  in  "  Picture  of  Quebec," 
page  258,  published  in  1834  : — 



' '  Freemason's  Hall.  This  building  is  immediately 
'  opposite  to  the  General  Post  Office,  situated  in  Buade 
'  Street,  near  the  steps  leading  through  Prescott  Gate, 
'  to  the  Lower  Town.  The  house  formerly  had  an 
'  uninterrupted  view  in  front  as  far  as  the  wall  of  the 
'  Seminary,  the  buildings  which  now  intervene  being 
'  of  modern  date.  It  is  remarkable  in  the  local  history 
'  of  the  city,  for  a  representation  in  stone  over  the 
'  entrance  from  Buade  street,  of  a  dog  gnawing  a  bone, 
'  with  an  inscription  in  French.  This  having  been 
'  always  gilt,  has  acquired  the  name  of  Le  Chien 
'  d'Or ;  and  the  folio  wing  explanation  has  been  handed 
'  down  to  the  present  day  : — Mr.  Philibert,  who  resided 
'  in  the  house,  was  a  merchant  of  high  distinction 
'  during  the  time  when  Mr.  Begon,  whom  we  have 
'  mentioned  above,  was  Intendant  of  New  France. 
'  The  latter  had  formerly  been  a  merchant  of  Bordeaux, 
'  and  came  to  Quebec  in  1712.  Differences  occurred 
'  between  him  and  Mr.  Philibert,  over  whom  superior 
'  interest  and  power  gave  Mr.  Begon  every  advantage. 
'  Unable  to  obtain  redress  for  his  injuries,  real  or 
'  supposed,  Mr.  Philibert  bitterly,  although  covertly, 
'  expressed  his  sentiments  under  the  image  of  the 
'  Chien  d'Or,  to  which  he  added  the  following  inscrip- 
'  tion  in  old  French  : 


"  Begon  determined  on  revenge,  and  M.  Philibert 
descending  the  Lower  Town  Hill,  received  the  sword 

of  M.  de  R a  French  officer  of  the  garrison, 

through  his  body.  The  perpetrator  of  this  murder 
made  his  escape  and  left  the  Province  ;  but  the  crime 
was  too  atrocious  to  be  forgiven.  The  brother  of 
M.  Philibert  came  to  Quebec  to  settle  the  estate, 
with  a  full  determination  of  taking  vengance  on 
the  assassin.  So  determined  was  he  to  execute  this 



part  of  his  mission, that  having  ascertained  that 

R had  gone  to  the  East  Indies,  he  pursued 

him  thither.  They  met  in  a  street  of  Pondicherry, 
engaged  on  the  spot  —  and  the  assassin  fell  mortally 
wounded  under  the  sword  of  the  avenger.  The 
Chieu  d'Or  remains  to  perpetuate  this  tale  of  blood- 
shed and  retribution." 

Twenty-fours  years  after  the  appearance  of  Mr. 
Hawkins'  work  another  version  of  the  story  was  given 
in  ' '  Reminiscences  of  Quebec  derived  from  reliable 
sources"  published  in  Quebec  in  1859.  The  author 
discards  Mr.  Begon,  and  transfers  the  scene  to  the 
days  of  the  Intendaut  Bigot. 

"  Passing  towards  the  Lower  Town,  a  large 
' '  building,  occupied  as  a  Post  Office,  will  be  observed  ; 
"  over  one  of  the  windows,  formerly  the  main  entrance, 
"  is  a  Gold  Dog  ;  the  following  curious  history  attaches 
' '  to  this  Dog  ; 

"  The  house  was  built  by  Mr.  Philibert,  a  mer- 
"  chant  residing  in  Quebec,  in  the  time  of  Mr.  Bigot, 
"  the  last  Intendant  under  the  French  Government, 
' '  and  whose  drafts  upon  the  Treasury,  for  the  expenses 
"  of  this  country  were  so  enormous  that  one  of  the 
' '  queens  of  that  kingdom  archly  enquired  ' '  whether 
"  the  walls  of  Quebec  were  built  of  gold."  But  to 
"  return  to  the  chien  d'or,  M.  Philibert  and  the 
"  Intendant  were  on  bad  terms,  but  under  the  system 
"  then  existing,  the  merchant  knew  that  it  was  in 
"  vain  for  him  to  seek  redress  in  the  colony,  and 
' '  determining  at  some  future  period  to  prefer  his  com- 
"  plaint  in  France,  he  contented  himself  with  placing 
"  the  figure  of  a  sleeping  dog  in  front  of  his  house, 
"  with  the  following  lines  beneath  it,  in  allusion  to  his 
"  situation  with  his  powerful  enemy  ; 




' '  This  allegorical  language  was  however  too  plain 
for  Mr.  Bigot  to  misunderstand  it.  A  man  so  power- 
ful easily  found  an  instrument  to  avenge  insult,  and 
Mr.  Philibert  received,  as  a  reward  for  his  verse,  the 
sword  of  an  officer  of  the  garrison  through  his 
back,  when  descending  the  Lower  Town  hill.  The 
murderer  was  permitted  to  leave  the  colony  un- 
molested, and  was  transferred  to  a  regiment  stationed 
in  the  East  Indies.  Thither  he  was  pursued  by  the 
brother  of  the  deceased,  who  had  first  sought  him 
in  Canada,  when  he  arrived  here  to  settle  his  brothers 
affairs.  The  parties,  it  is  related,  met  in  the  public 
street  of  Pondicherry,  drew  their  swords,  and  after 
a  severe  conflict,  the  assassin  met  with  a  more 
honourable  fate  than  his  crime  deserved,  and  died 
by  the  hand  of  his  antagonist." 

Sir  James  LeMoine  gives  us  several  versions.  The 
first  that  we  notice  is  in  "  Maple  Leaves,"  published  in 
1863.  In  this  volume  Sir  James  condenses  the  account 
of  Soulard,  and  incorporates  the  critism  of  Mr.  Viger. 

In  "  Maple  Leaves,"  published  in  1873,  Sir  James 
gives  many  particulars  about  the  house  owned  by 
Philibert,  concerning  which  we  need  not  write,  as  the 
deeds  of  the  property  are  published  herewith.  On 
page  91  we  find  this  passage  : 

"  The  romance,  as  composed  by  Auguste  Soulard, 
"  esquire,  and  published  in  the  Repertoire  National, 
"  was  a  graceful  and  fanciful  effusion.  This  witty 
' '  Barrister  cut  off  so  prematurely  in  the  heyday  of  his 


'  success,  especially  as  a  litterateur,  still  lives  agree- 
'  ably  in  the  memory  of  his  confreres.  There  are 
'  few  unacquainted  with  his  novelette,  whilst  his 
'  critic,  Mr.  Jacques  Viger,  has  exhibited  remarkable 
'  acumen  and  a  deep  acquaintance  with  dates  :  the  only 
'  point  worthy  of  remark,  is  that  the  grave  critic 
'  appears  to  have  taken  the  novel  for  history  and  criti- 
'  cised  it  accordingly.  We  shall  merely  give  the 
'  conclusion  : 

' '  Nicolas  Jacquin  Philibert  was  a  Quebec  mer- 
'  chant,  somehow  or  other  he  had  incurred  the  dis- 
'  pleasure  of  the  Intendant  Bigot,  perhaps  for  refusing 
'  to  aid  him  in  his  peculations  and  extortions.  The 
'  Intendant,  in  order  to  annoy  Philibert,  had  billeted 
'  troops  on  him,  and  ordered  a  French  Lieutenant  by 
'  name  Pierre  Legardeur,  Sieur  de  Repentigny,  to 
'  quarter  on  the  Quebec  merchant.  This  incensed 
'  Mr.  Philibert  very  much,  and  when  the  Lieutenant 
'  attempted  to  enter  the  house  with  the  order,  Phili- 
'  bert  objected,  saying  that  he  would  have  the  order 
'recalled,  to  which  de  Repentigny  replied:  "You 
'  are  a  fool."  A  blow  from  a  walking  stick  was  the 
'  answer.  The  officer  then  drew  his  sword,  and 
'  inflicted  on  his  opponent  a  wound  of  which  he  died 
'  on  the  2ist  January,  1748.  The  deadly  thrust  is 
'  supposed  to  have  been  given  on  the  very  steps  of 
'  the  Chien  d'Or  building,  which  he  occupied.  De 
'  Repentigny,  in  order  to  elude  a  criminal  prosecution 
'  escaped  from  Quebec,  and  retired  to  Nova  Scotia, 
'  then  called  Acadie,  where  he  applied  to  Louis  XV 
'  for  his  pardon.  Letters  of  reprieve  and  pardon  were 
'  sent  out  from  Paris,  and  de  Repentigny  returned  to 
'  Quebec  with  these  letters,  in  order  to  meet  any  oppo- 
'  sition  which  the  widow  Philibert  might  urge,  when 
'  he  should  apply  to  the  Superior  Council  of  the  colony 
'  to  have  them  registered.  Mrs.  Philibert  having  been 



' '  indemnified  by  pecuniary  compensation  for  the  loss 
"  of  her  husband  did  not  oppose  de  Repentigny's  let- 
"  tersof  indemnity.  The  French  Lieutenant  remained 
' '  in  the  colony,  and  had  been  promoted  to  a  captaincy 
<(  in  1760,  at  the  time  when  he  was  serving  under  the 
' '  Chevalier  de  Levis.  Everything  seemed  to  presage 
<l  to  de  Repentigny's  forgetfulness  of  the  past,  and  a 
' '  promising  future  ;  everyone  seemed  to  have  forgot- 
"  ten  Philibert's  untimely  end,  and  how  the  family's 
' '  respected  chief  had  been  cut  off  in  the  prime  of  man- 
"  hood,  and  its  prospects  blighted  forever  by  the 
"  dastardly  act  of  one  of  the  Intendant's  minions. 
"  All  seemed  to  have  forgotten  these  facts  ;  all,  save 
"  one  person,  and  this  was  a  young  man  who  had  just 
' '  seen  twenty  three  summers ;  his  name  was  Pierre 
"  Nicholas  Philibert.  Severe  in  his  demeanour,  studi- 
"  ous  and  reserved  in  his  habits,  young  Philibert  had 
•'  grown  up  to  manhood,  the  chief  support  and  con- 
' '  solation  of  his  widowed  mother.  At  times  several 
"  had  remarked  on  his  austere  but  beautiful  face,  a 
"  sombre  expression,  which  would  immediately  melt 
'  •  into  a  subdued  sadness,  the  real  cause  of  which  few 
"  seemed  to  suspect.  Beloved,  as  he  certainly  was  by 
"  all  who  knew  him,  it  was  a  mournful  day  for  the 
•'  forlorn  widow,  when  followed  by  some  friends  she 
' '  escorted  her  eldest  son  to  the  lower  town  wharf,  on 
"  his  way  to  France  to  obtain  a  commission  in  the 
"  army.  Whether  he  succeeded  or  not  does  not  appear. 

"  Ten  months  after  his  departure,  Madame  Phili- 
' '  bert  one  morning,  received  a  letter  ;  it  came  from 
' '  Europe.  On  breaking  the  seal,  the  first  words  which 
"  met  her  eye  were  as  follows  : — 

' '  '  My  dearest  mother,  We  are  avenged;  my  father's 
"  '  murderer  is  no  more.'  The  two  had  met  at  Pon- 
"  dicherry,  in  the  East  Indies.  De  Repeutigny  had 



fallen  under  the  sword  wound  which  young  Philibert 
had  inflicted  upon  him  in  a  duel." 

To  this,  Sir  James  adds  : — 

"In  Hawkin's  'Historical  Pidlure  of  Quebec,' 
published  in  1834,  occurs  a  plausible  explanation  of 
the  egnimatical  verses  inscribed  on  the  basso-relievo 
of  the  Chien  d'Or.  Mr.  Begon,  Intendant  in  New 
France,  formerly  a  merchant  in  Bordeaux,  had 
arrived  in  Quebec  in  1712.  (J)  Philibert  quarrelled 
with  him  touching  some  claims  he  had  preferred 
against  the  Government.  Failing  to  make  them 
good,  Philibert  caused  the  following  words  to  be 
engraved  over  the  front  of  his  residence,  beneath  the 

likeness  of  a  dog  gnawing  a  bone It  seems 

impossible  to  unearth  the  truth,  from  under  these 
old  traditions.  Here  rests  a  store  most  ample  of 
materials  for  the  novelist.  Time  lends  to  legendary 
lore,  a  most  fragrant  aroma,  spreads  flowers  over 
tombs  and  gleams  of  poetry  over  common  place 
things  long  since  forgotten.  Alexandre  Dumas, 
who  weaved  a  beautiful  romance  about  the  Tower  of 
Nesle,  could  have  found  here  the  ground  work  for 
an  exciting  tale,  wherein  that  war-like  period — the 
eighteenth  century — with  its  dark  deeds  of  blood 
and  revenge,  would  have  stood  out  in  bold  relief. 
If,  on  one  hand,  Philibert  is  a  victim  which  moves 
us  to  pity  ;  on  the  other,  it  seems  incomprehensible 
that  de  Repentigny  should  have  drawn  his  sword 
about  such  an  insignificant  quarrel.  Was  it  merely 
an  ordinary  instance  of  soldier-like  brutality  ?  Was 
it  a  deed  of  personal  revenge,  or  else,  was  de  Repen- 

( i )  It  may  be  mentioned  here  that  at  the  time  of  the  arrival 
of  Begon,  Philibert  was  only  1 1  years  of  age,  so  that  he  must  have 
commenced  business  in  infancy  ! 



"  tigny  merely  the  instrument,  the  sycophant  of  a 
"  mightier  man  ?  Whatever  we  choose  to  suppose, 
"  that  drop  of  blood  lights  up  with  sinster  glare,  the 
' '  gloom  of  years  which  overshadows  the  old  structure. 
' '  So  much  for  romance. ' ' 

The  answers  to  the  questions  raised  by  Sir  James 
in  this  quotation,  concerning  the  death  of  Philibert, 
may  be  found  in  the  official  records,  published  in  the 

We  will  now  briefly  examine  the  work  which  has 
made  the  old  house  so  familiar  to  the  public.  "  The 
Golden  Dog,"  by  Mr.  Kirby.  This  book  contains  a 
very  interesting  romance,  and  if  Mr.  Kirby  had  pres- 
ented it  to  his  readers  simply  as  a  work  of  fiction,  we 
should  not  feel  called  upon  to  pass  any  remarks  upon  it. 
Mr.  Kirby,  however,  makes  other  claims  for  his  work. 
In  the  preface  to  the  last  revised  edition,  1897,  ne  savs  : 

"  The  result  is  the  present  edition,  which  I  have 
corrected  and  revised  in  the  light  of  the  latest  develop- 
ments in  the  history  of  Quebec." 

This  statement  is  very  misleading,  because  the 
main  features  of  the  work  have  no  foundation  in  fact. 

Before  producing  the  proof  in  support  of  our 
assertion,  it  is  necessary  to  briefly  describe  the  manner 
in  which  Mr.  Kirby  links  the  names  of  Philibert  and 
Repentigny  with  Bigot  and  the  golden  dog. 

We  have  already  seen  that  the  earlier  writers  on 
this  subject  found  it  convenient  to  represent  this  miser- 
able, hungry  looking  dog  as  a  cause  of  offence  to 
someone,  but  they  appeared  to  be  unable  to  determine 



with  any  certainty,  who  the  offended  person  should 
be.  One  suggested  Begon,  and  another  Bigot.  Mr. 
Kirby,  however,  as  he  desired  to  be  accurate,  seized 
upon  Bigot,  as  a  man  with  whose  character  the  ima- 
gination could  safely  run  riot.  It  mattered  not  whether 
Bigot  was  Intendant  of  New  France  at  the  time,  or 
whether  his  victim  had  been  dead  and  buried  long 
before  the  appointment  of  the  last  Intendant  of  New 
France.  Bigot  was  the  man,  and  at  any  sacrifice  he 
must  be  made  to  take  offence  at  this  rude  simulacrum 
of  an  ill-fed  dog.  The  dog,  moreover,  was  an  offensive, 
vindictive  dog,  who  could  afford  to  wait  for  a  time 
"  qui  n'est  pas  venu." 

According  to  the  story,  Bigot  looked  at  the  dog, 
and  that  look  was  sufficient  to  bring  on  the  stage  a 
series  of  extraordinary  complications,  very  interesting 
as  fiction,  but  very  disappointing  when  compared  with 
the  more  sombre  facts  of  history. 

On  page  157  of  "  The  Golden  Dog  "  we  find  this 
passage : — 

"  I  trembled  at  Bigot  in  the  old  land  !  I  tremble 
at  him  here,  where  he  is  more  powerful  than  before. 
I  saw  him  passing  one  day.  He  stopped  to  read  the 
inscription  of  the  Golden  Dog.  His  face  was  the 
face  of  a  fiend,  as  he  rode  hastily  away.  He  knew 
well  how  to  interpret  it. ' ' 

From  that  moment,  the  fate  of  Philibert  was 
sealed.  It  is  not  necessary  for  our  purpose,  to  follow 
step  by  step  the  intrigue  and  debauchery  by  which,  in 
the  story,  Bigot  accomplished  his  end,  and  caused  the 
death  of  Philibert. 



On  a  certain  St.  Martin's  Day,  Nov.  n,  the 
honest  Philibert,  as  Mr.  Kirby  describes  him,  dressed 
himself  with  great  care  to  attend  the  market,  and  paid 
no  heed  to  his  faithful  servant,  who  warned  him  that 
evil  would  overtake  him.  Philibert  was  determined, 
and  taking  his  sword  with  him  he  proceeded  to  the 
market.  While  there,  Le  Gardeur  de  Repentigny  was 
seen  ' '  very  drunk  and  wild  with  anger,  in  the  act  of 
' '  leaping  off  his  horse  with  oaths  of  vengance  against 

' '  someone  " "  Le  Gardeur  and  De  Lantagnac 

"  rode  furiously  through  the  market,  heedless  of 
"  what  they  encountered  or  whom  they  ran  over,  and 
"  were  followed  by  a  yell  of  indignation  from  the 
"  people,  who  recognized  them  as  gentlemen  of  the 
' '  Grand  Company.  It  chanced  that  at  the  moment  a 
' '  poor  almsman  of  the  Bourgeois  Philibert  was  humbly 
"  and  quietly  leaning  on  his  crutches,  listening  with 
"  bowing  head  and  smiling  lips  to  the  kind  inquiries 
' '  of  his  benefactor  as  he  received  his  accustomed  alms 

" "  "  The  Bourgeois  saw  them  approach,  and 

"  motioned  them  to  stop,  but  in  vain.  The  horse  of 
"  De  L,antagnac  just  swerved  in  its  course,  and  without 
"  checking  his  speed  ran  over  the  crippled  man,  who 
"  instantly  rolled  in  the  dust,  his  face  streaming  with 
"  blood,  from  a  sharp  stroke  of  the  horse's  shoe  upon 
"  his  forehead."  Then  followed  L,e  Gardeur  "  yelling 
"  like  a  demon,"  and  the  attempts  of  the  Bourgeois  to 
protect  the  poor  cripple.  "  L,e  Gardeur  spurred  his 
"  horse  madly  over  the  wounded  man  who  lay  upon 
"  the  ground  ;  but  he  did  not  hear  him,  he  did  not  see 
' '  him.  L,et  this  be  said  for  L,e  Gardeur,  if  aught  can 
"  be  said  in  his  defence,  he  did  not  see  him." 

The  Bourgeois  checked  L,e  Gardeur  in  his  mad 
course,  while  those  who  were  around  watched  eagerly 
for  the  fight  which  they  were  sure  would  follow.  L,e 
Gardeur  jumped  from  his  horse  and  attacked  the 



Bourgeois,  but  was  prevented  from  doing  much  mis- 
chief by  some  of  Philibert's  friends.  At  this  moment 
Angelique  appeared.  ' '  With  a  plunge  of  her  horse 
"  she  forced  her  way  close  to  Le  Gardeur,  and,  leaning 
'•  over  him,  laid  her  hand  upon  his  shoulder  and 
' '  exclaimed  in  a  voice  choking  with  passion — ' '  What, 
' '  L,e  Gardeur,  you  allow  a  ruffian  like  that  to  load  you 
"  with  blows,  and  you  wear  a  sword!  " 

"  It  was  enough.  That  look,  that  word,  would 
"  have  made  LeGardeur  slaughter  his  father  at  that 
"  moment. 

"  Astonished  at  the  sight  of  Angelique,  and  mad- 
"  dened  by  her  words,  as  much  as  by  the  blow  he  had 
"  received,  L,eGardeur  swore  he  would  be  revenged 
"  upon  the  spot.  With  a  wild  cry,  and  with  the 
' '  strength  and  agility  of  the  panther  he  twisted  him- 
"  self  out  of  the  grasp  of  the  habitants,  and  drawing 
"  his  sword,  before  any  man  could  stop  him,  thrust  it 
"  to  the  hilt  through  the  body  of  the  Bourgeois,  who 
"  not  expecting  this  sudden  assault,  had  not  put  him- 
"  self  in  an  attitude  of  defense  to  meet  it.  The 
' '  Bourgeois  fell  dying  by  the  side  of  the  bleeding  man 
"  who  had  just  received  his  alms,  and  in  whose  pro- 
"  tection  he  had  thus  risked  and  lost  his  own  life." 

So  much  for  the  death  of  Philibert.  Mr.  Kirby 
then  deals  with  Repentigny,  representing  him  as  asking 
some  one  to  bind  him,  but  no  one  would  undertake 
the  task.  Then  we  find  that  the  court  decided  to  send 
him  to  France  by  the  Fleur-de-lys  in  order  that  the 
King  might  judge  his  offence,  and  later  we  learn  that 
he  was  a  prisoner  in  the  Bastile.  ' '  L,eGardeur,  after  a 
long  confinement  in  the  Bastile,  where  he  incessantly 
demanded  trial  and  punishment  for  his  rank  offence  of 



murder,  as  he  ever  called  it,  was  at  last  liberated  by 
express  command  of  the  King,  without  trial,  and 
against  his  own  wishes. ' ' 

It  would  require  more  space  than  is  at  our  disposal 
at  the  present  to  examine  in  detail  the  work  of  Mr. 
Kirby,  but  the  passages  which  we  have  quoted  are  a 
sufficient  illustration  of  the  circumstances  concerning 
three  individuals  mentioned  in  the  book,  which  Mr. 
Kirby  asks  his  readers  to  accept  as  being  in  accordance 
with  the  history  of  Quebec. 

We  now  produce  proof  of  the  contrary.  Unfor- 
tunately, for  our  purpose,  the  documents  relating  to 
Philibert,  Repentigny,  Bigot,  and  the  Chien  d'Or,  are 
very  voluminous,  and  in  the  present  wrork  we  can 
only  publish  a  selection,  which,  however,  will  be  found 
quite  sufficient  to  support  our  assertion, that  the  romance 
wroven  around  the  names  of  Bigot,  Repentigny  and 
Philibert,  by  Mr.  Kirby,  is  entirely  without  foundation 
in  fact. 

Philibert  was  wounded  by  Repentigny  in  the  house 
of  a  woman  named  La  Palme,  on  the  2oth  of  January, 
1748,  and  he  died  from  the  effect  of  this  wound,  in  his 
own  house,  at  about  ten  o'clock  on  the  evening  of  the 
2ist  of  January.  Repentigny  was  tried,  condemned, 
and  his  sentence  was  executed  on  the  2oth  day  of  March, 
1748,  in  the  Lower  Town.  Bigot  was  not  appointed 
Intendant  of  New  France  until  the  2nd  of  September, 
1748,  and  therefore  all  Mr.  Kirby 's  interesting  events 
which  are  coupled  with  the  name  of  the  Intendaut,  are 
without  foundation. 



The  death  of  Philibert  occurred  at  the  time  that 
Hocquart  was  Intendant  of  New  France,  and  Philibert, 
instead  of  being  an  independent  merchant,  as  Mr. 
Kirby  claims,  was  an  army  contractor,  filling  the  rdle 
in  a  smaller  capacity,  that  was  filled  by  the  notorious 
Cadet,  under  the  regime  of  Bigot. 

Hocquart,  according  to  the  testimony  of  Montcalm 
and  others,  was  a  very  honest  man,  who  made  no  profit 
out  of  his  position  as  Intendant,  while  the  integrity  of 
Philibert  was,  perhaps,  questionable.  The  circum- 
stances of  the  death  of  Philibert,  gathered  from  the 
evidence  of  the  six  witnesses  at  the  trial,  —  Bouchard  ; 
Demeulle,  a  cooper  ;  Pierre  Voyer  ;  Joseph  Delorme  ; 
Dumont  ;  Mrs.  Dumont,  and  the  evidence  of  the  sur- 
geons, are,  briefly,  these  : 

On  the  i  Qth  or  2oth  of  January,  1748,  Pierre  L,e 
Gardeur  Repentiguj^,  who  for  some  time  had  lived  in 
the  house  of  a  Miss  or  Mrs.  LaPalme,  paying  her  six 
francs  per  month  for  his  room,  (*)  received  an  order 
to  take  up  his  lodging  with  Nicolas  Jacquin  Philibert, 
merchant  and  army  contractor.  On  receiving  notice 
of  this  order,  Philibert  proceeded  to  the  house  of  L,a 
Palme,  and  endeavoured  to  persuade  her  to  continue 
to  give  lodging  to  Repentigny  ;  but  being  unable  to 
agree  with  her  as  to  the  price  which  she  asked  for  such 
lodging,  ten  francs  per  month,  Philibert  declared  that 
he  would  have  the  order  changed.  This  remark  was 

(1)  From  the  records  in  civil  cases  it  would  appear  that  La 
Palme's  was  a  boarding  house.  Repentigny  was  living  there  in 

1  60 


made  within  the  hearing  of  Repentigny,  who  thereupon 
told  Philibert  that  he  was  a  simpleton  to  try  to  have 
the  order  changed  as  he  would  not  be  inconvenienced 
by  the  lodging  which  he  was  required  to  give.  Phili- 
bert, naturally  of  a  hasty  temper,  became  violent  and 
used  very  gross  and  insulting  language,  and  finally 
struck  Repeutigny  with  a  stick,  This  was  more  than 
the  officer  could  stand,  and  without  premeditation,  he 
drew  his  sword  and  infiidled  a  wound  upon  Philibert, 
from  which  he  died  on  the  evening  of  the  2ist. 

On  the  2oth,  Philibert  took  a  criminal  adlion 
against  Repentigny,  who  in  the  meantime  had  been 
advised  to  proceed  to  Montreal.  On  the  2ist  of  Janu- 
ary Philibert  died,  after  having  forgiven  his  assailant. 
A  warrant  was  immediately  issued  for  the  arrest  of 
Repentigny.  Early  on  the  morning  of  the  22nd  the 
Comptroller  of  Marine,  Foucault,  made  a  report  to  the 
Intendant  Hocquart,  requesting  that  the  goods  of 
Philibert  should  be  seized  and  placed  under  seal,  until 
such  time  as  his  indebtedness  to  the  Government  was 
ascertained.  This  order  was  granted  and  Philibert' s 
goods  were  seized,  and  an  inventary  made. 

On  the  2 2nd  of  January,  at  the  request  of  the 
widow,  and  of  the  Procurer,  an  order  was  given  for  an 
autopsy  to  be  performed  on  the  body  of  Philibert,  to 
ascertain  the  nature  of  the  wound.  The  autopsy  was 
made  in  the  presence  of  the  surgeon  Beaudoin,  by  the 
surgeon  Briant.  Philibert  was  buried  on  the  25th  of 
January  in  the  parish  Church  in  the  presence  of  a 
large  number  of  people. 

ii  161 


Repentigny  did  not  appear  in  answer  to  the  war- 
rant within  the  prescribed  delays,  and  on  the  twenty 
first  day  of  February  the  trial  proceeded,  and  a  copy 
of  the  proceedings,  wherein  the  widow  claimed  the  sum 
of  thirty  thousand  livres  damages,  was  ordered  to  be 
served  upon  Repentigny  at  his  last  domicile,  in  Quebec. 

Final  judgment  was  rendered  on  the  2oth  day  of 
March,  1748.  By  this  judgment  Repentigny  was 
declared  guilty  of  causing  the  death  of  Philibert,  and 
he  was  condemned  to  pay  8,000  livres  damages  with 
interest,  to  the  widow  Philibert,  and  the  cost  of  the 
proceedings,  2,000  livres,  while  the  balance  of  his  prop- 
erty was  declared  confiscated.  And,  in  reparation,  in 
view  of  his  quality  as  a  gentleman,  he  was  condemned 
to  have  his  head  cut  off  on  a  scaffold  to  be  erected  for 
the  purpose  in  the  public  square  of  the  Lower  Town. 

This  sentence  is,  at  first  sight,  startling,  but  its 
terror  is  considerably  modified  by  the  concluding  words 
of  the  judgment,  "  And  the  present  sentence  shall  be 
' '  executed  in  effigy  on  a  picture  to  be  placed  for  the 
' '  purpose  on  a  pole  in  the  public  square. ' ' 

The  King's  Procurer  demanded  the  execution  of 
the  judgment,  and  there  is  a  certificate  attached  to  the 
original  document  setting  forth  that  it  was  duly  exe- 
cuted on  the  same  day.  While  all  these  proceedings 
were  going  on,  Repentigny  was  at  Fort  Frederic,  and 
in  the  course  of  time  various  persons  began  to  intercede 
for  his  pardon,  as  they  considered  him  more  unfor- 
tunate than  culpable. 



On  the  i yth  of  August,  1748,  La  Galissonniere, 
the  Governor,  and  Hocquart,  the  Intendant,  trans- 
mitted a  copy  of  all  the  proceedings  to  the  Minister  in 
France,  and  recommended  a  pardon  for  Repentigny. 

On  the  ist  of  September,  Repentigny  himself  sent 
a  petition  to  the  King  asking  for  letters  of  grace,  and 
his  petition  was  supported  by  a  letter  from  the  Bishop 
of  Quebec,  dated  the  sixth  of  September. 

In  the  month  of  April,  1749,  the  King  signed 
letters  of  grace,  pardon  and  remission, which  were  sent 
to  Quebec.  On  the  eighth  day  of  September,  Repen- 
tigny gave  himself  up  to  justice,  and  was  imprisoned 
in  the  common  gaol  of  Quebec. 

Notice  of  the  letters  was  served  upon  the  widow 
Philibert,  and  on  the  second  day  of  October,  Repen- 
tigny, bareheaded  and  upon  his  knees,  witnessed  the 
registration  of  the  letters  of  grace  in  the  records  of  the 
Superior  Council,  to  which  Mrs.  Philibert  offered  no 
objection.  After  the  registration  of  these  letters, 
Jonquiere  wrote  to  the  Minister  to  the  effect  that  the 
widow  and  children  had  represented  to  him  that  if 
Repentigny  remained  in  the  colony,  they  would  have 
the  unpleasantness  of  seeing  the  author  of  the  death  of 
the  merchant.  The  Governor  suggested  that  Repen- 
tigny could  serve  in  Martinique  or  in  Louisbourg, 
but,  pending  the  decision  of  the  King,  he  would  be 
stationed  at  Montreal.  Repentigny  served  for  some 
time  in  Montreal,  and,  in  1759,  he  was  promoted.  At 
length,  Repentigny  returned  to  France  and  gradually 
rose  in  rank  until  he  became  a  Brigadier  General.  In 



the  course  of  time  he  was  appointed  Governor  of 
Mahe",  where  he  died  of  natural  causes  in  the  year 
1776,  twenty-eight  years  after  the  death  of  Philibert. 

Sir  James  L,eMoine,  and  other  writers  have  claimed 
that  Repentigny  was  at  the  siege  of  Quebec,  but  this  is 
not  correct.  The  numerous  documents  in  the  possession 
of  Mr.  Pierre  Georges  Roy,  of  L,e"vis,  which  have  been 
placed  at  our  disposal,  and  the  correspondence  of 
descendants  of  the  family,  prove  that  it  was  a  member 
of  another  branch  who  served  in  the  campaigns  of 

It  will  be  seen  from  this  short  sketch,  and  from  the 
documents  published  in  the  appendix,  that  Mr.  Kirby's 
story  is  completely  at  variance  with  facts,  and  that  as 
a  historical  novel,  which  he  claims  it  to  be,  it  is  abso- 
lutely unreliable.  The  Colonel  Philibert,  who  plays 
such  an  important  part  in  the  story  was,  at  the  death 
of  his  father,  aged  just  10  years  and  eight  months.  In 
a  future  publication  regarding  the  Chien  d'Or  and  the 
Chateau  Bigot,  we  will  be  able  to  show  other  instances 
of  pure  fiction  which  are  presented  to  us  as  history. 

The  meaning  of  the  inscription  is  still  unsolved. 
The  miserable,  hungry-looking  dog  is  content  to  gnaw 
his  bone,  and  is  still  waiting  for  the  time  "  qui  n'est 
pas  venu."  Some  of  the  fiction,  however,  has  been 
swept  away,  which  we  were  invited  to  accept  as  truth, 
and  perhaps  in  the  future,  when  the  time  of  the  dog  is 
ripe,  some  one  may  find  an  explanation  of  the  dog, 
the  bone  and  the  inscription,  which  have  given  rise  to 
so  many  interesting  stories. 



The  documents  numbered  2,  3,  14,  15,  published 
in  the  appendix,  have  kindly  been  placed  at  our  dis- 
posal by  Mr.  Phile"as  Gagnon,  whose  services  we  have 
so  often  had  occasion  to  acknowledge.  The  other 
papers,  numbered  i,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  10,  n,  12,  13  are  to 
be  found  in  the  archives  of  the  Province  and  in  Ottawa. 

We  are  indebted  to  Major  Crawford  I,indsay, 
official  translator  of  the  Province  of  Quebec,  for  the 
translation  of  the  documents,  published  at  the  end  of 
this  book. 



1  76O-1812 



Immediately  after  the  capitulation  in  1759,  milit- 
ary rule  was  established  in  Quebec,  pending  the  result 
of  the  negociations  between  England  and  France. 
The  first  two  years  appear  to  have  been  comparatively 
happy  ones  for  the  people  of  the  city,  under  the  regime 
of  General  Murray  ;  but  in  the  course  of  time  discord 
arose  between  the  old  and  the  new  inhabitants,  and 
for  the  next  quarter  of  a  century  the  official  corres- 
pondence is  burdened  with  complaints,  and  with 
suggestions  for  improving  the  condition  of  affairs, 



The  Treaty  of  Paris,  signed  on  the  loth  day  of 
February,  1763,  gave  to  Kngland  supremacy  in  Canada. 
Under  this  agreement  the  inhabitants  were  allowed 
the  freedom  of  their  religion,  <(  in  so  far  as  the  laws  of 
Great  Britain  can  permit."  This  clause  has  been 
interpreted  by  eminent  English  statesmen  to  concede 
to  the  colonies  the  free  exercise  of  the  Catholic  religion. 
The  spirit  of  toleration  manifested  by  the  British 
Government  at  this  time,  was  far  in  advance  of  the  age, 
for  it  is  only  within  recent  years  that  Catholics  in 
England  have  enjoyed  the  same  privileges  as  Canadians. 
The  Protestants  of  Quebec  viewed  with  alarm  the 
concessions  made  to  their  one-time  foes,  and  there  is 
no  doubt  that  the  triumph  of  the  Catholic  Church  in 
Canada,  gave  rise  to  much  of  the  ill  will  which  prevailed 
for  a  long  time  between  the  two  races.  In  this  age, 
when  there  is  no  question  of  religious  freedom  to  disturb 
the  minds  of  the  people,  it  is  difficult  to  understand 
how  deep  was  the  gulf  which  separated  the  Catholic 
from  the  Protestant  more  than  a  hundred  years  ago. 

General  Murray, the  third  Brigadier  under  General 
Wolfe  in  1759,  was  appointed  Governor  in  1764.  He 
had  played  an  important  part  at  the  Battle  of  the 
Plains,  and  he  it  was  who  led  the  British  troops  when 
they  suffered  defeat  in  1760. 

Murray  remained  in  the  country,  and  had  become 
thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  people  and  with  the 
needs  of  the  colony.  In  his  report  to  the  King,  made 
in  June,  1762,  he  gave  the  general  and  staff  officers  of 
Quebec  at  that  time,  as  follows  : 



The  Honourable  James  Murray,  Esq.,  Governor. 
The  Honourable  Lieut.-Col.  Maitland,  D.A.C. 
Governor  Murray's  leave  to  the  Southern  Colonies. 
Ivieut.-Col.  Irving,  Quarter- Master  General. 
Hector  Theo.  Cramahe,  Secretary  to  the  Governor. 
Lieut.  Mills,  Town  Adjutant. 
Captain  Malone,  Barrack  Master. 
Captain  Cosnan,  Town  Major. 
Governor  Murray's  leave  to  England  for  the  recov- 
ery of  his  health. 

Zachariah  Thompson,  Captain  of  Ports. 

Captain  Lieut.  Spry, 

T  .,,,../  r  Established. 

Lieut.  Montresor,          j 

Captain  Holland,  Assistant. 

Officers  of  His  Majesty' s  Hospital: 
Mr.  Francis  Russell,  Chief  Surgeon. 
Mr.  Field, 

Mr.  Mabane,  J  Mates> 
Mr.  Zachariah  Filtner,  Provost  Marshal. 
Benjamin  Gable,  Hangman. 

In  speaking  of  the  first  winter  in  Quebec  under 
British  rule,  Murray  said  : 

"  I  can  with  the  greatest  truth,  assert,  that  the 
"  troops  have  lived  with  the  inhabitants  in  a  harmony 
"  unexampled  even  at  home.  I  must  here,  in  justice 
"  to  those  under  my  command  in  this  Government, 
' '  observe  to  your  Lordship,  that  in  the  winter  which 
' '  immediately  followed  the  reduction  of  this  Province, 
"  when  from  the  calamities  of  war,  and  a  bad  harvest, 



the  inhabitants  of  these  lower  parts  were  exposed  to 
the  horrors  of  a  famine,  the  officers  of  every  rank, 
even  in  the  lowest,  generously  contributed  towards 
alleviating  the  distress  of  the  unfortunate  Canadians, 
by  a  large  subscription  ;  the  British  merchants,  and 
traders  readily  and  cheerfully  assisted  in  this  good 
work,  even  the  poor  soldiers  threw  in  their  mite, 
and  gave  a  day's  provisions,  or  a  day's  pay  in  the 
month,  toward's  the  fund  ;  by  this  means  a  quantity 
of  provisions  was  purchased  and  distributed  with 
great  care  and  assiduity  to  numbers  of  poor  families 
who  without  this  charitable  support,  must  have 
inevitably  perished.  Such  an  instance  of  uncommon 
generosity  towards  the  conquered  did  the  highest 
honour  to  their  conquerors  and  convinced  these  poor 
deluded  people,  how  grossly  they  had  been  imposed 

Murray's  first  important  act  as  Governor,  was  to 
choose  a  Council  in  whom  the  executive,  legislative 
and  judicial  powers  could  be  vested.  The  Council  was 
composed  of  the  I/ieutenant-Governors  of  Montreal 
and  Three  Rivers,  the  Chief  Justice  and  the  Inspector 
of  Customs,  and  of  eight  of  the  most  prominent  inhabi- 

The  Governor  was  judicious  in  his  dealings  with 
the  French-Canadians,  and  he  endeavoured  to  make 
them  feel  that  under  the  new  regime  they  would  enjoy  a 
measure  of  liberty  greater  than  under  the  old.  Murray 
appears  to  have  been  supported  in  this  policy  by  many  of 
the  English,  but  there  were  some  who  bitterly  resented 
the  tolerance  of  the  Governor,  and  at  length  their  com- 
plaints were  carried  to  England.  The  British  Govern- 



ment,  if  it  realised  the  situation,  found  it  difficult  to 
apply  a  remedy  that  would  reconcile  the  two  opposing 
classes.  New  laws  were  proposed  and  enacted,  but 
little  relief  was  derived  therefrom.  The  process  of 
reconciliation  was  to  be  worked  out  slowly,  with  very 
little  aid  from  legislation. 

A  new  Council  was  authorized,  to  be  composed  of 
not  less  than  eight,  and  not  more  than  twenty  members, 
and  a  tax  was  imposed  to  provide  for  the  administration 
of  the  colony.  Murray  had  great  faith  in  the  future  ~\ 
of  Quebec  and  always  worked  for  its  development. 
During  his  term  of  office,  the  buildings  were  restored 
which  had  been  ruined  by  the  British  batteries  in  1759.. 

Sir  Guy  Carleton,  who  had  been  knighted  for  his 
services  under  Wolfe,  succeeded  Murray  in  1 766.  Like 
his  predecessor,  he  was  favourably  disposed  towards 
the  French  population,  and  persistently  defended  their 
rights  in  the  face  of  opposition,  both  at  home  and 
abroad.  The  correspondence  of  Carleton  is  worthy  of 
a  careful  study.  He  appears  to  have  been  almost  alone 
in  understanding  the  real  position  of  the  people. 
England  had  conceded  certain  rights  to  the  Canadians, 
and  had  admitted  them  to  her  family.  They  were  in 
the  majority,  and  consequently  to  a  certain  extent  the 
English,  under  the  Constitution,  were  subject  to  what 
they  considered  a  foreign  yoke.  This  condition  was 
irritating  to  the  dominant  spirit  of  the  English  who, 
not  unnaturally,  regarded  the  country  as  theirs  by  the 
right  of  acquisition. 

The  position  was  a  peculiar  one,  but  much  of  the 



trouble  which  for  so  many  years  retarded  the  real 
progress  of  the  country,  might  have  been  avoided  at 
the  commencement,  by  a  determination  on  both  sides 
to  assert  their  rights  in  a  friendly  manner.  Each  side, 
however,  was  in  a  measure  aggressive.  So  much  of 
what  is  best  in  the  lives  of  individuals  and  of  nations,  is 
the  outcome  of  corrected  mistakes.  Here  and  there  we 
find  an  individual  who  has  sounded  a  note  of  warning 
which  we  ultimately  acknowledge  to  have  been  just 
and  true,  but  at  the  moment  it  was  disregarded. 
Carleton,  in  upholding  the  rights  of  the  Canadians, 
was  simply  upholding  the  honour  of  England,  whose 
Ministers  had  yet  to  realise  the  import  of  the  conces- 
sions which  had  been  made  to  the  people  of  New 
France.  The  Canadians  were  impatient,  and  did  not 
understand  that  the  absolute  freedom  which  they  were 
one  day  to  enjoy,  could  not  be  accomplished  in  a 
moment,  and  their  eagerness  for  emancipation  oft  times 
injured  the  cause  which  they  desired  to  help  fonvard. 

It  was  through  Carleton 's  efforts  that  the  Test 
Oath  was  abolished  in  1774.  The  manly  stand  taken 
by  the  Governor  on  this  question  endeared  him  to  the 
Canadians,  and  his  memory  is  cherished  in  Quebec 
even  to  this  day. 

The  administrative  ability  of  a  Governor  in  those 
days  was  often  severely  tested,  and  a  false  step,  at  any 
moment,  might  produce  serious  consequence.  At  this 
time  there  was  evidence  of  an  approaching  crisis./  The 
inhabitants  of  New  England  had  resolved  to  free  them- 
selves from  the  mother  country,  and  in  order  to  insure 



success  they  desired  the  co-operation  of  the  Canadians. 
An  opportunity  was  offered  to  the  French  to  unite 
with  the  revolters  to  obtain  their  independence  of  a 
government  which  they  regarded  as  nothing  less  than 
despotic.  Whatever  might  have  been  the  outcome  of 
such  an  alliance,  it  is  perhaps  difficult  to  estimate,  but 
the  Canadians  steadily  refused  to  entertain  any  of  the 
overtures  made  to  them  by  the  Americans.  In  their 
resolution  they  were  supported  by  the  Bishop  and  the 
clergy,  who  urged  them  to  remain  submissive  to  con- 
stituted authority.  The  Americans  reiterated  and 
enlarged  their  promises,  but  the  Canadians,  as  ever, 
remained  loyal  to  the  Crown  of  Great  Britain. 

The  Bostonnais,  as  they  were  then  called,  determ- 
ined to  take  Canada  by  force,  since  their  efforts  to 
enlist  the  sympathy  of  the  Canadians  had  proved  of  no 
avail.  In  the  autumn  of  1775,  the  New  England  forces 
under  generals  Arnold  and  Montgomery,  appeared 
before  Quebec,  near  the  site  of  the  monument  on  the 
Ste.  Foy  road. 

The  city  was  in  a  defenceless  state,  and  unless  the 
Governor  could  rely  absolutely  upon  the  loyalty  of  the 
people,  there  was  little  hope  of  withstanding  an  assault. 
The  fortifications  which  had  been  constructed  under 
the  French  regime  at  such  an  enormous  expense,  could 
be  reduced  without  effort,  for  they  were  built  more 
with  the  idea  of  profit  than  of  service.  The  British, 
too,  notwithstanding  the  urgent  demands  made  by 
Murray  and  Carleton,  had  refused  the  means  necessary 
to  place  Quebec  in  a  state  of  security.  Carleton  had 



made  what  preparations  were  possible  to  resist  an 
attack  by  constructing  temporary  outworks,  but  the 
walls  were  in  too  dilapidated  a  condition  to  admit  of 

On  the  6th  of  December,  Montgomery  wrote  to 
Carleton,  warning  him  of  the  folly  of  resistance,  and 
threatening  vengeance  if  any  of  the  works  were  des- 
troyed. In  order  to  alarm  the  British,  Arnold  advanced 
his  men  to  the  summit  of  the  hill  at  Claire  Fontaine 
street,  near  the  Franciscan  Church,  and  commenced 
to  construct  batteries  to  demolish  the  walls.  Arnold 
was  favoured  in  his  design  by  the  shelter  afforded  by 
the  brush  wood  between  the  Grande  Allee  and  Ste. 
Foy  road,  which  extended  from  Claire  Fontaine  street 
to  St.  Augustin  street,  and  entirely  concealed  his 
movements  from  the  British.  Captain  Marr  had 
pointed  out  to  the  authorities  the  danger  of  the  place, 
but  no  notice  was  taken  of  his  warning  until  1779, 
when  the  ground  was  finally  cleared.  On  the  3Oth  of 
December,  Arnold  made  a  movement  as  if  he  intended 
to  effect  an  entry  near  St.  L,ouis  Gate.  His  purpose, 
however,  was  rather  to  detract  attention  from  the 
operations  of  Montgomery,  who  had  conceived  the 
daring  project  of  taking  the  town  by  carrying  the  Gate 
at  Mountain  Hill.  Following  the  tactics  of  Wolfe, 
Montgomery  hoped  to  obtain  a  footing  at  a  place 
where  the  enemy  would  not  expect  an  attack,  and,  if 
successful,  the  forces  under  Arnold  were  to  support 
him  in  the  rear,  and  thus  place  the  enemy  between  two 
fires.  On  the  3ist  of  December,  at  day-break,  Mont- 



gomery  commenced  to  carry  out  his  plan,  and  for  a 
moment  it  appeared  that  the  fate  of  Quebec  for  a 
second  time  would  be  decided  by  a  stroke  equally  as 
bold  as  that  of  the  immortal  Wolfe.  Proceeding  along 
the  road  at  the  base  of  the  cliff,  the  forces  under 
Montgomery  approached  the  city  until  they  stood  at 
the  foot  of  Cape  Diamond.  Fortune  had  favoured  them 
so  far,  and  there  seemed  to  be  naught  save  the  frown- 
ing cliff  between  them  and  victory.  In  a  moment  the 
stillness  of  the  early  morn  was  broken  by  the  roar  of 
murderous  cannon,  mingled  with  the  cries  of  the 
wounded,  and  in  that  moment,  the  dauntless  leader 
was  numbered  with  the  dead.  With  the  fall  of 
Montgomery  and  his  brave  followers  the  hopes  of  the 
expedition  were  crushed,  and  the  flag  of  England  still 
waved  over  the  heights  of  Cape  Diamond. 

The  body  of  the  unfortunate  general  was  conveyed 
to  a  house  on  St.  Louis  street,  the  site  of  which  is 
still  pointed  out  to  the  visitor  as  "  Montgomery's 
House."  The  General  and  several  of  his  soldiers, 
were  buried  near  the  walls  of  the  city,  on  Citadel  Hill. 

Frederick  Haldimand  came  to  Quebec  to  replace 
Carleton  as  Governor,  in  1778.  The  new  appointment 
was  not  popular,  and,  indeed,  it  would  have  been  very 
difficult  to  find  a  man  who  could  replace  Carleton  in 
the  hearts  of  the  people.  The  Governor  was  regarded 
by  many  as  a  despot,  but  a  study  of  his  correspondence 
and  of  his  public  acts,  leads  one  to  believe  that  he  has 
been  misrepresented.  Haldimand  had  a  difficult  path 
to  tread.  The  Canadians,  however  well  disposed, 


could  not  have  forgotten  the  turn  of  events  in  1759- 
1760,  and  only  the  most  judicious  treatment  could 
reconcile  them  to  the  change  of  Government.  The 
Home  authorities  did  not  understand  the  responsibili- 
ties imposed  upon  them  by  their  new  possessions,  and 
they  had  yet  to  learn  the  lesson  of  prudence  in  dealing 
with  the  colonies.  Haldimand  was  upright  in  his 
dealings,  but  he  was  not  adapted  to  the  administration 
of  a  colony  where  such  extraordinary  conditions  pre- 
vailed. "  He  has  been  charged  with  permitting  officials 
to  live  by  extortion,  but  his  greatest  fault  appears  to 
have  been,  that  he  relied  too  much  upon  the  honesty 
of  those  under  him,  who  distorted  facts  to  serve  their 
own  ends.  Haldimand  was  very  zealous  in  his  endea- 
vours to  place  the  city  of  Quebec  in  a  proper  state  of 
defence,  and  it  was  under  his  regime  that  the  first 
Citadel  of  Quebec  was  constructed.  Being  unable  to 
preserve  harmony,  the  Governor  at  length  retired. 

When  Sir  Guy  Carleton  returned  to  Canada  as 
Governor,  under  the  title  of  L,ord  Dorchester,  he  was 
welcomed  on  every  hand,  for  he  thoroughly  understood 
the  people  and  enjoyed  their  confidence.  The  social 
life  of  Quebec  had  never  been  so  brilliant  as  under  his 
regime.  The  frequent  entertainments  given  at  the 
Chateau  were  spoken  of  long  after  as  great  events. 
During  the  summer  of  1787,  Quebec  was  honoured  by 
the  presence  of  a  royal  visitor,  Prince  William  Henry. 
Great  preparations  were  made  to  receive  the  prince, 
and  on  the  27th  of  August  a  sham  battle  was  arranged 
on  the  Plains  of  Abraham.  At  eleven  o'clock  the 



procession  issued  from  the  Chateau  and  proceeded  up 
St.  Louis  Street,  amidst  the  cheers  of  the  people,  to 
the  open  ground  beyond  St.  L,ouis  Gate.  The  royal 
party  included  the  Governor,  and  the  escort  was  com- 
posed of  the  2oth  and  34th  Regiments,  under  the 
command  of  Brigadiers  Hope  and  Skene. 

(The  Canadians  at  this  time  were  not  satisfied  with 
their  condition.  They  desired  greater  political  freedom 
than  they  obtained  under  the  Act  of  1774,  and  they 
looked  to  the  Governor  for  redress.  Self  government 
would  have  satisfied  the  people,  but  this  Great  Britain 
was  not  prepared  to  grant.  Certain  measures  were 
proposed,  and  L,ord  Dorchester  deemed  it  advisable  to 
proceed  to  England  to  urge  the  cause  of  the  colony. 
In  i_2£i,  an  Act  was  passed  which  gave  to  the  people 
greater  liberty,  and  to  the  Governor  increased  prestige 
amongst  the  French.  To  many  of  the  English, 
however,  it  caused  great  dissatisfaction.  Although  the 
demands  of  the  French  at  this  time  appear  now  to 
have  been  just,  we  must  bear  in  mind  that  during 
the  French  regime  the  Canadians  scarcely  knew  the 
meaning  of  the  word  liberty.  Under  the  iron  rule  of 
the  last  of  the  Intendants  the  farmers  were  not  even 
allowed  to  sell  the  produce  of  their  land  at  such  prices 
as  they  were  offered  for  it,  if  these  prices  were  not 
provided  for  by  regulation.  It  is  true  that  the  people 
had  sworn  allegiance  to  the  British  Crown,  and  were 
entitled  to  its  protection,  but  the  Government  may  be 
excused  for  hesitating  to  entrust  to  them  any  great 

12  177 


measure  of  political  freedom,  until  it  was  satisfied  that 
they  would  not  abuse  it. 

The  1 7th  of  December,  1792,  marked  the  opening 
of  the  first  session  of  the  first  Parliament  of  Quebec. 
There  were  thirty  five  French  and  fifteen  English 
members  elected  by  the  voice  of  the  people.  Amongst 
the  most  prominent  were  Joseph  Papineau,  Pierre 
Bedard.  James  McGill,  P.  A.  de  Bonne,  J.  Frobisher, 
J.  A.  Panet,  J.  Young,  de  Salaberry,  Hertel  de  Rou- 
ville  and  Charles  de  I^otbiniere. 

The  House  sat  on  this  occasion  in  the  old  episcopal 
palace  built  by  Monseigneur  de  Saint  Vallier.  It  was 
a  fine  stone  building  situated  at  the  top  of  Mountain 
Hill,  facing  the  river,  and  had  proved  an  easy  mark 
for  the  British  shells  during  the  siege  of  Quebec  in 
1759.  The  Chapel,  sixty  feet  in  length,  by  thirty 
feet  in  breadth,  was  converted  into  a  chamber  for  the 
legislative  assembly.  It  was  upon  the  site  of  the  Palace 
that  the  Parliament  House  stood  until  it  was  destroyed 
by  fire  in  1883.  The  ground  has  been  laid  out  as  a 
public  garden  and  is  now  a  very  attractive  spot. 

There  was  an  animated  debate  over  the  election 
of  the  first  speaker,  and  the  French  carried  the  vote 
by  a  majority  of  10  in  favour  of  Antoine  Paiiet,  a 
prominent  citizen  of  the  Upper  Town,  and  a  man  of 
great  legal  ability.  The  English  candidates  for  the 
office  were  McGill  and  Jordan. 

The  members  of  the  first  assembly  were  of  course 
little  accustomed  to  parliamentary  usage,  and  there 



was  much  confusion  as  to  procedure,  but  many  of  the 
members  possessed  a  knowledge  of  both  languages 
which  facilitated  intercourse. 

One  of  the  most  important  subjects  under  discus- 
sion during  the  first  session  was  the  question  of  the 
official  language  of  the  Province.  The  French  natur- 
ally desired  to  retain  their  own  language,  while  the 
English  fought  strenuously  for  the  English  tongue  as 
being  the  language  of  the  reigning  country.  Only  one 
French  member  supported  the  English  side  of  the 
question,  and  consequently  the  French  carried  their 
point.  A  lengthy  debate  ensued  regarding  the  disposal 
of  the  revenues  derived  from  the  Jesuits'  estates.  The 
Catholic  members  of  the  House  were  in  favour  of 
the  fund  being  devoted  to  educational  purposes,  but 
their  was  a  stormy  opposition,  and  the  measure  was 
defeated.  The  House  was  opened  by  Sir  Alured  Clark, 
the  Lieutenant  Governor,  in  the  absence  of  Lord 
Dorchester.  In  the  Speech  from  the  Throne,  the 
organization  of  the  militia  was  suggested,  and  reference 
was  made  to  the  administration  of  Justice,  and  to  the 
means  to  be  adopted  to  increase  the  public  revenue. 

The  Duke  of  Kent,  father  of  Queen  Victoria,  had 
arrived  in  Quebec  on  the  i2th  of  August,  1791,  and 
the  House  adopted  an  address  of  welcome  to  the 
the  illustrious  visitor. 

The  Duke  remained  in  Canada  until  the  5th  of 
January,  1794,  and  many  brilliant  entertainments  were 
given  in  his  honour  by  the  civil  and  military  author- 
ities. Quebec  had  made  great  progress  under  Lord 



Dorchester's  regime,  and  when  he  departed  for  Eng- 
land on  the  9th  of  July,  1796,  universal  regret  was 

To  the  French  Canadians,  Lord  Dorchester  had 
been  a  warm  friend.  He  was  a  lover  of  justice,  and 
strove  on  every  occasion  to  bring  about  a  better 
understanding  amongst  the  people  for  their  mutual 
good,  and  the  progress  of  the  country. 

Sir  Robert  Prescott  succeeded  Lord  Dorchester  in 
1797,  but  his  term  of  office  only  lasted  two  years.  The 
late  Governor  had  made  himself  so  popular,  that  it 
was  difficult  for  any  one  to  replace  him.  One  of  the 
Gates  in  Quebec  was  named  after  this  Governor. 
Lady  Prescott,  a  very  distinguished  woman,  was  a 
great  favourite  in  Quebec  and  a  welcome  visitor  at  the 
Ursuline  Convent. 

Sir  Robert  Shore  Milnes  was  appointed  adminis- 
trator of  the  Province  after  the  departure  of  Prescott. 
The  Royal  Society  for  the  promotion  of  Science  was 
founded  under  his  auspices.  Criticism  was  directed 
against  him  for  his  distribution  of  Crown  Lands  in  the 
Eastern  Townships,  which  it  is  claimed  were  alloted 
to  his  friends. 

The  session  of  1805  was  a  stormy  one.  Money 
was  necessary  for  building  gaols,  but  whether  to 
provide  the  sum  required  by  the  taxation  of  landed 
propert)'-,  or  by  a  tax  upon  goods  imported  for  con- 
sumption, became  the  question  of  the  hour.  The  mer- 
chants were  unanimous  in  opposing  the  measure, 
although  it  appears  to  have  been  a  rational  method. 

1 80 


The  House  finally  imposed  a  tax  upon  the  merchants, 
exempting  the  agricultural  classes,  and  the  measure 
was  sanctioned  by  the  Governor  in  the  face  of  vigorous 
opposition.  As  most  of  the  merchants  at  this  time 
were  English,  they  became  very  bitter  against  the 

The  Mercury,  a  newly  established  paper,  espoused 
the  cause  of  the  merchants  : 

"  This  Province,"  it  said,  "  is  already  too  French 
' '  for  a  British  colony.  Whether  we  be  at  peace  or  at 
"  war,  it  is  essential  that  we  should  make  every  effort, 
' '  by  all  avowable  means,  to  oppose  ourselves  to  the 
' '  growth  of  the  French  and  of  their  influences.  After 
"  forty-seven  years  of  possession,  it  is  but  right  that 
"  this  Province  should  become  British." 

To  counteract  the  influence  of  the  Mercury,  the 
French  established  the  Canadien.  It  had  no  regular 
editors,  but  its  chief  contributors  were  Pierre  Bedard, 
Borgia  and  Taschereau.  Bedard  was  a  talented  advo- 
cate, who  had  made  a  careful  study  of  British  consti- 
tutional history.  As  a  debater  in  the  House,  he  had 
the  advantage  over  the  majority  of  the  members  on 
this  account,  and  he  soon  became  recognized  by  the 
French  as  the  champion  of  political  liberty.  The 
numbers  of  the  Canadien  published  between  1806  and 
1810,  contain  an  outline  of  the  policy  which  he  advo- 
cated. Fiat  justitia  ruat  caelum,  was  the  motto  chosen 
by  Bedard  for  the  Canadien,  and  in  carrying  out  his 
purpose,  as  expressed  in  these  words,  he  soon  became 
involved  in  the  most  serious  difficulties  with  his  oppo- 



nents.  The  Mercury  continued  its  programme,  and 
the  Canadien  supported  its  own  side  of  the  question, 
although  neither  paper  was  devoted  exclusively  to  this 

Be"dard  wrote  powerful  articles  on  constitutional 
questions  with  which  he  was  familiar,  and  he  pointed 
out  the  benefits  to  be  derived  from  the  British  Consti- 
tution if  properly  applied  to  this  Province.  The  Cana- 
dien only  lived  for  three  years.  Under  the  authority 
of  Governor  Craig,  it  was  suppressed  as  being  dangerous 
in  its  tendencies.  The  Mercury,  on  the  contrary,  con- 
tinued to  flourish,  and  is  in  active  circulation  to-day. 

This  paper  warfare  was  only  the  beginning  of  the 
trouble.  The  Americans  had  not  forgotten  the  check 
they  received  in  1775,  although  they  began  to  despair 
of  ever  taking  possession  of  Canada,  and  the  press  along 
the  borders  commenced  to  insinuate  that  the  Canadians 
were  disloyal  and  were  anxious  to  throw  off  the  yoke 
of  Great  Britain.  The  English  papers  in  Canada  were 
for  the  most  part  neutral,  but  some  were  only  too  eager 
to  widen  the  breach,  and  at  last  open  violence  was 
resorted  to.  The  printing  offices  of  Lafrancois  were 
wrecked,  and  Bedard,  Taschereau  and  Blauchet,  were 
arrested  and  cast  into  prison  on  the  charge  of  plotting 

Craig's  action,  which  was  taken  at  the  instance  of 
his  councillors,  was  the  subject  of  bitter  criticism,  and 
he  issued  a  manifesto  defending  his  course.  Monsei- 
gneur  Plessis,  the  Bishop  of  Quebec,  read  this  mandate 
from  the  pulpit  of  the  Cathedral,  and  enjoined  obedience 


to  constituted  authority.  The  prudent  advice  of  the 
Bishop,  no  doubt,  prevented  serious  consequences  at 
this  time. 

Taschereau  and  Blanchet  were  set  at  liberty,  and 
Bedard  would  have  enjoyed  his  freedom  had  he  not 
demanded  a  trial,  which  the  Governor  refused. 

The  general  elections  were  held  a  week  after  the 
incarceration  of  Bedard,  and  he  was  elected  for  the 
county  of  Surrey.  When  the  House  opened  in 
December,  the  Governor  informed  the  Assembly  that 
Bedard  had  been  arrested  during  the  recess  and 
committed  for  trial  for  treasonable  practices. 

Instead  of  striking  his  name  from  the  list  of  mem- 
bers the  House  declared  that  he  was  qualified  to  sit, 
and  drew  up  a  memorandum  to  this  effect. 

During  the  session  of  181 1  the  Governor  presented 
to  the  House  a  full  statement  concerning  Bedard' s 
arrest,  and  concluded  by  saying  that  the  time  had 
come  to  put  an  end  to  this  unfortunate  affair.  Bedard 
was  discharged  from  custody,  but  his  gaoler  was 
obliged  to  use  force  to  compel  him  to  leave  the  pris6n. 
He  had  been  denied  a  trial,  but  public  opinion  seemed 
to  consider  that  Pierre  Bedard  was  not  the  real  criminal. 
He  appears  to  have  been  an  upright  man,  and  the 
Governor  was  ill  advised  in  causing  his  arrest. 

Craig  has  been  looked  upon  as  a  tyrant,  but  we 
are  inclined  to  think  that  his  advisers  were  to  blame, 
and,  indeed,  his  own  remarks  seem  to  point  to  this 



M.  de  Gaspe  in  his  "  Memoirs  "  says,  "  I  have 
it  upon  authority  beyond  suspicion,  that  of  my  uncle, 
Charles  de  Lanaudiere,  a  member  of  the  Legislative 
Council,  a  strong  tory  if  ever  there  was  one,  and 
who  approved  of  nearly  all  the  arbitrary  acts  of  the 
oligarchy  ;  I  have  it  I  say  from  that  undeniable 
source,  that  Sir  James  Craig  told  him  before  his 
departure  for  Europe,  that  he  had  been  shamefully 
deceived,  and  that  if  he  had  to  begin  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  Colony  over  again  he  would  act 
differently ' ' . 

Craig's  administration  had  been  unfortunate  in 
some  respects,  but  nevertheless  he  had  carried  out 
many  useful  public  works  in  spite  of  internal  discord. 
After  his  departure  it  was  discovered  that  the  high 
officials  who  remained  were  more  to  be  feared  than 
the  late  Governor. 

The  conflict  between  the  two  Houses  continued. 
Administrative  abuses  increased  ;  malversation  in  office 
was  discovered,  and  it  became  apparent  that  a  crisis 
was  at  hand.  The  caveant  consules  resounded  within 
the  parliamentary  precindls,  but  there  was  no  one 
found  to  heed  the  warning. 


or  Faugh  a  Ballagh 






THE  action  of  the  Chapter  of  Quebec  in  appointing 
permanent  cures  in  several  parishes  during  the 
absence  of  Monseigneur  de  Mornay,  the  Bishop,  caused 
much  comment  in  ecclesiastical  circles.  Monseigneur 
Dosquet,  the  fourth  Bishop  of  the  Diocese,  called  upon 
all  the  cures  appointed  by  the  Chapter,  to  resign,  and, 
although  they  complied  with  his  demand,  there  was  a 
season  of  discontent.  The  Minister  in  France  addressed 
the  Bishop  on  the  sub j eel:,  but  his  lordship  proved  by 
his  answer  that  the  course  he  had  adopted  had  been  in 
the  best  interests  of  the  Church.  He  said  :  "  Out  of 
"  one  hundred  parishes  comprising  the  diocese  of 
"  Quebec,  twenty,  only,  have  titular  cures,  and  these 
' '  are  in  the  vicinity  of  Quebec.  This  course  of  action 



"  has  always  been  followed  in  nascent  churches,  and 
' '  cannot  be  otherwise  in  Canada,  for  there  are  missions 
"  extending  over  twelve  and  fifteen  leagues.  It  is 
' '  necessary,  for  the  honour  of  the  clergy,  for  the  good 
' '  of  souls,  and  for  the  good  government  of  the  diocese, 
' '  that  a  Bishop  should  dispose  of  his  priests  according 
"  to  the  views  with  which  Providence  inspires  him." 

After  the  death  of  Monseigneur  de  Pontbriand,  the 
sixth  Bishop  of  Quebec,  in  1760,  the  See  remained 
vacant  until  1766,  when  Monseigneur  Briand  received 
the  mitre,  upon  the  recommendation  of  General  Murray. 
Under  the  Treaty,  the  British  Government  had  a  voice 
in  the  election  of  a  Bishop,  and  when  the  name  of 
Monseigneur  Montgolfier  was  suggested,  the  Govern- 
ment strongly  opposed  his  candidature. 

General  Murray  had  conferred  a  great  benefit 
upon  the  Church  in  Canada  by  recommending  the 
nomination  of  the  seventh  bishop  of  Quebec.  In  the 
year  1784,  the  health  of  Monseigneur  Briand  gave  way, 
and  he  transferred  the  responsibilities  of  the  diocese, 
as  well  as  his  title,  to  his  coadjutor,  Monseigneur 
d'Esglis.  The  latter,  in  accordance  with  a  custom 
that  had  long  prevailed,  appointed  Monseigneur 
Hubert  as  his  coadjutor,  in  1785.  On  the  death  of 
Monseigneur  d'Esglis,  in  1788,  Monseigneur  Hubert 
appointed  as  his  coadjutor  Monseigneur  Bailly  de 
Messein,  who  died  in  1794,  leaving  the  office  of  coad- 
jutor vacant.  His  successor  had  already  been  named, 
viz.  Joseph  Octave  Plessis,  who  for  five  years  had  filled 

1 86 


the  office  of  cure  of  Quebec,  and  on  the  death  of  Mon- 
seigneur  Denaut,  the  tenth  Bishop,  he  became  the 
titular  Bishop  of  the  diocese. 

Monseigneur  Plessis  is  by  far  the  most  prominent 
figure  in  Catholic  ecclesiastical  life  from  the  year  1760 
until  1840.  Although  he  disappeared  from  the  scene  of 
active  labour  fifteen  years  before  the  Union,  it  may  be 
confidently  asserted  that  the  influence  of  his  life  and 
labours  was  felt  long  after  his  death.  Even  before  he 
was  consecrated  Bishop  he  was  recognised  as  a  power 
in  the  Church,  and  as  a  director  by  his  countrymen. 
In  1783  he  was  named  Secretary  of  the  Diocese  of 
Quebec.  While  he  occupied  this  office  he  enjoyed  the 
confidence  and  esteem  of  his  superiors  and  also  of  his 
inferiors.  As  Monseigneur  Briand  was  in  ill  health, 
and  lived  in  retirement  at  St.  Pierre,  on  the  Island  of 
Orleans,  many  of  the  responsibilities  of  the  diocese, 
extending  as  far  as  New  Orleans,  devolved  upon  him. 
The  first  official  act  of  Monseigneur  Plessis  was  to 
appoint  as  his  coadjutor,  Monseigneur  Bernard  Claude 
Panet,  cure  of  Riviere  Ouelle,  his  former  professor. 
As  the  latter  was  ten  years  older  than  the  Bishop, 
there  did  not  appear  to  be  any  probability  of  his  wearing 
the  mitre  as  Bishop  of  Quebec.  Monseigneur  Plessis 
was  thoroughly  conversant  with  the  situation  of  affairs 
in  Quebec.  He  was  acquainted  with  all  the  men,  from 
the  Governor  to  his  secretary,  and  when  he  accepted 
the  responsibilities  of  the  office  he  was  quite  prepared 
to  meet  with  opposition  in  England  and  in  Canada, 
and  to  labour  faithfully  for  the  glory  of  the  church, 


and  for  the  good  of  his  countrymen.  In  the  field  of 
politics  he  exercised  an  ennobling  influence. 

Amongst  the  charitable  works  of  the  Bishop,  we 
may  mention  the  foundation  of  a  fund  for  the  benefit 
of  the  sick  clergy  ;  his  aid  towards  the  building  of  the 
Ursuline  Convent  at  Three  Rivers,  and  a  college  at 
Halifax,  and  his  contributions  towards  the  colleges  at 
Nicolet  and  St.  Hyacinthe. 

At  the  cession  of  Canada  to  England  the  French 
Canadians  numbered  about  sixty  thousand,  the  greater 
number  of  whom  were  very  poor.  General  Murray  in 
his  report  made  in  1762,  six  months  before  the  Treaty 
was  signed,  said,  "  Convinced  that  the  free  exercise  of 
' '  their  religion  will  be  continued  to  them  once  Canada 
"  is  irrevocably  ceded  by  a  Peace,  the  people  will  soon 

"  become  faithful  subjects  of  His  Majesty They 

"  are  a  strong  healthy  race,  plain  in  their  dress, 
"  virtuous  in  their  morals,  and  temperate  in  their 
"  living." 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  before  the  Treaty  was 
signed,  and  when  Quebec  enjoyed  its  happy  military 
rule,  the  people  were  promised  and  assured  that  they 
would  enjoy  religious  freedom  ;  and  yet  for  many  years 
after  1763,  this  question  was  not  understood  either  by 
the  representatives  of  the  Crown,  or  by  many  of  the 
residents  of  the  country. 

In  the  year  1764,  eighteen  months  after  the  formal 
cession  of  Canada  to  England,  there  were  only  one 
hundred  and  forty-four  protestant  house  keepers  in 

1 81 


Quebec,  and  out  of  these  there  were  less  than  ten  free- 
holders, as  we  find  by  the  certificate  of  General  Murray, 
dated  the  26th  of  October,  1764. 

List  of  Protestant  House  Keepers  in  Quebec 

Thomas  Dunn      -\  ^  =° 

Francis  Mounier  I- f  ~ 

Benjamin  Price    J°'3 

Thos.  Ainslie 
5.  John  Grant  „      35. 

Samuel  Gridley 

Joseph  Walker 

Hugh  Finlay 

Peter  Traverse 
10.  Rich'd  Murray        <g      40. 

John  Martell 

Fran's  L,eveck 

John  Collins 

John  Row 
15.  Thomas  Story  45. 

John  Gray 

James  Potts 

John  Elliot 

Peter  Funnel 
20.  James  Jeffereys  50. 

John  McCord 

Will.  Govett 

Gustian  Franks 

Joseph  Mather 
25.  John  Gustineau  55. 

John  Lymburner 

John  L,ee 

Alex.  Simpson 

George  Fulton 
30.  Simon  Frazer  60. 


John  Barnard 
Alex.  Dumas 
William  Mackenzie 
Robert  McPhee 
Robert  Hunter 
Isaac  Warden 
Henry  Mounier 
David  Algie 
Edward  Watts 
John  Beack 
Charles  Grant 
John  Patterson 
Thomas  Winter 
Samuel  Merch 
Alex.  McKenzie 
John  Bondfield 
Acklorn  Bondfield 
John  Wasmoor 
John  Philips 
Jeremiah  C.  Russel 
Benj.  L,acount 
Stephen  Moor 
John  Dancer 
James  Brookes 
James  Aitkins 
Thomas  Leamy 
Samuel  Sills 
Will.  Grant 
Calvin  Gage 
George  Alsop 


James  Shepard 

George  Hipps 

James  Johnston 

James  Rutherford 

John  Purse 

Robert  Jackson 

Stephen  Wadsley 

100.  Robert  Wilcocks 


Peter  Napier 

Sam'  11  Askwith 

John  Malcolm 

John  Williams 

George  Jenkins 

Charles  Minnet 

Christopher  Spring 

James  Isbister 

George  Milner 

105.  James  Laying 


Jacob  Deseau 

Ralph  Gray 

George  McAdam 

Will.  Douglass 

James  St.  Clair 

Will.  Webb 

John  Taylor 

Will.  McGrabb 

Will.  Abbott 

no.  Jacob  Trader 


Sam.  Duncan 

Joseph  Thompson 

John  Billar 

Richard  Dee 

Zach.  McAuley 

John  Holman 

Gilbert  McRandell 

James  Britton 

Peter  Leakin 

115.  Philip  Bayne 


Miles  Prentice 

Will.  Wright 

John  Campbell 

James  MacDonald 

John  Black 

Henry  Goldup 

John  Fisher 

John  Vallance 

Lachlan  Smith 

1  20.   Donald  McDonald 


Michael  Smith 

John  Fraser 

John  Deleau 

John  Clark 

John  Watts 

Will.  Osburn 

John  Engelke 

Alex.  McArther 

John  Ord 

125.  John  Lee 


Jacob  Row 

John  Callahan 

John  Hay 

Benjamin  Walmer 

Edw.  Harrison 

John  May 

Murdock  Stewart 

Frans.  Sickel 

James  Hanna 

/~\  'i 

1  30*                    vjlIlilOOl 


Daniel  Bayne 

Will.  Brown 

Will  Brymer 

John  Saulcs 



Jacob  Stegman  140.   John  Platt 

John  Sitly  Richard  Gray 

135.   Peter  Mike  James  Young 

John  Miller  William  Gunn 

William  Graham  Thomas  Aylwin 
John  Smith 

William  Brown  144  in  all. 

"  I  do  certify  that  every  Protestant  housekeeper 
<(  in  the  District  of  Quebec  is  included  in  this  List, 
*'  and  that,  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge  there  are 
"  not  ten  Protestant  freeholders  in  the  Province, 
"  consequently  not  ten  Protestants  qualified  by  the 
"  Laws  of  England  to  be  jurors. 


The  English  residents  were  so  small  in  number 
that  it  is  apparent  their  position  must  have  been 
keenly  felt.  They  viewed  with  alarm  the  growth  of 
the  Church,  and  the  spread  of  Catholic  education, 
and  fought  hard  against  the  determination  of  the 
ecclesiastical  authorities  to  retain  control  of  every  form 
of  instruction.  The  proposal  of  the  English  to  found 
an  University  from  the  revenues  derived  from  the 
Jesuits'  Estates  gave  rise  to  heated  discussions.  The 
Catholics  feared  that  if  the  institution  were  established 
it  would  be  a  simple  matter  to  impose  conditions 
which  would  eventually  give  the  balance  of  power  to 
the  Protestants.  Monseigneur  Hubert  strongly  opposed 
the  project,  and  it  fell  through.  The  English,  however, 
were  not  to  be  discouraged,  and  they  formed  a  Royal 
Institution  for  the  Promotion  of  Primary  Education. 



The  majority  of  the  directors  were  Protestants,  but 
as  the  Catholics  refused  to  avail  themselves  of  the 
instruction  offered,  the  institution  became  a  dead  letter. 
The  Protestants  made  another  effort  to  bring  education 
under  the  control  of  the  Government,  by  demanding 
that  the  Bishop  should  draw  up  a  list  of  the  vacant 
cures  each  year  in  order  that  his  recommendations 
might  be  submitted  to  the  Crown.  The  appointment  of 
a  Bishop  need  the  approval  of  the  Crown,  in  the  same 
manner  as  nominations  have  been  submitted  to  the 
Government  of  France  since  1802. 

The  English  and  the  Protestants  of  Quebec  from 
the  conquest  to  the  present  time  have  always  had  the 
special  educational  difficulties  which  minorities  must 
expect.  Yet  it  would  not  be  hard  to  prove  that  a 
century  ago  efforts  were  put  forth  in  an  organized  way 
to  procure  education,  that  would  bear  comparison,  all 
things  considered,  with  the  efforts  of  to-day. 

From  the  time  of 'the  conquest  private  schools 
were  provided,  educational  societies  were  formed,  and 
schools  were  supported  by  the  Church  ( 1 ) .  The  want 
of  superior  education,  however,  was  keenly  felt.  A 
part  of  the  English  boys  attended  the  Seminary,  while 
others  were  sent  away  to  colleges  in  the  United  States. 
In  1799  Bishop  Mountain  drew  the  attention  of  the 
Lieutenant- Governor,  Sir  R.  S.  Milnes,  to  the  danger 

(i)  The  National  School  Hall  on  d'Auteuil  Street,  although 
no  longer  used  as  a  school,  perpetuates  the  name  of  the  National 
and  Free  School  Society,  whose  work  has  long  been  carried  on 
under  our  public  school  system. 



to  which  the  political  principles  and  the  loyalty  of 
British  subjects  would  be  exposed  if  urgency  compelled 
the  sending  of  children  to  the  colleges  of  the  republic. 
He  recommended  that  zi  least  one  good  grammar  school 
be  founded  in  this  Province  and  be  officered  by  capable 
masters  from  England.  It  was  soon  determined  to  carry 
out  his  suggestion,  but  dissensions  in  the  Province, 
the  distradlion  of  the  war  in  Europe,  and  later  the  war 
of  1812,  delayed  the  execution  of  the  project  It  was 
not  till  1816  that  three  Royal  Grammar  Schools  were 
opened,  one  in  Quebec,  one  in  Montreal,  and  one  in 
Kingston.  The  Reverend  R.  Burrage  was  the  master 
in  Quebec  at  a  salary  of  ^200  a  year  with  an  extra 
allowance  for  rent  and  similar  expenses.  This  school 
was  continued  till  1839  when  Lord  Sydenham,  for 
reasons  which  are  unknown,  suppressed  it  by  with- 
drawing the  grant  and  pensioning  Mr.  Burrage. 

Four  years  later  the  Quebec  High  School  was 
opened  by  the  conversion  of  Dr.  Daniel  Wilke^s  private 
classical  and  commercial  school  into  a  public  school. 
In  1846  it  secured  recognition  as  the  legitimate  successor 
of  the  Royal  Grammar  School  and  a  grant  from  the 
public  chest.  This  grant,  now  $1288.  per  annum,  it 
has  continued  to  receive  to  the  present  time.  In  return 
it  educates,  free,  twenty  pupils  a  year  who  are  nominated 
by  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  Province.  Although 
the  attendance  at  the  school  is  naturally  not  large  a 
competent  staff  is  employed  and  good  work  is  done. 
The  traditions  of  the  school  are  elevating.  Most  of 
the  prominent  and  successful  English  speaking  men  of 

13  193 


Quebec  have  been  trained  within  its  walls,  and  the 
Redtors  from  Mr.  Burrage  to  Mr.  T.  Ainslie  Young, 
M.A.,  the  present  able  incumbent,  have  as  a  rule  been 
superior  men,  instructors  who  have  given  a  character 
to  the  school  and  have  left  an  impress  upon  their  pupils. 
Recently  it  has  been  amalgamated  with  Morrin  College, 
an  institution  which  was  founded  in  1859  by  a  liberal 
citizen  whose  name  it  bears.  In  its  earlier  days,  under 
the  Principalship  of  the  late  Reverend  Dr.  Cook, 
Morrin  College  did  good  work  as  an  arts  college  in 
affiliation  with  McGill  University,  and  as  a  divinity 
school.  Its  financial  limitations  have  latterly  prevented 
the  progress  that  was  necessary  to  keep  pace  with 
McGill  and  to  compete  with  her  for  pupils.  As  a 
consequence  the  arts  work  has  been  dropped,  the 
divinity  school  closed,  and  an  amalgamation  effected 
in  such  a  way  as  to  respect  the  intentions  of  the  late 
Dr.  Morrin. 

Morrin  College  itself,  the  old  Quebec  Jail,  will 
soon  be  razed  to  the  ground  and  replaced  by  a  modern 
building  for  the  High  School,  in  which  rooms  will  be 
reserved  for  the  Literary  and  Historical  Society. 

The  School  Commissioners  provide  for  primary 
education  in  a  building  which  cannot  be  a  source  of 
pride  to  them  or  of  satisfaction  to  the  citizens,  and  for 
the  superior  education  of  girls  in  the  Girl's  High 
School,  situate  on  St.  Augustin  St. 

For  twenty-nine  years  after  the  Treaty,  the  Pro- 
testant Church  in  Canada  was  without  a  Bishop,  but 
in  1793  the  Government  decided  to  erect  a  Canadian 



See,  and  appointed  Doctor  Mountain  as  the  first  Bishop. 
The  account  of  the  Bishop  here  given  is  taken  from  a 
"  Memoir  by  the  Rev.  Armine  W.  Mountain,  M.A., 
Incumbent  of  St.  Michael's  Chapel,  Quebec,"  published 
in  1866  : 

1 '  Dr.  Mountain  had  himself  been  known  to  Mr. 
Pitt  at  Cambridge,  where  he  had  been  a  fellow  of  Caius 
College,  and  the  Bishop's  recommendation  was  will- 
ingly adopted.  Neither  of  the  persons  more  directly 
concerned  in  this  measure  appears  to  have  had  reason 
to  regret  it,  for  we  find  it  mentioned  in  Tomline's  life 
of  Pitt,  as  a  testimony  to  the  wisdom  of  the  statesman's 
measures,  that  the  first  Bishop  of  Quebec  had  presided 
over  the  Canadian  Church  with  '  great  honour  to  him- 
self and  advantage  to  the  concerns  of  his  extensive 
diocese,'  while  Dr.  Tomline's  own  biographer,  in  his 
turn,  brings  forward  this  appointment  as  a  proof  of 
the  Bishop's  good  judgment,  displayed  in  his  recom- 
mendation of  Dr.  Mountain.  Dr.  Mountain  having 
been  consecrated  on  the  yth  July,  1793,  embarked 
almost  immediately  for  Quebec,  accompanied  by  his 
wife,  (Elizabeth  Mildred  Wale  Kentish,  co-heiress, 
with  two  sisters,  of  L,ittle  Bardfield  Hall  in  Essex)  and 
four  children,  of  whom  George  was  second.  A  residence 
in  Canada  in  the  eighteenth  century  involved  so  com- 
plete a  separation  from  English  friends,  that  all  the 
members  of  the  Bishop's  family,  and  one  of  his  sisters, 
the  future  Bishop's  godmother,  resolved  to  share  his 
exile.  His  elder  brother,  Dr.  Jehosaphat  Mountain, 
Rector  of  Peldon,  in  Essex,  with  his  wife  and  two 
daughters,  as  well  as  his  own  two  sisters,  accordingly 
accompanied  him,  and  after  a  voyage  of  thirteen  weeks, 
the  thirteen  Mountains  landed  at  Quebec  on  All  Saint's 
Day.  The  Bishop  proceeded  immediately  to  Woodfield , 



nearly  three  miles  from  Quebec,  which  had  been  secured 

as  his  private  residence The  grounds  of  Powell 

Place  (now  Spencer  Wood)  immediately  ad  joined  those 
of  Woodfield,  being  separated  by  a  small  brook  called 
Belle  Borne,  across  which  it  is  related  in  a  work  recently 
published  on  the  environs  of  Quebec,  that  the  sons  of 
Sir  R.  Milnes  themselves  built  a  bridge,  which  they 
named  Pont  Bonvoison,  for  the  purpose  of  establishing 
a  ready  communication  between  the  two  houses,  and  in 
this  work  we  may  presume  that  their  companions  from 

Woodfield  lent  their  aid A  happier  home  than 

that  of  Woodfield  (during  the  Bishop's  occupation  of 
which  three  young  children  were  born)  has  seldom 
been  seen.  The  parents  were  regarded  with  unbounded 
and  tender  affection,  mingled  with  veneration.  Feelings 
such  as  these  the  characters  of  both  were  eminently 
calculated  to  inspire,  and  they  produced  their  effect  in 
unwonted  brotherly  love  amongst  the  children,  which 
continued,  in  a  most  remarkable  degree,  while  they 
remained  on  earth,  notwithstanding  separation  of  great 
length  both  in  time  and  distance." 

The  growth  of  the  Anglican  Church,  which  was 
first  entrusted  to  Dr.  Mountain,  may  be  traced  in  the 
chapter  devoted  to  "  The  Church  of  England  in 
Quebec,"  which  has  been  prepared  for  this  work  by 
Mr.  Wiirtele. 

An  attempt  was  made  in  the  days  of  Monseigueur 
Plessis  to  unite  the  two  Canadas.  "  To  unite  the 
two  Provinces,"  exclaimed  the  Bishop,  "  with  a  Par- 
liament in  common  to  attack  the  religion  of  the  country, 
to  take  steps  to  cause  the  courage  of  the  majority  to 
disappear  ;  all  these  are  measures  which  one  may  sup- 
pose the  Imperial  Parliament  would  never  have  taken 



up  had  they  not  been  suggested  from  here  by  someone 
who,  under  the  new  order  of  things,  hoped  once  more 
to  concentrate  authority,  and  take  away  the  control 
of  affairs  from  those  most  interested  in  the  welfare  of 
the  country." 

This  paragraph  reveals  the  situation  at  this  time 
as  viewed  by  the  French  Canadians,  and  the  indigna- 
tion of  the  Bishop,  as  expressed  in  this  quotation  is 
only  natural. 

We  have  already  seen  that  the  Seminary  of  Quebec 
had  at  first  opened  its  doors  to  young  men  desirous  of 
entering  the  priesthood.  Monseigneur  de  L,aval  soon 
added  a  boarding  school  to  it  for  little  children  and 
Indians  ;  the  latter  attended  the  classes  in  the  Jesuits 
College.  During  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  cen- 
turies the  young  men  received  their  education  in  the 
Seminary  and  the  Jesuits  College.  The  list  of  those 
who  were  instructed  in  these  institutions  is  a  long  one. 
About  1775,  the  Jesuits  were  obliged  to  discontinue 
their  instruction,  because  the  Government  had  taken 
possession  of  their  estates,  and  converted  their  college 
into  a  barracks  for  the  use  of  the  soldiers.  The  Sem- 
inary was  therefore  compelled  to  provide  a  classical 
course  for  its  pupils,  since  it  was  necessary  to  fill  the 
vacancies  occurring  in  the  ranks  of  the  clergy.  The 
French  Revolution  was  not  without  benefit  to  Canada. 
Forty  four  priests  who  had  fled  from  France  took  up 
their  abode  in  Quebec,  at  a  time  when  there  was  a 
dearth  of  instructors.  These  men  were  zealous  workers, 
renowned  preachers,  and  they  devoted  themselves  to 



every  good  work  which  was  open  to  them.  Whether 
as  chaplains  of  religious  institutions,  or  as  directors,  or 
superiors  of  educational  establishments,  they  nobly 
fulfilled  their  mission,  and  names  like  Raimbault, 
Desjardins,  Calonne  or  Vilade,  hold  a  high  place  in 
the  religious  history  of  Canada. 

After  the  events  of  1759-1760,  the  Canadians  for 
a  time  found  it  difficult  to  provide  a  suitable  course 
for  the  young  men  in  order  to  fit  them  to  take  their 
place  in  professional  life.  Separated  forever,  from  the 
mother  house  in  Paris,  the  Seminary  of  Quebec  was 
still  able  to  supply  its  staff  from  among  its  own  pupils. 
The  last  representative  of  the  SSminaire  des  Missions 
Strangles  had  disappeared,  and  the  vacancies  were 
filled  by  Canadians,  thus  imparting  a  purely  national 
character  to  the  old  institution  of  Monseigneur  de 
Laval.  Amongst  the  ecclesiastics  who  gave  an  impetus 
to  superior  education  at  this  time,  we  may  mention, 
M.  Jerome  Demers,  whose  life  is  an  epitome  of  fifty 
years  of  the  history  of  the  Seminary.  Monseigneur 
Plessis  was  undoubtedly  the  greatest  French  Canadian 
of  his  time,  and  to  M.  Demers  must  be  given  the  second 

During  the  wars  of  the  Empire  it  was  always 
difficult,  and  frequently  impossible,  to  obtain  classical 
books,  or  instruments  indispensable  for  the  classes  in 
Physics.  It  is  true  that  there  was  a  printing  office  in 
Canada  at  this  time,  but  from  the  date  of  its  establish- 
ment in  1764,  until  1820,  the  only  instruction  books 
issued  from  its  press  were  Bouthilliers'  arithmetic,  a 



geography  compiled  expressly  for  the  use  of  the  pupils 
of  the  Minor  Seminary  of  Quebec,  and  a  short  cate- 
chism, a  reprint  of  that  in  use  in  the  diocese  of  Sens. 

In  Montreal  a  French  grammar  had  been  printed 
as  an  introduction  to  the  L,atin  grammar  in  use,  and  a 
small  geography  and  an  arithmetic  compiled  by  Bibaud. 
These  were  the  only  instruction  books  that  could  be 
purchased  in  the  country. 

To  provide  for  the  needs  of  the  teachers  as  far 
as  possible,  M.  Demers  wrote  several  works  suitable 
for  the  pupils  of  the  Seminary  and  for  the  students  of 
the  colleges  at  St.  Anne's  and  Nicolet,  where  they 
were  sadly  in  need  of  books.  His  principal  work  was 
a  treatise  on  philosophy  in  Latin.  He  further  compiled 
manuals  on  physics,  astronomy,  and  architecture.  M. 
Demers  had  a  taste  for  decorative  art,  and  promoted 
the  study  of  painting  and  sculpture  amongst  the  French 
Canadians.  Many  of  the  earliest  artists  of  Quebec 
were  indebted  to  him  for  their  success  in  a  field  hitherto 
unexplored  in  Canada.  M.  Demers  also  contributed 
most  of  the  money  towards  the  purchase  of  a  valuable 
collection  of  paintings  which  was  sent  to  Canada  at  a 
low  price  by  the  Abbe  Desjardins,  a  former  Chaplain  of 
the  Ursuline  Convent.  Under  M.  Demers  the  Seminary 
of  Quebec  extended  its  sphere  of  usefulness,  and  as  a 
result  of  the  impetus  given  to  education  thereby,  the 
University  of  I^aval  was  founded  in  1852. 

The  establishment  of  the  first  printing  press  in 
Quebec  in  1764,  was  an  event  of  great  importance. 
Although  the  Marquis  de  I/a  Galissonniere  had,  in 



1749,  expressed  the  desire  to  have  a  printing  office  in 
Canada,  there  does  not  appear  to  have  been  one,  or  at 
least  one  worthy  of  the  name,  before  the  foundation  of 
the  Quebec  Gazette  by  William  Brown. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  some  printing  was  done  in 
Canada  previous  to  that  date.  In  1759  two  Mandements 
were  printed  and  distributed  to  the  clergy  of  the 
Diocese,  dated  respectively  May  and  October.  As  the 
former  relates  to  the  impending  siege,  and  the  latter 
to  the  battle  which  occurred  on  the  1 3th  of  September, 
it  is  evident  that  Monseigneur  de  Pontbriand  could  not 
have  had  them  printed  in  France. 

The  first  publication  from  Brown's  press  was  a 
pamphlet  of  thirty-six  pages  in  English  and  in  French, 
concerning  the  duties  of  Grand  Jurors.  The  Catechisme 
du  diocese  de  Sens,  was  published  several  months  after- 
wards. Of  the  former  three  hundred  copies,  and  of 
the  latter  two  thousand  copies  were  printed. 








THE  successor  of  Sir  George  Prevost  was  Sir  John 
Coape  Sherbrooke.  He  arrived  in  Quebec  on  the 
1 2th  of  July,  1816.  The  new  Governor  inaugurated  his 
administration  by  an  act  of  generosity  which  gained 
for  him  the  immediate  sympathy  and  good  will  of  the 
people  of  the  Province.  An  early  frost  had  destroyed 
the  crops  in  the  region  below  Quebec,  in  the  autumn 
of  1816,  and  famine  was  threatened.  The  Governor 
therefore  ordered  a  distribution  of  food  to  be  made 
from  the  King's  stores,  and  purchased  large  supplies 
for  the  people  with  his  own  means.  Although  he  only 
occupied  the  office  for  two  years,  he  was  instrumental 



in  securing  several  benefits  for  Canada.  It  was  through 
his  efforts  that  apostolic  vicariates  were  established  in 
Upper  Canada,  Nova  Scotia  and  Prince  Edward  Island. 

Towards  the  close  of  the  year  1816,  Monseigneur 
Plessis  received  from  Rome  the  Papal  Bull  constituting 
Quebec  into  an  archiepiscopal  See.  L,ord  Bathurst,  the 
Secretary  for  the  Colonies,  was  strongly  opposed  to  the 
decision  of  the  Pope,  and  the  Bishop  was  compelled 
to  appeal  to  British  justice.  He  prepared  several 
memorials  which  were  approved  by  Sir  John  Sherbrooke 
before  they  were  submitted  to  I/ord  Bathurst,  and 
finally  opposition  was  withdrawn. 

Sherbrooke' s  departure  was  deeply  regretted  by 
the  Clergy,  who  had  found  in  him  a  generous  protector. 
Monseigneur  Plessis  retained  friendly  relations  with 
the  Governor  after  he  had  departed  from  our  shores, 
and  visited  him  in  his  home  in  England. 

The  Duke  of  Richmond  replaced  Sherbrooke  ;  but 
he  died  at  Richmond,  in  the  Eastern  Townships,  after 
having  been  in  office  for  one  year.  He  was  buried  in 
the  Cathedral  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  Quebec.  The  Earl 
of  Dalhousie,  the  tenth  Governor  of  Canada,  arrived 
in  Quebec  on  the  gth  of  June,  1820.  There  was  great 
activity  in  the  city  during  his  regime,  for  the  elaborate 
works  of  defence,  which  were  to  convert  Quebec  into 
one  of  the  most  strongly  fortified  cities  of  the  world, 
were  commenced  soon  after  his  arrival,  although 
they  were  not  completed  until  after  his  departure. 

Through  the  activity  of  the  Earl  of  Dalhousie, 
and  owing  very  largely  to  his  generosity,  Quebec 



possesses  her  unique  monument  which  perpetuates  the 
memory  of  the  victor  and  the  vanquished — the  monu- 
ment to  Wolfe  and  Montcalm.  The  members  of  the 
Committee  appointed  to  carry  out  this  noble  project 
were  named  by  the  Governor  : 

The  Honourable,  The  Chief  Justice,  Chairman. 

Mr.  Justice  Taschereau. 

Major  General  Darling. 

Lieutenant  Col.  Cockburn,  R.  A. 

Captain  Young,  jgth  Highlanders. 

Captain  Melhuish,  R.  E. 

Mr.  George  Pemberton. 

The  first  stone  of  the  monument  was  laid  on  the 
1 5th  of  November,  1827,  and  it  was  completed  in  the 
following  year.  The  Governor's  name  is  preserved  in 
Dalhousie  Gate,  which  forms  the  entrance  to  the 
Citadel,  and  also  in  a  street  in  the  Lower  Town.  The 
Literary  and  Historical  Society  of  Quebec,  which  has 
done  so  much  to  add  to  our  storehouse  of  knowledge, 
was  founded  in  Lord  Dalhousie' s  time.  The  Governor 
was  not  as  favourably  disposed  towards  the  French 
population  as  some  of  his  predecessors,  although  there 
is  no  doubt  that  he  administered  the  affairs  of  the 
colony  strictly  in  accordance  with  his  ideas  of  justice. 

Matthew  Went  worth,  Baron  Aylmer,  assumed  the 
duties  of  Governor  in  1830,  at  a  time  when  Quebec 
was  on  the  eve  of  a  crisis,  which  only  the  genius  of  a 
Dorchester  could  have  averted.  The  Canadians  had  for 
a  long  time  demanded  a  change  in  the  constitution, 



which  the  Home  authorities  did  not  appear  willing  to 
grant.  Fox  had  foreseen  what  was  about  to  happen, 
when  he  made  his  speech  in  reference  to  the  Consti- 
tutional Act  of  1791  : 

"If  we  give  every  power  to  the  Governor,  the 
Councillors  will  not  enjoy  the  respect  which  is  necessary 
to  establish  their  independence,  and  they  will  never  be 
anything  more  than  the  instruments  of  the  Governor, 
in  the  same  manner  as  the  Governors  themselves  are 
the  instruments  of  the  King. ' ' 

The  reforms  so  often  agitated  had  been  ignored. 
After  deliberating  in  the  House  upon  this  important 
question,  it  was  resolved  to  appeal  to  the  King  to  make 
the  Council  elective.  An  address  was  prepared  and 
submitted  to  His  Majesty,  but  no  immediate  action  was 
taken.  Papineau,  one  of  the  leading  spirits  amongst 
the  French  Canadians,  then  resolved  to  come  to  an 
understanding  with  the  leading  members  of  the  House 
regarding  the  representations  to  be  made  to  the  Sover- 
eign. After  many  discussions  in  the  house  of  Elzear 
Bedard  on  D'Auteuil  Street,  a  number  of  resolutions 
were  drawn  up  by  A.  N.  Morin,  the  member  for  Belle- 
chasse,  which  set  forth  the  grievances  of  the  people. 
After  various  alterations,  ninety-two  resolutions  were 
submitted  to  the  House  and  adopted.  Morin  was 
instructed  to  transmit  the  resolutions  to  D.  B.  Viger, 
the  official  agent  of  the  French  Canadians  in  London. 
The  general  elections  took  place  in  the  autmn  of  1834, 
and  each  candidate  was  called  upon  to  declare  whether 
or  not  he  was  in  favour  of  making  the  Council  elective. 



Seventy-nine  members  favourable  to  the  change  were 
elected,  while  the  opposition  returned  nine  members. 
There  were  480,000  votes  cast  in  favour  of  an  elective 
Council,  and  32,000  against  it. 

The  House  opened  on  the  2ist  of  February,  1835. 
For  about  a  year  previous  to  this  date  there  had  been 
a  want  of  harmony  between  the  members,  which  soon 
developed  into  a  marked  division  in  the  ranks  of  the 
party.  In  the  press,  and  on  the  hustings,  these  dissen- 
sions were  manifest,  and  quarrels  arose  frequently 
over  mere  trifles.  Many  of  the  members  gave  only  a 
lukewarm  support  to  Papineau,  whose  zeal  for  the 
cause  he  had  espoused  led  him  to  give  utterance  to 
expressions  which  exceeded  the  bounds  of  prudence 
and  good  taste.  Papineau  never  missed  an  opportunity 
of  attacking  Lord  Aylmer  in  the  House,  and  he  was 
particularly  bitter  against  his  Councillors.  His  fol- 
lowers remonstrated  with  him,  but  in  vain  ;  until  many 
of  his  strongest  supporters  fell  away.  The  affairs  of 
the  Province,  which  were  centered  in  Quebec,  were 
growing  worse,  when  Lord  Gosford,  more  in  the 
capacity  of  a  Royal  Commissioner,  than  of  a  Governor 
General,  came  to  Canada.  He  was  diredled  to  investi- 
gate the  complaints  of  the  Canadians,  and  to  report  to 

His  presence  in  Quebec  relieved  for  a  moment  the 
strain  of  the  situation.  He  honestly  endeavoured  to 
appease  the  minds  of  the  people,  and  pointed  out  to 
them  the  desirability  of  submitting  unconditionally 
to  Royal  authority.  On  the  feast  of  Ste.  Catherine, 



Lord  Gosford  gave  a  magnificent  ball  at  the  Castle  of 
St.  Louis,  hoping  thereby  to  promote  friendly  relations 
between  the  people  and  the  representatives  of  the 
Crown  ;  but  since  he  was  powerless  to  redress  the 
grievances  of  the  majority,  his  good  offices  were  fruit- 
less. The  Legislative  Council  constantly  threw  out 
measures  passed  by  the  Assembly,  and  in  retaliation 
the  Assembly  refused  to  vote  the  supplies  for  over  six 
months,  which  caused  great  hardship. 

Heated  discussions  became  the  order  of  the  day. 
The  questions  of  religion  and  language  were  drawn 
into  the  debates,  and  a  spirit  of  excitement  prevailed 
throughout  the  Province.  The  clergy  of  Quebec  and 
other  cities  did  their  best  to  calm  the  troublesome 
times  by  urging  patience  and  submission,  but  the 
inflamatory  speeches  of  the  agitators,  and  the  attitude 
of  a  certain  section  of  the  press,  fostered  the  spirit  of 
rebellion.  The  real  agitation  which  led  to  open  viol- 
ence, may  be  traced  to  a  meeting  held  at  St.  Ours  on 
the  yth  of  May,  1835,  Resolutions  were  passed,  some 
of  which  were  clothed  in  very  undignified  language, 
and  only  injured  the  cause  of  their  promoters.  The 
Canadien,  the  organ  of  the  French  Canadians,  prot- 
ested against  the  methods  adopted  by  the  agitators, 
which  incited  the  people  to  rebel.  Demonstrations, 
and  counter  demonstrations,  were  held  in  various 
parts.  In  Quebec,  an  assembly  of  8,000  people  unanim- 
ously adopted  resolutions  condemning  the  action  taken 
at  St.  Ours,  but  the  crisis  came  when  news  was 
received  that  the  Imperial  Government  had  rejected 


Montreal  which  resulted  i 

of  warrants   i '• 
on,  O'Callagha' 

Charles  and  St. 

,  and  the  proclamation  of  martial  law,  are  raat- 
hich  do  not  belong  to  the  history  of  the  'city, 
;i  so  far  as  Quebec  was  the  seat  of  the  Govern- 
ment at  the  time. 

':i cited  by  a  few  rash  ind; 

were  more 

•red  its 

consequer  he  French-Canadians 


anding  the 

.••  by  the  Minister 

hundred  tons  burthen 

built  in  Q;.  ti  France,  the  trade 'did  hot 

prosper.    "Ships  of  more  than  two  hundred  tons  burthen 

ot  built  in  Quebec  under  French  rule,  o\\ 

not  ascend  the  river.     It  is  a 
ic  French  were  in  ignoran^ 
mnel,  and  yet  it 
navigation  of  the  S 


which  brought  about  the  loss  of  the  colony.  When 
the  British  ships  passed  the  Traverse  in  1759,  the 
French  were  greatly  astonished,  for  the  reliance  which 
they  placed  upon  the  dangers  of  navigation  had  caused 
them  to  neglect  to  fortify  the  Island  of  Orleans  and 
Pointe  Le  vis,  and  consequently  Wolfe  found  no  obstacle 
in  establishing  a  camp  opposite  the  city.  In  the  month 
of  April,  1759,  Vaudreuil  had  written  to  the  minister, 
"  If  the  English  attack  Quebec,  I  shall  always  hold 
myself  free  to  go  thither  myself  with  most  of  the  troops 
and  all  the  militia  and  Indians  I  can  assemble.  On 
arriving  I  shall  give  battle  to  the  enemy,  and  I  shall 
do  so  again  and  again,  till  I  have  forced  him  to  retire, 
or  till  he  has  entirely  crushed  me  by  excessive  super- 
iority of  numbers.  My  obstinacy  in  opposing  his  landing 
will  be  the  more  a  propos,  as  I  have  not  the  means  of 
sustaining  a  siege ....  You  see  Monseigneur,  that  the 
slightest  change  in  my  arrangements  would  have  the 
most  unfortunate  consequences. ' '  The  English  General 
was  no  doubt  devoutly  thankful  that  Quebec  was 
favoured  with  such  an  accomodating  Governor,  for 
however  sanguine  he  may  have  been  of  ultimate  success, 
he  scarcely  could  have  imagined  that  he  would  be 
allowed  to  approach  right  up  to  the  face  of  the  enemy 
without  any  opposition  being  offered.  When  Vaudreuil 
returned  to  France  a  few  months  later,  he  professed 
to  be  very  much  pained  on  receiving  a  letter  from  the 
Colonial  Minister  containing  these  words  "  Though 
His  Majesty  was  perfectly  aware  of  the  state  of  Canada, 
nevertheless,  after  the  assurances  you  had  given  him 



to  make  the  utmost  efforts  to  sustain  the  honour  of 
his  arms,  he  did  not  expect  to  hear  so  soon  of  the  sur- 
render of  Montreal  and  the  whole  of  the  colony.  But 
granting  that  capitulation  was  a  necessity,  His  Majesty 
was  not  less  surprised  and  ill  pleased  at  the  conditions, 
so  little  honourable  to  which  you  submitted,  especially 
after  the  representations  made  you  by  the  Chevalier 
de  Levis." 

We  see  therefore,  that  the  shipping  industry  had 
been  retarded,  and  the  approach  of  the  enemy  facilitated 
by  the  incompetency  of  the  Governor. 

In  1787,  vessels  of  every  dimension,  from  the 
humble  schooner,  to  large  ships  of  1,500  to  1,800  tons, 
were  built  at  Quebec.  In  1823,  at  Anse  du  Fort,  on 
the  Island  of  Orleans,  the  Columbus,  of  3,690  tons  was 
built,  and  in  the  following  year  the  Baron  de  Renfrew, 
of  5,294  tons,  was  launched  from  the  same  place. 
Both  ot  these  vessels  were  unfortunately  lost  at  sea. 
The  Baron  de  Renfrew  was  the  largest  vessel  built  in 
Quebec.  During  a  period  of  one  hundred  years,  from 
1797  to  1897,  2642  sailing  vessels  were  built  on  the 
banks  of  the  St.  Charles  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Quebec. 
This  industry  gave  employment  to  thousands  of  fami- 
lies, but  its  disappearance  does  not  seem  to  have 
impoverished  the  labouring  classes,  who  have  found  a 
means  of  living  in  other  branches  of  trade. 

It  was  under  Lord  Aylmer  that  the  first  monu- 
ment was  eredled  to  mark  the  spot  where  General 
Wolfe  died.  His  lordship  also  gave  to  the  Ursuline 

14  209 


Convent  the  simple  marble  tablet  in  memory  of  Mont- 
calm,  bearing  this  inscription  :  ' '  Honneur  &  Montcalm  ! 
le  destin  en  lui  dtrobant  la  vidoire  I' a  rScompensS  par 
une  mart  glorieusc. " 






THE  unfortunate  affairs  of  1837  had  aroused  the 
Imperial  authorities  to  take  decisive  steps  con- 
cerning the  government  of  Canada.  L,ord  Durham 
received  a  commission  as  Governor  and  High  Commis- 
sioner, to  inquire  into  the  causes  of  the  late  rebellion, 
and  to  apply  a  remedy.  The  task  imposed  upon  the 
Governor  was  an  exceedingly  difficult  one,  and  it  is 
not  surprising  to  find  that  the  course  he  adopted  met 
with  severe  criticism.  Lord  Durham  arrived  in  Quebec 
on  the  29th  of  May,  1838,  and  immediately  after  taking 
the  oath,  he  issued  a  proclamation  suspending  the 


constitution  ;  and  for  the  meantime  the  supreme  power 
was  vested  in  the  Governor. 

His  Lordship,  in  the  space  of  a  few  months, 
gathered  information  from  every  quarter  of  the  Do- 
minion regarding  the  situation,  and  embodied  this 
information  in  a  report  which  was  published  in  London 
in  the  following  year.  The  report  gives  a  clear  expo- 
sition of  the  case,  and  upon  the  whole  it  is  an  exceed- 
ingly just  one.  The  extract,  which  we  quote,  gives 
the  Governor's  idea  of  the  basis  of  the  disagreement 
between  the  two  races. 

' '  The  grounds  of  the  quarrel  which  are  commonly 
alleged,  appear,  on  investigation,  to  have  little  to  do 
with  its  real  cause  ;  and  the  inquirer,  who  has 
imagined  that  the  public  demonstrations  or  profes- 
sions of  the  parties  have  put  him  in  possession  of 
their  real  motives  and  designs,  is  surprised  to  find, 
upon  nearer  observation,  how  much  he  has  been 
deceived  by  the  false  colours  under  which  they  have 
been  in  the  habit  of  fighting.  It  is  not,  indeed,  in 
this  instance  surprising,  that  each  party  should  have 
practised  more  than  the  usual  frauds  of  language, 
by  which  factions,  in  every  country,  seek  to  secure 

the   sympathy   of   other   communities The 

French- Canadians  have  attempted  to  shroud  their 
hostility  to  the  influence  of  English  emigration,  and 
the  introduction  of  British  institutions,  under  the 
guise  of  warfare  against  the  government  and  its 
supporters,  whom  they  represented  to  be  a  small 
knot  of  corrupt  and  insolent  dependents  ;  being  a 
majority,  they  have  evoked  the  principles  of  popular 
control  and  democracy,  and  appealed  with  no  little 
effect  to  the  sympathy  of  liberal  politicians  in  every 
quarter  of  the  world. 



•'  The  English  finding  their  opponents  in  collision 
with  the  Government,  have  raised  the  cry  of  loyalty 
and  attachment  to  British  connection,  and  denounced 

the  republican  designs  of  the  French The 

English  complained  of  the  Assembly's  refusal  to 
establish  Registry  Offices,  and  to  commute  the  feudal 
tenures  ;  and  yet  it  was  amongst  the  ablest  and 
most  influential  leaders  of  the  English  that  I  found 
some  of  the  opponents  to  both  proposed  reforms. 
The  leaders  of  the  French  were  anxious  to  disclaim 

any  hostility  to  these  reforms  themselves 

There  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  a  great  number 
of  the  peasants  who  fought  at  St.  Denis  and  St. 
Charles,  imagined  that  the  principal  result  of  success 
would  be  the  overthrow  of  tithes  and  feudal  bur- 
thens ;  and  in  the  declaration  of  independence  which 
Dr.  Robert  Nelson  issued,  two  of  the  objects  of  the 
insurrection  were  stated  to  be  the  abolition  of  the 
feudal  tenures  and  the  establishment  of  Registry 
Offices.  When  I  observe  these  inconsistencies  of 
conduct  among  the  opponents  and  supporters  of 
these  reforms  ;  when  I  consider  that  their  attainment 
was  prevented  by  means  of  the  censitaires,  the  very 
persons  most  interested  in  their  success,  and  that  they 
were  not  more  eagerly  demanded  by  the  wealthier 
of  the  English,  than  by  the  artisans  and  labourers 
of  that  race  whose  individual  interests  would  hardly 
have  derived  much  direct  benefit  from  their  success, 
I  cannot  but  think  that  many  both  of  the  opponents 
and  of  the  supporters,  cared  less  for  the  measures 
themselves,  than  for  the  handle  which  the  agitation 
of  them  gave  to  their  national  hostility  ;  that  the 
Assembly  resisted  these  changes  chiefly  because  the 
English  desired  them  ;  and  that  the  eagerness  with 
which  many  of  the  English  urged  them  was  stimulated 
by  finding  them  opposed  by  the  French." 



I/ord  Durham  accurately  describes  the  situation 
at  that  time  ;  but  we  must  remember  that  the  people 
had  just  emerged  from  a  crisis  which  nothing  but 
bloodshed  could  satisfy,  and  that  each  race  in  the 
course  of  time  deplored  the  events  of  those  unfortunate 

The  action  of  the  majority  of  the  insurgents  was 
condoned ;  but  eight  men  were  banished  to  Bermuda. 
The  troubles,  however,  were  not  at  an  end.  On  the 
eve  of  Lord  Durham's  departure  for  England,  Novem- 
ber the  3rd,  1838,  there  was  evidence  of  a  further 
uprising,  which  led  to  serious  results,  and  finally, 
eighty  persons  from  Upper  Canada,  and  fifty  eight 
from  Lower  Canada  were  sent  to  New  South  Wales. 
The  latter  departed  from  Quebec  on  the  28th  of  Sep- 
tember, 1839,  and  did  not  return  to  the  city  until  the 
1 8th  of  January,  1845,  after  five  years  and  a  half  of 

Towards  the  close  of  his  Report  he  remarked  : 

' '  I  admit  that  the  system  which  I  propose  would 
in  fact,  place  the  internal  government  of  this  colony 
in  the  hands  of  the  colonists  themselves  ;  and  that 
we  should  thus  leave  to  them  the  execution  of  the 
laws,  of  which  we  have  long  entrusted  the  making 
solely  to  them.  Perfectly  aware  of  the  value  of  our 
colonial  possessions,  and  strongly  impressed  with 
the  necessity  of  maintaining  them,  I  know  not  in 
what  respect  it  can  be  desirable  that  we  should 
interfere  with  their  internal  legislation  in  matters 
which  do  not  affect  their  relations  with  the  mother 



Lord  Durham  proposed  as  a  means  of  avoiding  the 
difficulties  between  the  two  races,  to  unite  the  Prov- 
ince of  Quebec  to  Upper  Canada.  The  report  caused 
wide  discussion,  and  brought  out  the  talents  of  many 
men  who  were  afterwards  distinguished  in  the  political 
life  of  the  country, 

The  Act  of  Union  was  adopted  by  the  Imperial 
Parliament  after  a  long  discussion.  There  were  two 
members  in  the  House  of  Commons  who  strongly 
opposed  the  measure,  and  Lord  Gosford,  a  former 
Governor,  advocated  the  cause  of  the  French  Cana- 
dians in  the  House  of  Lords.  The  extract  which  we 
give  here  is  from  Lord  Gosford 's  speech  on  the  occasion 
of  the  discussion  in  the  Upper  House,  and  it  shows 
how  warmly  he  supported  the  views  of  the  people  of 
the  lower  Province  : 

"  Convinced  as  I  am  of  the  exact  verity  of  all 
that  I  have  advanced,  I  cannot  but  regard  the  medit- 
ated union  of  the  Canadas  as  a  most  unjust  and  tyran- 
nical measure,  proposed  in  view  of  depriving  the  lower 
Province  of  its  Constitution,  under  the  pretext,  as  a 
sufficing  cause,  that  a  handful  of  ill-intentioned  men 
committed  culpable  acts  ;  the  sure  effect  of  the  project 
being,  to  deliver  into  the  hands  of  a  section  of  the 
community,  the  great  majority  of  their  fellow  colonists, 
the  former  being  bitterly  inimical  to  the  latter.  You 
propose  to  give,  in  a  word,  to  three  or  four  hundred 
thousand  inhabitants,  the  same  amount  of  parliament- 
ary representation,  to  a  population  of  French  descent 
of  at  least  700,000  souls  abiding  in  Lower  Canada  ; 
and  concurrently  with  this  unequal  distribution  of 
franchise  rights,  you  are  about  to  impose  on  the  same 



Province,  which  has  no  public  debt,  or  something  next 
to  none,  payment  of  the  interest  of  the  pecuniary 
obligations  of  the  Upper  Canadians,  the  capital  of 
which,  is  is  said,  reaches  one  million.  Can  there  be 
anything  imagined  more  arbitrary  or  less  reasonable 
than  this  ?  In  truth,  the  mere  legality  of  such  a  pro- 
ceeding, setting  all  consideration  of  equitable  dealing 
aside,  may  be  very  fairly  called  in  question  ;  for,  I 
understand,  no  part  of  the  debt  contracted  in  Upper 
Canada  has  been  sanctioned  by  the  Government  of  this 
country,  I  ought  to  declare  once  again  my  conviction 
that  the  unjust  financial  arrangement  I  now  denounce, 
is  due  to  a  mercantile  intrigue.  As  I  have  already 
remarked,  the  French-derived  population  of  the  lower 
Province  wishes  to  live  under  British  protection,  and 
in  alliance  with  us  ;  yet  a  great  majority  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  two  Canadas  is  opposed  to  an  union .... 
I  can  never  give  my  assent,  therefore,  to  the  unjust 
measure,  as  I  conscientiously  believe  this  to  be,  now 
submitted  for  the  consideration  of  your  lordships.  I 
repeat,  too,  that  I  have  called  your  attention  to  the 
real  facts  of  the  case  ;  and  in  all  I  have  said,  I  am 
sure  I  shall  be  confirmed  by  the  testimony  of  every 
impartial  resident  in  either  province  of  Canada." 

The  Act  was  sanctioned  by  the  Queen  on  the  23rd 
of  July,  1840,  and  it  gave  to  Canada  a  Legislative 
Council,  the  members  of  which  were  appointed  for  life. 
The  Legislative  Assembly  was  composed  of  eighty- 
four  members,  forty-two  from  Upper  Canada,  and  the 
same  number  from  Lower  Canada.  The  French 
Canadians  were  dissatisfied  with  the  divisions  of  the 
counties  under  the  act,  and  there  claims  were  strongly 
advocated  by  three  remarkable  men,  LaFontaine, 



Morin,  and  Cartier.  Papineau,  it  is  true,  still  continued 
to  exert  his  energies,  but  he  had  lost  much  of  his 
influence  since  the  stormy  times  of  1837,  when  he 
controlled  the  people  at  his  will. 

After  the  Union  of  the  two  Canadas  was  effected, 
and  its  government  was  in  working  order,  LaFontaine 
realized  that  responsible  government,  as  advocated  by 
Lord  Durham,  might  prove  the  safeguard,  instead  of 
the  ruin  of  the  province,  if  properly  applied. 

Bound  to  Robert  Baldwin  by  ties  of  friendship, 
LaFontaine  came  to  an  understanding  with  him,  which 
resulted  in  the  formation  of  the  Baldwin-LaFontaine 
ministry.  Under  this  administration  the  affairs  of  the 
Province  appeared  to  be  progressing  satisfactorily, 
but  unfortunately  a  difference  arose  between  the  Gov- 
ernor and  his  Ministers,  which  compelled  them  to 
resign.  We  have  gone  briefly  into  the  political  history 
of  the  time,  because  without  so  doing  it  would  be  im- 
possible to  understand  the  differences  which  existed 
at  Quebec,  the  political  centre  of  the  Province,  but  we 
must  now  return  to  the  history  of  the  city  proper. 

We  have  seen  that  in  the  year  1823,  Great  Britain 
determined  to  make  Quebec  one  of  the  most  strongly 
fortified  cities  of  the  world,  and  from  that  date  Quebec 
assumed  the  aspect  of  an  important  military  centre. 
In  the  year  1838  the  remainder  of  the  Coldstream 
Guards  marched  into  the  Citadel  Barracks,  to  form 
the  escort  for  the  newly  appointed  Governor.  On  the 
27th  of  May  Lord  Durham  and  his  staff  arrived  in 
Quebec.  An  immense  gathering  of  citizens  awaited 



his  landing,  but  on  account  of  the  weather,  the  ceremony 
intended  was  postponed  for  two  days.  Lord  Durham, 
writing  from  the  Castle  of  St.  Louis,  31  May,  1838, 
says,  "  I  have  the  honour  to  inform  your  Lordship 
that  I  arrived  here  on  the  27th.  The  weather  being 
very  unfavourable,  I  could  not  land  until  the  29th,  on 
which  day  I  proceeded  to  the  council  and  took  the 
prescribed  oaths  which  were  duly  administered  to  me 
in  the  presence  of  Sir  John  Colborne.  The  streets 
through  which  I  passsed  were  extremely  crowded,  and 
I  could  not  but  be  highly  gratified  with  the  cordial 
greeting  which  I  received,  and  with  the  more  than 
friendly  feelings  which  seemed  to  animate  the  assembled 

As  the  old  Chateau  was  not  Efficiently  spacious  to 
receive  the  household  of  the  Governor,  appartments 
were  prepared  for  the  Viceregal  party  in  the  Parliament 
Buildings.  The  receptions  given  during  the  residence 
of  the  Governor  were  very  brilliant,  and  his  generosity 
became  proverbial.  In  more  tranquil  times,  no  doubt 
he  would  have  enjoyed  a  popularity  quite  equal  to  that 
of  any  of  the  illustrious  representatives  of  the  Crown 
in  Canada.  Lord  Durham  would  not  accept  any 
remuneration  for  his  services  in  Canada,  but  he  desired 
that  the  money  should  be  applied  to  the  repairs  which 
were  necessary  at  the  Chateau.  The  ruins  of  the  old 
Chateau  were  levelled  and  converted  into  a  promenade 
at  this  time,  which  was  given  the  name  of  Durham 

Sir  John  Colborne  assumed  the  reins  of  Govern- 



dent  in  December,  1838,  but  lie  only  remained  in 
office  nine  months.  These  were  difficult  times,  and  a 
Governor  who  was  a  stranger  to  the  country  could  not 
be  expected  to  immediately  grasp  the  situation,  or  to 
apply  a  remedy  that  in  an  instant  would  satisfactorily 
dispose  of  grievances  which  had  been  nursed  for  many 
years.  The  Governor  adopted  a  policy  which  was 
considered  extremely  harsh,  and  it  was  not  received 
with  favour,  either  here,  or  in  England.  C.  E.  Pou- 
lett  Thompson,  afterwards  Lord  Sydenham,  entered 
upon  the  duties  of  Governor  in  October,  1839,  and 
remained  in  office  until  his  death,  in  1841.  He  was 
the  first  to  introduce  responsible  government,  but  the 
exact  nature  of  this  form  of  government  was  not  very 
well  understood,  and  there  was  constant  disagreement. 
The  outbreak,  in  1837,  nad  called  the  attention  of  the 
authorities  to  the  want  of  volunteer  corps,  and,  in  the 
year  1839,  the  several  regiments  in  Quebec  were  well 

Sir  Charles  Bagot  succeeded  L,ord  Sydenham  in 
1842,  but  a  year  later  he  was  obliged  to  retire  on 
account  of  ill  health.  Short  as  his  career  was,  he  had 
commenced  to  act  as  an  intermediary  between  the  two 
factions.  Lord  Metcalfe  succeeded  Bagot  and  occupied 
the  office  from  1843  to  1845.  The  latter  year  was 
long  remembered  on  account  of  the  disastrous  fire 
which  consumed  the  whole  of  the  suburbs  of  St.  Rochs. 
One  month  later,  St.  John's  suburb,  near  the  Upper 
Town,  was  destroyed  by  fire,  the  loss  to  the  people 
being  estimated  at  over  $3,000,000.  England  and  the 



United  States  generously  responded  to  the  call  for 
help,  and  soon  a  fund  of  $500,000  was  placed  at  the 
disposal  of  the  committee,  and  much  of  the  town  was 
rebuilt  in  a  more  substantial  manner.  Quebec  was  to 
pass  through  another  ordeal  of  fire.  In  the  month  of 
June,  1846,  a  fire  was  discovered  in  a  theatre  near 
Durham  Terrace,  and  over  forty  persons  lost  their  lives 
thereby.  Lord  Metcalfe  when  leaving  Quebec  gave  the 
sum  of  $2,000  towards  the  sufferers  from  the  Quebec 
fires.  Lord  Cathcart  was  the  next  Governor.  Under 
his  regime  the  Militia  Act  was  passed  which  gave 
great  satisfaction  to  the  majority.  I/ord  Elgin,  who 
succeeded  Cathcart  in  1847,  was  one  of  the  most 
popular  governors  of  Canada.'  He  had  already  a  good 
reputation  as  an  able  administrator,  and  was  familiar 
with  the  administrative  machinery  necessary  for  the 
government  of  a  colony.  In  reply  to  an  address  which 
was  presented  to  him  in  the  city  of  Montreal,  he  said  : 

"  You  are  pleased  to  observe,  that  the  knowledge 
of  public  affairs  acquired  by  me  in  the  Imperial 
Parliament,  and  in  other  situations  of  high  trust, 
justifies  the  hope  that  I  shall  be  guided  in  the 
exercise  of  my  functions  by  the  great  Constitutional 
principles  familiar  to  the  British  statesman.  It  will 
be  my  study  and  anxious  endeavour  to  verify  these 
favourable  expectations.  The  powers  of  self-govern- 
ment, to  which  your  constitution  allows  such  free 
scope,  are  given  for  wise  purposes,  to  enable  the 
people  to  exercise  a  salutary  influence  on  the  action 
of  government  and  to  render  government  itself  a 
more  powerful  instrument  for  good,  by  securing 
for  it  confidence  and  support  :  if  ever  these  supports 



should  unhappily,  be  perverted  to  objects  of  faction 
or  personal  ambition,  the  best  efforts  of  a  Governor 
General  to  promote  the  welfare  of  the  province  must 
be  unavailing  and  his  high  and  honourable  office  can 
become,  under  such  circumstances,  only  a  source  of 
bitter  regret  and  disappointment." 

The  session  of  1847  was  a  stormy  one.  Baldwin 
was  very  severe  against  the  Government,  and  La  Fon- 
taine was  very  bitter  against  its  French  Canadian 
supporters.  ' '  You  have  been  merely  tools  in  the  hands 
of  your  colleagues,"  he  said  :  "  one  of  your  members 
has  been  expelled  from  the  Council,  and  the  other  will 
soon  be. ' '  Viger  and  Papineau  were  the  members 
referred  to.  Lord  Elgin  determined  to  bring  matters 
to  a  crisis,  and  he  dissolved  the  Parliament.  The 
elections  were  held,  and  the  Government  was  defeated. 
Baldwin  and  La  Fontaine  were  called  upon  to  form  a 
new  ministry,  in  which  four  French  Canadians  were 
given  portfolios.  This  new  Government  for  a  time 
promoted  harmony  in  the  province,  and  particularly 
satisfied  the  people  of  Quebec. 

Lord  Elgin  was  animated  by  a  desire  to  give  full 
scope  to  the  wishes  of  the  people  for  self  government, 
and  it  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  Governor  when  he 
called  La  Fontaine  to  the  head  of  affairs,  did  not,  as  his 
predecessors  had  done,  select  his  advisers,  but  left  this 
to  the  Prime  Minister.  During  Lord  Elgin's  adminis- 
tration the  seignorial  tenure  was  abolished,  decimal 
currency  was  adopted,  and  many  reforms  were  carried 
out  in  the  different  departments  of  the  public  service. 



Sir  Edmund  Head,  succeeded  Lord  Elgin. 

On  the  5th  of  June,  1854,  there  was  a  very  impres- 
sive ceremony  in  Quebec,  which  for  a  moment  recalled 
the  struggle  between  Murray  and  L,evis,  when  the 
fate  of  Quebec  again  trembled  in  the  balance,  and 
seemed  almost  within  the  grasp  of  the  victorious  French 

From  time  to  time  the  share  of  the  ploughman,  or 
the  spade  of  the  workman  had  turned  up  the  grim 
remains  of  those  gallant  sons  of  France  and  of  England 
who  fell  at  the  battle  of  Ste.  Foy  while  maintaining 
the  honour  of  their  respective  countries.  The  Society 
of  Saint  Jean  Baptiste,  with  sentiments  of  deep  respect 
for  the  heroic  dead  gathered  the  scattered  remains,  and 
caused  them  to  be  interred  in  a  common  grave,  which 
was  afterwards  marked  by  a  column  to  perpetuate  the 
French  victory  of  April  28th,  1760. 

The  remains  were  conveyed  to  the  Basilica,  where 
a  requiem  mass  was  sung,  and  then  the  procession 
returned  to  the  spot  where  the  interment  was  made. 

Three  years  later,  in  1859,  Quebec  was  thrown 
into  mourning  by  the  awful  fate  which  overtook  200 
emigrants  who  had  left  their  native  land  to  find  a  home 
in  Canada.  At  four  o'clock  on  the  26th  of  June,  the 
steamer  ' '  Montreal ' '  left  her  wharf  intending  to  pro- 
ceed to  the  city  of  Montreal,  with  about  four  hundred 
passengers  on  board.  Everything  went  well  until  Cape 
Rouge  was  passed,  when  it  was  discovered  that  the 
vessel  was  on  fire.  In  the  excitement  which  followed, 
the  panic-stricken  passengers  jumped  into  the  river, 


and  notwithstanding  the  short  distance  from  the  shore, 
over  two  hundred  of  them  were  drowned. 

In  order  to  show  the  progress  made  by  the  people 
of  Quebec,  it  is  again  necessary  to  refer  briefly  to  the 
political  history  of  the  Province.  At  this  time,  the 
man  most  prominently  before  the  public  in  Quebec, 
was  Augustin  Norbert  Morin,  whose  political  career 
dates  from  1830.  He  represented  the  County  of  Belle- 
chasse  until  the  Union,  and  was  returned  for  various 
counties  until  1854, when  he  was  elected  for  Chicoutimi. 
In  the  latter  year  he  formed  an  alliance  with  Sir  Allan 
McNab,  with  whose  views  he  was  in  sympathy.  The 
Liberal  -  Conservative  party,  which  was  composed  of 
moderate  Liberals  from  Lower  Canada,  and  moderate 
Conservatives  from  Upper  Canada,  dates  from  1854. 
Morin  had  a  chequered  career.  At  an  early  age  we 
find  him  engaged  in  literary  work,  and  the  founder  of 
La  Minerve,  which  for  a  long  time  held  a  prominent 
place.  A  few  years  later,  his  efforts  in  the  cause  of 
Reform  brought  him  under  suspicion,  and  he  was 
obliged  to  seek  shelter  in  the  woods.  Five  years  after 
he  was  appointed  to  the  Bench,  and  during  the  next 
year  he  resigned  to  accept  a  portfolio  in  the  Baldwin- 
La  Fontaine  Ministry,  and,  in  1867,  he  was  appointed 
a  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court.  During  his  long  and 
eventful  life,  Morin's  energies  were  directed  towards 
building  up  the  Canadian  nationality,  and  by  his  death 
Quebec  lost  one  of  her  most  zealous  advocates. 

Another  remarkable  character  was  Sir  George 
Etienne  Cartier.  He  was  a  patriot,  and  for  his  share 



in  the  affair  at  St.  Benoit  he  had  to  leave  the  country. 
Upon  his  return  to  Canada  he  became  a  follower  of 
La  Fontaine,  and  upon  four  occasions  was  returned 
for  Vercheres.  Cartier's  career  covers  the  period  from 
1848  to  1872.  His  opponents,  as  well  as  his  friends, 
recognized  his  many  sterling  qualities,  and  his  noble 
patriotism.  To  him  the  Province  of  Quebec  is  indebted 
for  much  real  progress.  In  1857,  Cartier  was  invited 
to  form  a  cabinet  with  Sir  John  A.  Macdonald,  in 
succession  to  Dr.  Tache,  whose  health  had  given  way 
under  the  strain  of  constant  application  to  the  duties 
of  public  life.  A  few  years  after,  however,  Tache  was 
able  to  return  to  active  politics,  and  he  played  a  bril- 
liant part  in  the  history  of  the  country.  Cartier's  great 
work  was  in  connection  with  the  Act  of  Confederation. 
A  change  of  such  importance  as  Confederation 
was  naturally  the  subject  of  lengthy  negociations.  In 
the  month  of  October,  1864,  a  conference  was  held  in 
the  Parliament  buildings  on  Mountain  Hill.  Amongst 
the  thirty-three  delegates  assembled  on  that  occasion,  we 
believe  that  the  only  one  living  to-day  in  Quebec,  is  Sir 
Hector  Ivangevin,K.C.M.G.;  C.B.  "  They  were  all  men 
"  of  large  experience  in  the  work  of  administration 
' '  or  legislation  in  their  respective  provinces  ' '  writes 
Bourinot.  "  Not  a  few  of  them  were  noted  lawyers 
' '  who  had  thoroughly  studied  the  systems  of  Govern- 
' '  ment  in  other  countries.  Some  were  gifted  with  rare 
"  power  and  eloquence.  At  no  time  before,  or  since 
' '  has  Quebec  been  visited  by  an  assemblage  of  notables 
"  with  so  many  high  qualifications  for  the  foundation 



' '  of  a  nation.  The  chairman  was  Sir  Etienne  Pascal 
"  Tache,  who  had  proved  in  his  youth  his  fidelity  to 
"  England  on  the  famous  battlefield  of  Chateauguay, 
' '  and  had  won  the  respecT:  of  all  classes  and  parties  by 
"  the  display  of  many  admirable  qualities,  and  he  it 
"  was  wTho  gave  utterance  to  the  oft-quoted  words  : 
' '  That  the  last  gun  that  would  be  fired  for  British 
"  supremacy  in  America  would  be  fired  by  a  French 
"  Canadian." 

This  session  lasted  for  16  days,  and  notwith- 
standing that  representatives  of  the  Press  from  the 
United  States  and  England  were  present  in  the  city, 
the  deliberations  were  kept  secret.  In  the  resolutions 
framed  at  Quebec  were  embodied  the  principles  on 
which  the  Canadian  Federation  rests  :  "A  federation, 
with  a  central  government  having  jurisdiction  over 
matters  of  interest  to  the  whole  country  comprised  in 
the  Union  and  a  number  of  provincial  governments 
having  the  control  and  management  of  certain  local 
matters  naturally  and  conveniently  belonging  to  them, 
each  government  being  administered  in  accordance 
with  the  well  understood  principles  of  the  British 
system,  of  parliamentary  institutions. ' ' 

In  the  course  of  time  it  was  found  that  the  basis  of 
dividing  the  revenues  of  the  country  was  not  equitable 
and  that  the  Province  did  not  receive  a  just  share. 
In  the  year  1887,  the  Prime  Minister  of  Quebec  con- 
vened an  Interprovincial  conference  which  met  in 
Quebec  from  the  2oth  to  the  28th  of  October,  when 

15  225 


various  matters  affecting  the  autonomy  of  the  Province 
were  discussed  and  resolutions  were  passed.  This  con- 
ference was  presided  over  by  the  late  Sir  Oliver  Mowat, 
the  secretaries  being  Mr.  Bvanturel  and  Mr.  Gustave 

In  1902,  another  Interprovincial  conference  was 
convened  by  the  Hon.  S.  N.  Parent,  when  many 
subjects  of  vital  interest  to  the  Province  were  again 


CB  \II 


ORS  — 

OF  .IN  — 


THE  year  1867  mai'ks  an  epocr.  .     On 

Royal  Proclamation  was  issued, 
>  and  after  the  first  day  of  July, 

"  1867,  the  Provinces  of  Canada,  Nova  Scotia  and 
"  New  Brunswick  shall  form,  and  be  one  Dominion, 
i;  under  the  name  of  Canada." 

In  the  draft  of  the  Act  of  Confederation,  i: 

proposed  to  give  the  name  of  the  ' '  Kingdom  of  Canada ' ' 

to  the  four  great  Provinces,  which  together  comprise 

iter  than  the  whole  of  Europe. 

I  each  Province  was  granted  a  form 
Quebec  was  chosen  as  the 


The  members  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  are 
elected  for  the  term  of  Parliament  which  is  five 
years,  and  the  members  of  the  Legislative  Council  are 
appointed  for  life.  The  government  is  administered 
by  the  Lieutenant-Governor  in  Council. 

Sir  Narcisse  Belleau  was  named  Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernorof  the  Province  at  Confederation,  and  he  called 
the  Honourable  Mr.  Chauveau  to  form  the  first  Pro- 
vincial Ministry. 

The  Lieutenant- Governors,  since  Confederation, 
have  been  French-Canadians,  and  their  term  of  office 
is  given  in  the  following  table.  Sir  Louis  Jette  was 
appointed  in  1903  for  a  second  term  of  five  years  : 

Belleau,  Sir  N.  F 1867-1873 

Caron,  the  Hon.  R.  E 1873-1876 

Letellier,  the  Hon.  St.  Just..  1876-1879 

Robitaille,  the  Hon.  W.  T. . .  1879-1884 

Masson,  the  Hon.  L.  R 1884-1887 

Angers,  the  Hon.  A.  R 1887-1892 

Chapleau,  Sir  J.  A 1892-1899 

Jette  Sir  Louis  A 1898-1903 

"      "         "         1903 

Spencer  Wood  is  the  official  residence  of  the 
Lieutenant  Governor,  and  a  brief  history  of  this  build- 
ing is  here  made  : 

The  name  of  Spencer  Wood  was  given  to  the 
property  by  Michael  Henry  Percival,  collector  of  cus- 
toms, when  he  purchased  the  estate  on  the  3rd  of 
April,  1811,  from  Francois  Le  Houillier.  It  had 



formerly  borne  the  name  of  Powell  Place.  By  chang- 
ing the  name,  Percival  desired  to  recall  the  memory 
of  his  relative  and  patron  the  Hon.  Spencer  Percival, 
Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  and  Prime  Minister  of 

Spencer  Wood  was  acquired  by  the  Canadian 
government  in  1852-54,  and  it  passed  into  the  hands 
of  the  province  of  Quebec  on  the  2gth  of  April,  1870. 

Lord  Elgin  and  Sir  Edmund  Head  had  occupied 
the  building  previous  to  Confederation,  but  it  was  con- 
siderably enlarged  and  improved  between  the  years 
1851  and  1856. 

On  the  day  of  the  opening  of  Parliament  in 
Quebec,  on  the  2oth  of  February  1860,  the  building 
was  completely  destroyed  by  fire.  Lady  Head  and  her 
daughter  escaped  from  the  burning  house  and  took 
refuge  at  Samos,  the  residence  of  Bishop  Mountain. 
Sir  Edmund  Head  accepted  the  hospitality  of  Mr.  Price 
of  Wolfesfield  for  some  time,  until  the  government 
rented  the  property  known  as  Cataraqui,  as  a  tem- 
porary residence  for  the  Governor. 

The  present  building  was  eredled  between  1862 
and  1863,  at  a  cost  of  $28,000.  The  first  occupant 
was  Lord  Monck,  who  had  previously  resided  in  the 
houses  now  occupied  by  Judges  Bosse  and  Routhier, 
at  the  corner  of  D'Auteuil  street. 

From  Confederation  until  the  present  day  Spencer 
Wood  has  been  occupied  as  the  official  residence  by 
the  Lieutenant  Governors  of  the  Province  of  Quebec, 
with  the  exception  of  Sir  N.  F.  Belleau  who  preferred 



his  own  dwelling  in  St.  Louis  street,  and  only  occasion- 
ally visited  Spencer  Wood. 

Lieutenant  Governor  Caron  died  during  his  term 
of  office  and  his  body  was  exposed  in  the  drawing  room, 
the  scene  of  so  many  brilliant  entertainments.  His 
funeral  took  place  on  the  i8th  of  December  1876  and  was 
attended  by  all  the  members  of  both  Houses  then  in 

On  the  occasion  of  the  visit  of  Their  Royal  High- 
nesses the  Duke  and  Duchess  of  Cornwall  and  York  as 
the  guests  of  Sir  Louis  and  Lady  Jette,  in  1901,  the  old 
portico  was  replaced  by  a  more  modern  structure.  The 
building  and  the  grounds  are  particularly  suitable  for  an 
official  residence  for  the  representative  of  the  Province. 

From  the  year  1867  until  the  present  year,  1903, 
there  have  been  fourteen  Ministries  : 

1.  The  Chauveau,  Ministry 1867-1873 

2.  Ouimet  "         1873-1874 

3.  De  Boucherville    "         1874-1878 

4.  Joly  "         1878-1879 

5.  Chapleau  "         1879-1882 

6.  Mousseau  "  ....1882-1884 

7.  Ross  "         1884-1887 

8.  Taillon  "         1887-1887 

9.  Mercier  "  ....1887-1891 

10.  De  Boucherville  "  ....1891-1892 

11.  Taillon  "  1892-1896 

12.  Flynn  "  ....1896-1897 

13.  Marchand  "  ....1897-1900 

14.  Parent  "  ....1900-1903 



The  first  Ministry  under  the  Hon.  Mr.  Taillon 
was  in  power  for  four  days  only. 

Many  distinguished  men  since  the  Hon.  Mr. 
Chauveau  have  been  prominently  before  the  public  for 
many  years,  but  is  doubtful  whether  there  has  been 
any  more  truly  interesting  figure  in  the  political  history 
of  Quebec  since  Confederation,  amongst  those  who 
have  passed  away,  than  that  of  the  late  Honourable 
Felix  Gabriel  Marchand,  the  Premier  of  Quebec,  who 
died  on  the  25th  of  September,  1900,  and  of  whom  we 
have  given  a  short  note  in  the  second  part  of  this  work. 

We  have  briefly  referred  to  the  administration  of 
the  Province  because  Quebec  is  the  seat  of  Govern- 
ment. We  will  now  give  a  sketch  of  the  work  of  the 
City  Council. 

Under  the  French  regime  the  municipal  affairs  of 
Quebec  were  for  a  time  entrusted  to  syndics,  but  after 
a  fair  trial  the  old  system  was  found  to  be  preferable, 
and  it  was  revived.  Under  British  rule  the  same  custom 
was  observed  until  progress  had  made  a  change 
imperative.  The  population  had  increased  ;  the  insti- 
tutions were  growing  more  important  ;  there  were  a 
greater  number  of  ships  sailing  into  port  ;  and  the 
development  of  commerce  required  more  effective 
administrative  machinery. 

It  was  not  until  the  year  1818,  that  the  citizens 
sought  to  obtain  from  the  Legislature  an  elective 
corporation,  with  clearly  defined  powers  ;  but  the  relief 
asked  for  was  not  at  this  time  granted.  A  fresh  attempt 
to  secure  the  incorporation  of  the  city  was  made  in 



1821,  but  without  success.  In  1827,  a  meeting  was 
held  in  the  Court  House,  presided  over  by  Vallieres  de 
St-Real.  A  committee  of  eleven  persons  was  chosen 
to  draft  a  Bill  for  the  incorporaton  of  the  city.  This 
measure  was  submitted  to  the  Legislature  in  1831,  and 
reserved  for  the  significance  of  His  Majesty's  pleasure, 
which  was  given  to  it  in  1833.  Under  this  Act  the 
city  was  divided  into  ten  wards  : — St.  Louis,  St.  John, 
The  Seminary,  The  Palace,  St.  Lawrence,  St.  Charles, 
St.  Roch's,  Dorchester,  Ste.  Genevieve  and  des  Car- 
rie res. 

The  Council  was  composed  of  twenty  members, 
with  power  to  elect  a  mayor  annually,  with  a  salary  not 
exceeding  one  hundred  pounds.  The  first  municipal 
election  was  held  on  the  25th  of  April,  1833,  and  the 
councillors  assembled  on  the  ist  of  May  to  elect  a 
mayor,  the  choice  falling  on  Elzear  Bedard.  In  the 
following  year  Bedard  was  defeated  by  two  votes,  and 
Edward  Rene  Caron  was  declared  duly  elected.  Those 
who  withdrew  their  support  from  Bedard,  declared 
that  it  would  create  a  bad  precedent  to  elect  a  mayor 
for  more  than  one  term,  but  it  would  appear  that  the 
excuse  offered  was  only  a  pretext,  as  Caron  was  returned 
eleven  times  without  intermission.  Caron  proved  an 
excellent  mayor,  and  his  repeated  election  proved  that 
there  was  no  danger  in  the  precedent.  There  have 
been  twenty-six  mayors  of  Quebec  since  1833,  and  six 
only  have  held  office  for  a  single  term.  These  were 
Messrs.  Bedard,  Tessier,  Alleyn,  Robitaille,  Leme- 
surier,  and  Hossack.  The  Honourable  Mr.  Langevin 



served  four  terms,  and  the  Hon.  Mr.  Parent  has  already 
been  elected  four  times  in  succession. 

The  following  is  a  chronological  list  of  the  mayors 
of  Quebec  : 

Elzear  Bedard, 1833-1834,  elected  by  the  Council. 

R.  E.  Caron, 1834-1845, 

G.  O.  Stuart, 1846-1849, 

N.  F.  Belleau 1850-1852,  "  " 

U.  J.  Tessier 1853 

C.  Alleyn 1854 

Jos.  Morrin 1855  " 

Dr.  O.  Robitaille..i856 

H.  L.  lyangevin  . . .  1858-1860,  "      the  People. 

T.  Pope 1861-1863, 

A.  Tourangeau. . . .  1864-1865, 

Jos.  Cauchon 1866-1867.  " 

J.  Lemesurier 1868-1869, 

\V.  Hossack 1869-1870,  "      the  Council. 

A.  G.  Tourangeau.. 1 870  "      the  People. 

P.  Garneau 1870-1873,  "      the  Council. 

O.  Murphy 1874-1877,  " 

R.  Chambers 1878-1879,  " 

D.  Brousseau 1880-1881,  "  " 

F.  Langelier 1882-1890,  "  " 

Jos.  Fremont 1890-1894,  " 

S.  N.  Parent 1894-1903,  "  " 

For  particulars  concerning  the  administration  of 
civic  affairs  in  the  past,  we  cannot  do  better  than  to 
quote  from  a  speech  made  by  the  Hon.  S.  N.  Parent, 
the  present  mayor  : 



"  At  the  commencement  let  us  greet  the  first 
titular  mayor  of  Quebec,  Bedard,  elected  in  1833.  He 
was  a  great  patriot  and  the  staunch  defender  of  our 
rights.  At  the  risk  of  being  dismissed  from  the  bench 
he  gave  to  the  prisoners  of  1837,  the  benefit  of  the 
Habeas  Corpus  Act,  and  afterwards  had  the  satisfac- 
tion of  having  his  decision  confirmed  in  England  ; 
when  he  resumed  his  seat  on  the  bench  amidst  the 
acclamation  of  the  people. 

"  The  next  in  order  is  Caron,  who  remained  at 
the  head  of  civic  affairs  for  twelve  years,  and  by  his 
tact,  urbanity  and  conciliatory  spirit,  secured  and 
retained  popular  favour  for  over  half  century,  and  died 
at  Spencer  Wood  full  of  honours,  and  occupying  the 
highest  public  office  in  the  Province. 

"  Then  came  Sir  N.  F.  Belleau,  under  whom  the 
waterworks  were  constructed  and  the  first  efforts  were 
made  towards  building  the  North  Shore  Railway  and 
a  bridge  over  the  St.  Lawrence. 

' '  Then  follows  the  brilliant  and  laborious  adminis- 
tration of  the  Hon.  Ulric  Tessier,  afterwards  a  minister, 
a  senator,  and  a  judge  of  the  Court  of  Appeals  ;  of  Dr 
Robitaille,  one  of  the  chief  organizers  of  our  national 
festivals  at  that  period  ;  of  Messrs.  Tourangeau  and 
I/emesurier  who  knew  how  to  win  the  popular  vote  ; 
of  Hon.  Jos.  Cauchon  who  came  into  the  municipal 
arena,  with  all  the  impetuosity  of  his  bellicose  tem- 
perament ;  of  Sir  Hector  L,angevin  who,  after  making 
his  mark  as  an  able  administrator  of  our  civic  affairs, 
entered  upon  a  wider  field  of  duty  and  filled  important 
offices  as  minister  at  Ottawa  for  many  years. 

' '  Amidst  all  these  French  figures  and  as  evidence 
of  the  cordial  good  feeling  that  unites  all  races  and 
religious  creeds  in  Quebec,  I  am  happy  to  mention 
some  English  and  Irish  mayors  :  Okill  Stuart,  who 
was  afterwards  judge  of  the  Admiralty  ;  Alley n,  a 



distiri:  an  important  ] 

ration   and 
.  ouncil  of  C 

sherii'  >vho  endowed  the  ci; 

i  'ope,  the  type  of  the 
old  school  ;  Wm.  Hossack  who  pas- 
sed like  a  meteor  through  our  civic  annals ;  Robert 
Chambers  whose  kind  and  peaceful  nature  received  a 
rough  shock  in  the  difficult  times  through  which  he 
passed ;  Owen  Murphy  who  so  brillantly  did  the 
honours  of  our  good  city  of  Quebec. 

' '  1  cheerfully  do  homage  to  the  administration  of 
>  that  of  Mr.  Fremont,  who  or- 
ganized on  aodern 
basis.     Now  I  r-                            :ention  for  the  works 
of  Hon.  P                                         Francois  Langelier, 
which  constitute  an  ei                            annals.     Hon.  P. 
Garneau,  as  Mayor  01                           ,  hat  he  has  been 
oars  and  what  I  hope>he  will  continue  to 
:rs,  foremost  in  the  ranks  of  workers. 
Trulv                              able  specto  e  that 
as  energetic  as  any  young 
and  giving  us  an  example  worthy  of 
imitation  by  his  unswerving   faith  in  the  future  of 

' '  To  Hon.  F.  Langelier  belongs  the  honour  of 
having  inaugurated  the  era  of  great  improvements  in 
our  city.  It  may  be  said  that  during  the  eight  years 
of  his  administration,  the  citizens  had  a  foretaste  of 
the  improvements  that  have  transformed  Quebec  and 
•t  a  modern  city,  while  respect! i  lorical 

character  that  forms  a  halo  around  it  which  no  w 
vertry  to  remove." 

has,    indeed,    undergone  many  chaogwi 
•if.  of  the  first  municn 



in  1833.  Each  occupant  of  the  civic  chair  appears  to 
have  laboured  in  the  interest  of  the  city,  but  the 
improvements  most  apparent  are  those  which  has  been 
effected  under  the  administration  of  the  present  mayor. 

Year  by  year  the  work  of  beautifying  the  city  has 
gone  on  under  the  regime  of  the  Hon.  Mr.  Parent. 
The  unsightly  waste  places  have  been  converted  into 
picturesque  spots  ;  our  rough  and  almost  impassable 
streets  have  been  well  paved,  and  are  well  kept.  On 
every  side  there  is  the  evidence  of  constant  watchfulness 
on  the  part  of  the  civic  authorities  which  is  particularly 
noticed  by  the  numerous  visitors  to  our  city. 

The  city  corporation  seal  represents  a  female 
figure  in  a  sitting  position,  leaning  upon  a  shield,  on 
which  is  a  lion  passant,  holding  a  key.  Above  is  a 
Cornucopia,  and  on  the  side  a  bee-hive.  At  the  feet  of 
the  figure  is  seen  a  beaver.  The  figure  points  to  the 
river,  where  there  is  a  ship  at  anchor.  In  the  back 
ground  is  a  representation  of  Cape  Diamond.  The 
following  are  the  legends  on  the  seal  :  above,  Natura 
for,tis,  industria  crescit;  below,  Condi ta  Quebecense,  A.D. 
MDCVIII  Civitatis  Regimine  Donata,  A.D.  MDCCC- 

In  addition  to  the  works  carried  out  by  the  civic 
authorities,  we  must  not  omit  the  services  rendered  to 
Quebec  by  Lord  Dufferin.  The  increase  in  traffic  had 
rendered  necessary  the  demolition  of  the  old  gates,  and 
it  appeared  at  one  time  that  the  city  would  lose  many 
of  its  most  attractive  features.  Lord  Dufferin,  how- 
ever, interfered  and  proposed  not  only  to  meet  all  the 



requirements  of  progress  but  to  give  to  Quebec  a  more 
attractive  interest.  The  scheme  proposed  under  the 
direction  of  the  Earl  included  an  official  residence  for 
the  Governors,  new  gates  and  extended  walls,  orna- 
mental grounds  and  iron  bridges.  The  cost  of  these 
improvements  would  have  involved  an  outlay  of  nearly 
one  hundred  thousand  dollars,  and  therefore  the  plans 
were  greatly  modified.  However,  as  a  result, we  have 
at  least  preserved  the  walls  and  have  the  St.  Louis  and 
Kent  Gates,  and  the  magnificent  Terrace. 

Nearly  all  the  mayors  of  Quebec  have  been  called 
upon  to  represent  the  city  at  great  public  receptions, 
such  as  the  visits  of  members  of  the  Royal  Family,  or 
the  representatives  of  the  sovereign  on  their  arrival  in 
the  country.  Others  have  had  less  pleasing  tasks  to 
fulfill,  and  their  energies  have  been  devoted  to  the 
relief  of  the  distressed  on  the  occasion  of  epidemics, 
and  fires  which  have  from  time  to  time  ravaged  the 
city  and  its  suburbs. 

With  the  exception  of  the  fires  already  recorded, 
there  was  only  the  conflagration  in  the  Lower  Town, 
in  1682,  during  the  French  regime.  The  destruction  of 
the  Chateau  was  an  isolated  incident.  During  the 
siege  of  Quebec,  in  1759,  532  houses  were  destroyed 
by  fire,  mostly  as  the  result  of  shells  or  cascades. 

After  1845  we  enter  upon  a  very  destructive  period, 
the  details  of  which  have  been  given  already.  Besides 
these  great  fires  there  were  numerous  others.  On  the 
26th  of  June,  1861,  fifty  houses  were  destroyed  in  St. 
Louis  Ward.  On  the  yth  of  June,  1862,  over  one 



hundred  houses  were  consumed  by  fire  in  St.  John's 
Ward,  and  on  the  loth  of  the  same  month  one  hundred 
dwellings  were  destroyed  in  St.  Sauveur.  On  the  2  2nd 
of  June,  1865,  nearly  one  hundred  and  fifty  houses 
were  burnt  to  the  ground  in  Champlain  street,  and  two 
months  later,  on  the  lyth  of  August,  seventy-five 
dwellings  were  destroyed  in  St.  Roch's.  In  1866,  on 
the  1 4th  of  October,  another  fire  broke  out  in  St. 
Roch's  and  destroyed  two  hundred  houses.  On  the 
24th  of  May,  1870,  four  hundred  and  twenty-five 
houses  were  burnt  in  the  same  suburb.  The  next  fire 
was  in  Montcalm  Ward,  in  May,  1876,  when  four 
hundred  and  eleven  houses  were  burnt. 

Twelve  hundred  houses  were  consumed  in  St. 
John's  suburb  on  the  8th  of  June,  1881 ,  and  on  the  i6th 
May,  1889  four  hundred  dwellings  suffered  a  similar 
fate.  In  1889  there  was  another  great  fire  in  St.  Rochs. 

This  table  of  disasters  shows  that  the  greater 
portion  of  Quebec  has  been  swept  away  by  the  ravages 
of  fire  upon  more  than  one  occasion.  Within  recent 
years  the  regulations  have  been  enforced  against  the 
construction  of  wooden  buildings,  which  has  minimized 
the  danger  of  a  repetition  of  such  wholesale  destruction. 
The  establishment  and  equipment  of  a  good  fire  brigade 
with  a  plentiful  supply  of  water  has  rendered  these 
unfortunate  occurrences  less  frequent  of  late  years ; 
the  last  great  fire  having  caused  the  destruction  of  the 
Victoria  Hotel,  which  claimed  two  victims. 

On  the  1 8th  of  August  1903,  the  Great  Northern 
Workshops  were  destroyed. 



It  will  be  of  interest  to  many  to  trace  the  growth 
of  the  population  of  Quebec  since  the  time  when 
Champlain  arrived  with  his  little  band  of  followers. 

The  census  shows  the  population  to  have  been  as 
follows  : 

In  1665 547 

1685 1,205 

i7°6 x.549 

1716 1,771 

1739 4,603 

1765 8>967 

1790 14,000 

1845 46,000 

1851 42,000 

1861 50,000 

1871 60,000 

1881 62,000 

1891 63,000 

1901 68,000 

From  the  figures  we  have  given,  it  will  be  seen 
that  the  fires  of  1845  interfered  materially  with  the 
progress  of  Quebec.  Many  families  finding  their  homes 
destroyed  commenced  life  afresh  in  other  cities.  Thus, 
in  1851,  we  find  the  population  given  as  42,000,  while 
in  1845  it  had  been  46,000. 

In  consequence  of  the  fire  in  the  Chateau  St.  Louis 
in  1834  the  Governor  leased  the  building  at  the  corner 
of  St.  Anne  and  Fort  Sts.  for  the  use  of  the  Government 



The  Castle,  or  Chateau  St.  Louis  had  always  been 
the  residence  of  the  Governors  under  the  French  regime, 
and  it  was  occupied  by  the  English  Governors  for  a 
long  time.  In  the  course  of  years  it  was  found  to  be 
too  small  for  the  accommodation  of  the  Governor  and 
the  numerous  officials.  In  Lord  Haldimand's  time  a 
building  was  erected  for  public  receptions  and  social 
functions,  which  was  afterwards  known  as  the  Old 
Chateau.  Between  1809  and  1811  a  second  story  was 
added  to  the  original  Chateau,  and  it  was  then  called 
the  New  Chateau.  After  the  fire  in  1834,  the  name  of 
the  Chateau  St.  Louis  was  given  to  the  other  building. 

The  walls  of  the  Chateau  were  levelled  during 
Lord  Durhams'  term,  and  a  terrace  was  commenced, 
1 60  feet  in  length,  named  Durham  Terrace. 

The  terrace  was  extended  to  the  length  of  270 
feet  in  1854,  and  in  1879  it  was  continued  to  the  foot 
of  Cape  Diamond  Redoubt,  giving  it  a  total  length  of 
1,400  feet.  This  splendid  promenade  is  the  favourite 
resort  of  the  citizens  and  visitors  during  the  summer 
evenings.  The  Chateau  Frontenac  Hotel  has  replaced 
Haldimand  house,  and  nothing  now  remains  of  the 
old  castle  St.  Louis  and  its  dependencies.  The  Earl  of 
Dufferin  proposed  to  restore  the  Chateau  as  an  official 
residence  for  the  Governors,  and  magnificent  plans 
were  prepared  for  the  purpose. 

Quebec,  as  we  have  shown,  has  had  its  share  of 
disastrous  fires.  It  has  also  suffered  severely  from 
other  causes.  In  the  early  days  of  the  colony  the 
inhabitants  constructed  temporary  dwellings  in  the 



lower  town  on  the  narrow  strip  of  ground  situated  at 
the  foot  of  Cape  Diamond,  and  notwithstanding  the 
fact  that  large  portions  of  the  overhanging  rock  have 
from  time  to  time  fallen,  and  demolished  many  of  the 
houses  in  the  district,  the  people  seem  to  have  no 
desire  to  abandon  the  spot.  On  the  iyth  of  May,  1841, 
an  enormous  piece  of  rock  fell,  burying  eight  houses 
and  killing  thirty  people. 

In  1852,  another  piece  of  rock  gave  way,  and  seven 
persons  were  killed.  Twenty  years  later,  in  1872,  a 
house  containing  eight  persons  was  crushed  beneath 
the  weight  of  an  avalanche  of  snow,  and  none  of  the 
unfortunate  inmates  escaped. 

At  8.15  P.  M.,  on  the  igth  of  September,  1899,  a 
portion  of  the  rock  at  the  southern  end  of  Dufferin 
Terrace,  which  had  been  undermined  by  excessive  rain, 
suddenly  gave  away.  Forty-eight  people  were  killed 
and  over  thirty  were  wounded,  and  seven  houses  were 
buried  beneath  the  ruins. 

Quebec  has  been  depopulated  by  many  epidemic 
diseases.  These  may  be  grouped  in  three  classes  : 

1 .  Epidemic  diseases  commonly  known  as  summer 
complaints,  grippe,  eruptive  fevers,  scurvy,  whooping 
cough,  diptheria,  erysipelas. 

2.  Pestilential  diseases  such  as  Asiatic  cholera. 

3.  Accidental  diseases  such  as  epidemic  cerebro- 
spinal  meningitis.     Those   that   caused   the    greatest 
ravages  were  Asiatic  cholera,  small-pox,  scarlet  fever, 
and  diptheria.     The  presence  of  scurvy  in  the  country 
dates  from  its  discovery  and  the  foundation  of  Quebec. 

16  241 


Wherever  the  European  set  foot  the  scurvy  broke  out 
and  claimed  many  victims.  Jacques  Cartier  lost  nearly 
one  fourth  of  his  crew  from  this  disease,  in  the  winter 
°f  T535-  Twenty-five  of  his  men  died,  and  those  who 
survived  owed  their  recovery  to  the  Indians,  who  told 
them  of  a  sovereign  remedy.  During  the  first  winter 
after  the  foundation  of  Quebec,  eighteen,  out  of  the 
twenty  inhabitants,  were  attacked  by  this  dread  disease, 
and  ten  of  them  succumbed,  while  six  died  soon  after 
from  dysentery.  Small-pox  claimed  many  victims, 
in  1703,  1732,  1733,  and  1755.  In  the  igth  century 
this  malignant  disease  became  general  in  Canada, 
Quebec  suffering  as  much  as  the  other  cities.  The 
epidemic  of  1703  was  particularly  severe.  The  registers 
show  that  there  were  over  two  thousand  deaths. ' '  Never 
has  such  misery  been  seen,"  exclaims  the  historian  of 
the  Hotel  Dieu.  "  Everyone  was  deploring  the  loss 
of  a  relation  ;  one  his  wife,  the  other  her  husband  ; 
one  his  brother,  the  other  his  children.  Orphans  wept 
for  their  parents  ;  all  were  in  tears,  and  there  were  no 
gatherings  except  for  funerals."  The  Hotel  Dieu  lost 
five  nuns,  the  General  Hospital  two,  and  members  of 
the  clergy  also  fell  victims.  In  1732,  small-pox  was 
brought  to  Quebec  by  an  Indian,  and  in  a  few  days  it 
became  general  until  it  spread  all  over  Canada.  At 
one  time  there  were  two  thousand  sick.  M.  Boullard, 
the  curl  of  Quebec,  was  one  of  the  many  victims  at 
this  time.  In  the  years  1711,  1718  and  1740,  Quebec 
was  visited  by  a  plague,  the  exact  nature  of  which  it  is 
difficult  to  determine.  The  historian  of  the  Hotel  Dieu 



describes  it  as  the  disease  of  Siam.  It  was  brought  to 
Quebec  by  a  ship,  in  1711,  hailing  from  the  Islands. 
All  who  were  attacked  by  it  perished.  Six  nuns  of 
the  Hotel  Dieu  died  from  it,  and  twelve  priests, 
including  M.  Pocquet,  the  curt  of  Quebec.  In  the 
year  1718,  one- third  of  the  inmates  of  the  Hotel  Dieu 
died  within  the  space  of  one  month. 

The  ship  bringing  Monsegneur  de  1,'Aube-Riviere 
arrived  in  Quebec  in  August,  1740,  with  one  hundred 
and  sixty  persons  suffering  from  this  disease.  Nearly 
all  of  them  were  taken  to  the  Hotel  Dieu.  "  I  have 
never  seen  so  many  sick  in  the  hospital,"  wrote  Mere 
Ste.  Helene  ;  ' '  the  wards,  garrets  and  outer  parlours 
all  were  filled,  and  we  can  hardly  pass  between  the 
beds.  All  became  as  black  as  negroes  as  soon  as  they 
were  dead."  It  was  thought  at  the  time  that  the 
disease  was  pupura,  and  the  death  of  Monseigneur 
I/  Aube-Riviere  was  attributed  to  that  malignant  fever. 
Besides  diseases  of  an  erruptive  nature,  there  were 
those  termed  pestilential  fevers,  which  broke  out  in 
Quebec  in  1709,  1746,  1750,  1757  and  1758.  On  all 
these  occasions  the  hospitals  of  the  town  were  over- 
crowded, and  the  devoted  sisters  paid  a  large  tribute 
to  the  mortality  of  the  times.  In  1750  the  General 
Hospital  lost  the  confessor  of  the  community  in  the 
person  of  Father  Durand.  In  1 756  six  hundred  plague 
stricken  patients  were  admitted  to  the  General  Hospital. 
The  ship  that  brought  the  fever  was  burned  in  the 
harbour.  Six  hundred  persons  died  in  the  General 
Hospital  in  1757,  and  three  hundred  in  1758. 



Since  the  year  1832  there  have  been  six  outbreaks 
of  Asiatic  cholera.  The  first  visitation  in  1832  was  the 
most  terrible.  Notwithstanding  all  the  precautions 
which  were  taken  to  prevent  the  eruption  of  the  plague 
which  had  been  raging  all  over  Europe  for  some  y ears, 
cholera  made  itself  manifest  in  Quebec  on  the  gth  of 
June.  By  the  i5th  of  the  month  it  had  become  general, 
and  in  the  space  of  one  month  over  four  thousand  people 
died  in  Quebec  and  Montreal  from  this  terrible  disease. 
Subsequent  epidemics  occurred  in  1834,  1849,  1852, 
1854,  but  with  less  fatal  results. 

But,  we  have  seen  enough  of  this  sorrowful  history 
of  Quebec.  Let  us  turn  to  some  of  the  occasions  of 
rejoicing  in  the  city. 

The  union  of  the  Provinces  had  the  effedl  of 
developing  the  literature  of  the  country,  and  also  of 
promoting  fraternal  organizations.  For  the  preserva- 
tion of  their  individuality,  the  French  Canadians  had 
formed  an  organization  under  the  name  of  Saint-Jean- 
Baptiste,  and  the  first  celebration  of  the  society  was 
held  upon  the  feast  of  the  Saint  in  1842.  In  the  year 
1843  the  members  wore  a  token  of  mourning  in  mem- 
ory of  Sir  Charles  Bagot.  In  1845,  the  year  of  the 
disastrous  fire,  the  celebration  was  omitted,  but  from 
1846  there  has  been  an  annual  gathering.  The  cele- 
brations of  1880,  1889,  1898  and  1902,  were  the  most 
elaborate.  The  celebration  of  1880  was  rendered  more 
impressive  on  account  of  the  session  of  the  Catholic 
Congress.  Mass  was  celebrated  in  the  open  air  at 
Claire  Fontaine  street.  Patriotic  speeches  were  deliv- 



ered  by  Mgr.  Lafleche,  Judge  Routhier,  Mr.  now  Sir 
Wilfrid  Laurier,  and  Judge  L,andry.  The  celebration 
in  1889  was  marked  by  the  inauguration  of  the  monu- 
ment to  Jacques-Cartier,  and  the  heroic  work  of  the 
first  missionaries.  It  was  a  brilliant  affair  participated 
in  by  50,000  Canadians.  In  1898,  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Society,  the  Earl  of  Aberdeen  unveiled  the 
monument  to  the  founder  of  Quebec,  Samuel  Cham- 
plain.  Representatives  attended  'from  all  parts  of 
Canada,  and  the  presence  of  the  officers  and  men  of 
the  ships  of  war  that  were  in  port  at  the  time  gave 
additional  significance  to  the  event.  The  memorable 
speeches  that  were  delivered  on  that  day  deserve  to  be 
preserved.  The  speakers  were  :  The  Earl  of  Aberdeen, 
Sir  Wilfrid  Laurier,  Sir  Louis  Jette,  Monsieur  Klecz- 
kowski,  the  Honourable  Mr.  Marchand,  Judge  Rou- 
thier, and  the  Hon.  H.  T.  Duffy  :  Judge  Chauveau 
also  read  an  address. 

A  double  celebration  occurred  in  1902  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  commemoration  of  the  fiftieth  anniversary  of 
the  foundation  of  Laval  University.  Mass  was  sung  in 
the  presence  of  an  immense  concourse  of  people  on 
Dufferin  Terrace, close  to  the  monument  to  the  Founder. 
Many  splendid  celebrations  have  taken  place  in  Quebec 
from  earliest  times.  The  arrival  of  the  Marquis  de 
Tracy  was  made  the  occasion  of  great  public  rejoicing, 
which  for  the  time  and  the  condition  of  the  city,  was 

The  visits  of  members  of  the  Royal  Family  to 
Quebec  have  always  been  specially  marked. 



On  the  i4th  of  August,  1787,  the  Pegasus  arrived 
in  port,  having  on  board  Prince  William  Henry,  Duke 
of  Clarence,  the  third  son  of  the  reigning  sovereign. 
The  Prince  was  the  first  royal  visitor  to  Quebec  since 
its  foundation. 

On  the  7th  of  August,  1791,  two  ships  of  the 
Royal  Navy  under  the  command  of  Prince  Edward, 
Duke  of  Kent,  anchored  in  the  St.  Lawrence  before 
Quebec.  The  Prince  was  the  fourth  son  of  the  King, 
and  at  that  time  was  twenty-five  years  of  age.  Two- 
days  after  the  Prince  received  the  homage  of  the  clergy, 
the  civil  and  military  authorities  and  the  inhabitants, 
in  the  castle  of  St.  I^ouis.  A  grand  ball  was  given 
on  the  2nd  of  November,  the  birthday  of  the  Duke, 
and  the  city  was  illuminated  at  night  ;  a  drama  was 
performed  in  1792  in  his  honour.  The  Duke  remained 
in  Quebec  until  1794. 

A  long  interval  elapsed  before  the  arrival  of  another 
member  of  the  Royal  House.  It  was  on  the  iSth  of 
August,  1860,  that  His  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  of 
Wales,  now  His  Majesty,  King  Edward  the  Seventh Y 
landed  in  Quebec. 

As  the  Hero  rounded  the  point  of  Orleans  the 
cannons  from  the  Citadel,  the  Ramparts  and  the  men 
of  war,  boomed  out  a  royal  welcome.  The  firing  con- 
tinued until  the  vessel  appeared  opposite  the  city,  so 
that  Quebec  seemed  in  a  state  of  siege.  The  volumes 
of  smoke  almost  obscured  the  buildings  for  some  time. 
The  people  in  the  streets  were  so  densely  packed  that 
it  was  difficult  to  obtain  standing  room.  The  Hero 



was  moored  at  the  Queen's  Wharf,  where  all  the 
eminent  people  were  assembled  to  welcome  His  Royal 
Highness.  The  mayor  of  the  city,  Sir  Hector  L,an- 
gevin,  presented  an  address  of  welcome,  after  which 
the  Royal  guests  drove  to  the  residence  of  the  Governor 
Sir  Edmund  Head.  In  the  evening,  the  city  of  Quebec, 
the  town  of  Levis,  and  the  village  of  Beauport,  were 

On  the  following  days  there  were  many  demons- 
trations not  less  flattering  to  the  Prince.  A  reception 
was  held  at  Laval  University  on  the  2ist  of  August  in 
honour  of  the  Prince  at  which  nine  Bishops  were 
present.  The  Prince  visited  theUrsuline  convent  and 
other  communities  during  his  sojourn  in  Quebec. 

The  festivities  which  attended  the  visit  of  their 
Royal  Highnesses,  the  Duke  and  Duchess  of  Cornwall 
and  York,  on  the  iyth  of  September,  1901,  were  not 
less  brilliant.  As  the  Orphit  appeared  before  Quebec 
a  royal  salute  was  fired  from  the  Citadel  and  from  the 
ships  in  port.  His  Excellency,  the  Earl  of  Minto, 
received  the  royal  guests  at  the  landing  place,  accom- 
panied by  the  members  of  the  Cabinet.  The  passage 
of  their  Royal  Highnesses  from  the  wharf  to  the 
Parliament  was  one  of  triumph  At  the  entrance  to 
the  grounds  a  beautiful  arch  had  been  creeled  under 
the  direction,  and  from  the  designs  of  Mr.  Eugene 
Tache,  I.  S.  O.  In  the  centre  of  the  arch  a  floral 
bell  was  hung  to  which  silken  strings  were  attached, 
held  by  little  girls  clothed  in  white.  As  the  royal 
visitors  passed  under  the  arch,  the  bell  was  set  in 



motion,  and  flowers  fell  upon  them.  A  platform  was 
erected  in  the  grounds  for  a  choir  of  thousands  of 
children,  and  at  a  given  signal  a  chorus  was  sung  as 
the  Duke  and  Duchess  proceeded  to  the  main  entrance 
of  the  Parliament.  An  address  was  presented  to  His 
Royal  Highness  by  the  Hon.  S.  N.  Parent.  In  the 
afternoon  a  reception  was  held  in  Laval  University,  at 
which  the  professors  and  doctors  of  the  University 
were  presented  to  the  royal  guests.  On  the  following 
day  a  review  was  held  on  the  Race  Course,  after  which 
the  Duke  and  Duchess  were  the  guests  of  Sir  Louis 
and  Lady  Jette  at  Spencer  Wood.  The  illumination 
of  the  city  during  the  evening  was  a  memorable  sight. 

His  Royal  Highness  Prince  Alfred  was  a  guest  of 
the  city  in  1861,  and  Prince  Arthur  in  1869.  Her 
Royal  Highness  the  Princess  Louise  was  of  ten  a  visitor 
to  Quebec,  during  the  time  that  her  husband  the 
Marquess  of  Lome,  was  Governor  General  of  Canada. 
The  Grand  Duke  Alexis  of  Russia  paid  a  visit  to 
Quebec  in  1871,  and  Dom  Pedro,  Emperor  of  Brazil, 
came  in  1876.  The  Marquis  de  Levis,  the  Marquis  de 
Charette,  the  Prince  de  Joinville,  Prince  Napoleon 
Bonaparte,  the  Count  de  Paris,  the  Duke  of  Orleans, 
and  many  other  distinguished  visitors  have  paid  short 
visits  to  the  city  at  different  times. 

Quebec  has  frequently  recalled  the  memory  of 
important  historical  events  with  befitting  celebrations, 
and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  two  races  which 
preserve  their  individuality,  are  one  on  occasions  such 
as  this. 



Thus  in  the  year  1875,  the  Quebec  literary  and 
Historical  Society  assembled  to  celebrate  the  victory 
obtained  over  Arnold' s  troops  in  1775.  The  same  event 
was  also  celebrated  by  the  French  Canadians  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Institut  Canadien.  A  ledture  was 
delivered  by  the  late  Mr.  Turcotte,  and  the  proceedings 
were  afterwards  published  in  pamphlet  form.  The 
fourth  centenary  of  the  discovery  of  America  was 
recalled  by  an  entertainment  given  by  the  Institut. 
High  mass  was  celebrated  in  the  Basilica,  and  in  the 
evening  speeches  were  delivered  in  the  Academy  of 
Music  by  Messrs.  Routhier  and  Chapais. 

The  Seminary  of  Quebec  and  L,aval  University 
have  held  several  notable  festivals.  On  the  i6th  of 
June,  1859,  the  Seminary  celebrated  the  bi-centenary 
of  the  arrival  of  its  founder  Monseigneur  de  Laval,  and 
again  on  the  3oth  of  June,  1863,  the  two  hundredth 
anniversary  of  its  foundation  was  suitably  honoured. 

A  very  brilliant  festival  was  held  in  Quebec  on 
the  2oth  June,  1886,  to  commemorate  the  installation 
of  the  first  Canadian  Cardinal,  Monseigneur  E.  A. 
Taschereau,  who  for  fifteen  years  had  been  Archbishop 
of  Quebec.  His  talents,  his  eminent  virtue,  and  his 
prudent  administration  of  the  diocese,  had  won  for 
him  the  highest  honour  which  the  Church  confers  upon 
her  servants.  Twenty-one  archbishops  and  Bishops 
were  present  at  the  ceremony  in  the  Basilica,  and 
tributes  from  all  over  the  Dominion  were  laid  at  the 
feet  of  the  new  Cardinal.  In  the  evening  a  meeting 
was  held  at  the  Skating  Rink,  when  Judge  Routhier 



made  a  remarkable  speech.  Monseigneur  O'Brien,  the 
Papal  Ablegate,  remarked  :  "I  have  never  heard  a 
more  eloquent,  a  more  Catholic  or  a  more  theological 

Scarcely  a  year  passes  in  Quebec  without  a  special 
celebration.  Sometimes  it  is  on  the  occasion  of  the 
visits  of  His  Excellency  the  Governor- General,  or  of 
distinguished  visitors  from  abroad  ;  or  when  any  of  the 
vessels  of  the  Royal  navy  or  of  foreign  countries  are 
in  port,  but  whenever  a  suitable  opportunity  is  offered 
the  citizens  are  always  eager  to  maintain  their  reput- 
ation for  hospitality. 

In  the  second  part  of  this  work,  we  have  given  a 
more  detailed  account  of  many  of  the  public  buildings, 
and  places  of  interest  in  the  city. 





QUEBEC  has  nine  parish  churches,  four  others  in 
charge  of  chaplains,  and  thirteen  chapels  attached 
to  religious  communities  but  open  to  the  public. 

The  first  of  the  parish  churches,  both  as  regards 
antiquity  and  rank,  is  the  Cathedral,  erected  as  a  minor 
basilica  in  1874.  Until  1829,  it  was  the  only  parish 
church,  but  since  then  seven  parishes  have  been  formed 
in  the  territory  formerly  occupied  by  all  the  parishioners 
of  the  city.  These  parishes  are  :  St.  Roch,  St.  Patrick, 
St.  Sauveur,  St.  Jean  Baptiste,  Notre  Dame  de  la 
Garde,  Stadacona,  L,imoilou,  St.  Malo  and  Jacques 

The  four  churches  in  charge  of  chaplains,  and  not 
connected  with  religious  communities,  are  those  of 



Notre  Dame  des  Victoires,  Notre  Dame  de  Lourdes, 
Notre  Dame  du  Chemin,  and  the  church  of  the  Congre- 
gation in  the  Upper  Town. 

Finally,  the  chapels  of  communities  are  those  of 
the  Ursulines,  the  Hotel  Dieu,  the  Seminary,  the 
General  Hospital,  the  Good  Shepherd,  the  Sisters  of 
Charity,  the  Patronage,  the  Toadies  of  the  Congrega- 
tion of  St.  Roch,  St.  I/mis  Asylum,  the  Franciscan 
nuns,  the  Franciscan  monks,  the  St.  Antoine  Asylum, 
the  Christian  Brothers'  Academy.  Several  other  in- 
terior chapels  of  smaller  dimensions  also  have  their 
particular  history.  But  we  have  been  compelled  to 
leave  it  aside  and  refer  only  to  the  more  important 


The  first  parish  church  of  Quebec  was  that  of 
Notre  Dame  de  la  Recouvrance  erected  by  Champlain 
in  1633.  The  sudden  increase  of  the  population  in 
1634  and  1635  compelled  the  Jesuits  to  enlarge  it  to 
the  extent  of  one  half  and  they  took  advantage  of  this 
enlargement  to  have  it  dedicated  again.  It  was  placed 
under  the  patronage  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  on 
the  8th  December,  1636,  and  destroyed  by  the  fire  of 
the  1 4th  June  1640.  The  disaster  was  complete  ;  the 
bell  and  chalices  were  melted  by  the  heat ;  the  registers 
of  the  parish  were  burned  with  all  the  contents  of  the 
church.  The  poverty  of  the  inhabitants  was  so  great 
that  many  years  elapsed  before  the  building  of  another 
church  was  thought  of.  In  fact,  it  was  only  on  the 



8th  October,  1645,  that  any  steps  were  taken  in  this 
direction.  At  a  special  meeting  presided  over  by  Father 
Vimont,  Robert  Giffard  and  Noel  Juchereau  des  Cha- 
telets,  the  churchwardens  in  office,  with  the  consent  of 
Pierre  Delaunay  and  Olivier  C.  Tardif,  ex-church- 
wardens, who  had  succeeded  the  first  church-warden 
Francois  Gand,  sieur  de  R6,  it  was  resolved  to  build 
without  delay  and  to  erect  the  future  church  under 
the  name  of  Notre  Dame  de  la  Paix  ;  there  were  to  be 
two  chapels  :  one  dedicated  to  St.  Joseph,  the  patron 
of  the  country,  and  the  other  to  St.  Ignatius  and  St. 
Francis  Xavier. 


Such  was  the  original  title  of  the  parish  church  of 
Quebec.  Why  was  this  name  chosen  in  preference  to 
any  other  ?  In  the  previous  month  of  September  at  a 
meeting  held  in  Three  Rivers,  peace  was  concluded 
with  the  Iroquois,  and  it  was  probably  with  a  view  of 
perpetuating  the  memory  of  that  alliance  that  the  new 
dedication  took  place. 

Two  years  elapsed  before  the  work  was  begun. 
Nevertheless,  during  the  summer  of  1646,  six  men  had 
been  engaged  in  setting  out  stones  and  clearing  the  site 
which  was  about  the  same  as  that  on  which  the  church 
of  Notre  Dame  de  la  Recouvrance  had  been  built. 

The  foundation  stone  was  laid  on  the  23rd  of 
September,  1647.  The  following  is  the  text  of  the 
document  giving  the  date  and  setting  forth  the  facts 
connected  with  the  ceremony. 



"  On  the  23rd  September,  1640.  Rev.  Father 
Hierosme  Lallemant,  superior  of  the  mission  and  M. 
de  Montmagny,  the  governor,  laid  the  corner  stone  of 
the  church  of  Notre  Dame  de  la  Conception  in  Quebec 
under  the  name  of  Notre  Dame  de  la  Paix.  The  said 
stone  is  at  the  angle  of  the  window  frame  on  the  left 
hand  side  as  one  enters  the  church,  on  the  side  and  in 
the  corner  nearest  the  main  altar.  The  names  of  Jesus 
and  Mary  are  carved  on  the  stone  with  a  lead  plate. 


Work  was  begun  in  earnest  only  in  the  spring  of 
1648,  and  was  continued  in  the  following  years.  Mass 
was  celebrated  in  it  on  Christmas  day,  1650.  The  same 
Father  blessed  it  and  celebrated  the  first  mass. 

From  1650  to  1657  the  work  went  slowly  and  the 
new  church  was  finally  opened  on  the  3ist  March,  1657. 
The  building  was  one  hundred  feet  by  thirty-three. 

The  parish  church  was  canonically  erected  by 
Monseigneur  de  L/aval  in  1664  and  united  to  the 
Seminary.  It  was  consecrated  on  the  nth  July  1666. 

In  1677  some  work  was  done  on  the  entrance  side. 
The  steeple  was  begun  in  1684  ;  one  of  the  towers 
remained  unfinished. 

In  1687  the  church  was  lengthened  by  50  feet ; 
this  work  was  finished  in  1689  ;  it  had  been  entrusted 
to  a  Parisian  architect,  Hilaire  Bernard. 

In  1745,  it  was  again  lengthened  by  40  feet  and 
the  two  side-aisles  that  still  exist  were  then  added. 

All  these  works  were  finished  in  1748  that  is  a 
hundred  years  after  the  corner  stone  was  laid. 



To  resume,  we  may  say  that  the  pillars  of  the 
nave  date  from  1647,  the  towers  from  1684  and  the 
remainder  of  the  church  from  1745. 

During  the  siege  of  Quebec  in  1759,  all  the  wooden 
part  was  burned  with  the  exception  of  the  base  of  the 
steeple.  The  walls  were  considerably  damaged  by  the 
cannon  balls  and  shells.  In  1767  it  was  decided  to 
repair  it  but  work  was  begun  only  in  1769.  It  was 
then  lengthened  by  22  feet  on  the  side  of  the  sanctuary, 
so  that  its  length  was  216  feet  and  its  width  94  feet, 
including  the  walls.  The  building  as  repaired  was  fit 
for  occupation  in  1771. 

Since  then  the  only  changes  on  the  outside  were 
made  to  the  front  in  1843,  the  door  was  built  around 
with  cut  stone  from  Pointe-aux-Trembles  and  in  1849,. 
the  famous  tower  on  the  north  side  was  commenced 
which  is  still  incomplete.  Governor  Carleton  in  1775 
gave  a  clock  with  3  chimes  for  the  steeple.  In  1823 
Mr.  Wells  replaced  it  with  a  wooden  clock. 

The  interior  of  the  Basilica  excites  the  admiration 
of  strangers,  not  so  much  on  account  of  its  architectural 
proportions  as  by  its  rich  paintings,  baldachin,  pulpit, 
and  side-chapels,  and  the  pious  souvenirs  connected 
with  it.  In  the  sanctuary  of  this  cathedral  lie  the 
remains  of  nearly  all  the  bishops  of  Quebec ;  of  the 
cures  and  canons  of  the  French  regime  ;  of  the  last  two 
representatives  of  the  Jesuits  and  Recollets,  and  of  seven 
to  eight  hundred  laymen  and  women  belonging  to  the 
first  families  of  Quebec. 



The  cure  of  Quebec,  the  only  irremoveable  one 
in  Canada,  is  deserving  of  special  study,  not  only 
because  it  has  been  filled  by  eminent  men,  but  also 
on  account  of  the  high  rank  that  has  always  been 
attributed  to  it.  Three  priests  have  left  it  to  fill  the 
episcopal  See  of  Quebec  ;  others  have  filled  it  while 
occupying  the  position  of  Superior  of  the  Seminary  ; 
all  have  been  distinguished  for  their  talents  or  their 
virtues.  Henri  de  Bernieres,  Ango  des  Maizerets, 
Bertrand  de  la  Tour,  Plessis,  Signay,  Baillargeon, 
Proulx,  were  model  cure's  of  whom  the  sanctuary 
retains  precious  souvenirs. 

The  first  titular  curS  was  Gabriel  de  Queylus, 
abbe  of  L,oc-Dieu.  Some  time  after  his  arrival  in  the 
country  he  received  the  keys  of  the  parish  church  from 
Father  Poncet,  Jesuit  (1657).  We  find  in  the  archives 
of  Notre- Dame  de  Quebec  a  note  in  which  it  is  stated 
that  M.  1' Abbe  de  Queylus,  having  no  presbytery, 
brought  a  suit  against  the  Jesuits  to  make  them  hand 
over  to  him  the  new  building  they  had  erected,  or  repay 
the  six  hundred  livres  they  had  accepted  in  1645  for 
the  purpose  of  erecting  a  presbytery  on  the  church 

Abbe  Jean  Torcapel  succeeded  M.  de  Queylus  in 
1659.  He  was  a  priest  whom  the  Bishop  of  Petrea 
had  brought  with  him  from  France.  His  health  did 
not  allow  him  to  retain  the  cure  beyond  a  year.  He 
left  for  France  on  the  i8th  of  October,  1660,  leaving  in 
charge  M.  Henri  de  Bernieres,  who  had  been  ordained 
on  the  1 3th  of  March  previous.  The  new  curS  enjoyed 



the  Bishop's  full  confidence.  He  was  the  nephew  of 
M.  de  Bernieres  Louvigny  of  the  Hermitage  of  Caen, 
where  Monseigneur  de  Laval  had  spent  many  pleasant 
days.  He  had  been  trained  in  the  same  school  of  virtue, 
beside  M.  Ango  de  Maizerets,  M.  Jean  Du  Douyt,  and 
M.  Thomas  Morel,  who  became  powerful  assistants  of 
the  venerable  prelate  on  Canadian  soil. 

M.  de  Bernieres  became  titular  cure  only  in  1664 
and  continued  in  office  until  1672  while  retaining  the 
position  of  superior  of  the  Seminary.  M.  Ango  des 
Maizerets  replaced  him  from  1672  to  1673  when  M. 
de  Bernieres  resumed  his  duties  as  cur£  of  Quebec,  for 
fourteen  years  longer,  that  is  until  1687. 

He  was  succeeded  by  abbe  J.  Dupre  who  remained 
in  office  for  twenty  years  (1687-1707).  Like  his  two 
immediate  predecessors  and  some  of  those  who  came 
after  him  until  1768,  M.  Dupre  was  a  member  of  the 
SSminaire  des  Missions  Etrangeres.  The  latter  were 
Pierre  Pocquet  (1707-11),  Thomas  Thiboult  (1711-24), 
Etienne  Boullard  (1724-33),  Bertrand  de  la  Tour 
(1734-44),  Lyon  Saint-Ferreol  (1734-37),  Jacques 
Dartigues  (1738-39)  Charles  Plante  (1739-44),  M. 
Delbois  (1744-49),  Jean  Francois  Recher  (1749-68). 
During  the  siege  of  Quebec  1759  the  cm 6  of  Quebec 
had  to  lodge  at  the  Ursulines  until  the  24th  December 
1764  and  celebrated  parochial  offices  in  the  Seminary 

Bernard'Sylvestre  Dosque  took  charge  of  the  cure 
in  1769  and  at  his  death  in  1774,  was  replaced  by 
Auguste  David  Hubert,  ordained  the  previous  year. 

17  257 


He  was  drowned  in  1792  near  the  Island  of  Orleans. 
He  was  succeeded  by  Joseph  Octave  Plessis.  This 
young  priest  soon  made  himself  conspicuous  by  his 
eloquence,  and  his  cool  judgment  amidst  the  turmoil  of 
spiritual  and  temporal  matters.  Devoted  to  his  ministry 
he  neglected  no  means  to  retain  his  flock  within  the 
fold  and  bring  back  those  that  wandered  from  it. 
He  taught  catechism,  and  visited  the  sick  like  the 
humblest  of  his  vicars.  He  was  very  earnest  in  the 
cause  of  education  that  had  been  greatly  neglected. 
After  his  consecration  as  bishop  Monseigneur  Plessis 
continued  to  perform  the  duties  of  cure  and  he  relin- 
quished them  to  M.  Andre  Doucet  only  in  1806,  five 
years  after  his  appointment  as  coadjutor.  M.  Boucet 
was  appointed  in  1806,  and  remained  in  office  until 
1814.  when  he  was  succeeded  b}^  M.  Joseph  Siguay 
who  had  until  then  been  a  missionary  on  L,ake  Chani- 
plain.  This  worthy  priest  became  coadjutor  when 
Monseigneur  Panet  succeeded  Monseigneur  Flessis. 

M.  Charles  Francois  Baillargeon  was  appointed 
curl  of  Quebec  in  1831.  A  model  of  piety  and  of  every 
virtue,  the  new  pastor  displayed  in  the  cure  the  quali- 
ties that  were  later  on  to  distinguish  him  as  Bishop. 

M.  Louis  Proulx  occupied  the  office  only  for  a 
very  short  time.  His  temperament  and  tastes  led  him 
to  labor  far  from  cities  ;  and  yet  his  qualities  would 
have  made  him  appear  to  advantage  on  any  scene.  He 
possessed  knowledge,  prudence  and  a  calm  judgment ; 
all  precious  gifts  which  would  have  caused  him  to  be 
as  highly  appreciated  in  the  town  and  in  the  country. 



In  1851,  M.  Joseph  Auclair  exchanged  curls  with 
M.  Proulx.  All  who  knew  M.  Auclair  praised  his 
zeal  for  the  church,  his  proverbial  cheerfulness  and 
the  care  he  took  in  preparing  his  sermons.  He  was  a 
poet  at  times  ;  his  short  heroic-comic  poem,  Le  Congrts 
de  la  Bale  St.  Paul,  is  well  and  favourably  known. 

M.  Auclair  died  at  the  end  of  November,  1887, 
and  was  succeeded  by  M.  F.  X.  Faguy,  whose  official 
appointment  dates  from  January,  1888.  His  adminis- 
tration during  fourteen  years  has  been  judicious.  Few 
airSs  have  done  as  much  as  he  for  the  ornamentation 
of  the  Basilica  of  Notre  Dame  or  have  given  a  more 
imposing  character  to  the  great  festivals  of  the  church. 
Through  his  efforts  the  monumental  tablets  of  the  four 
Governors  of  New  France  ;  to  the  Jesuits  and  Recollets 
whose  ashes  lie  in  the  vaults  of  the  parish  church, 
have  been  erected. 


On  the  1 8th  April  1811,  Mr.  John  Munn  gave 
Monseigneur  Plessis,  Bishop  of  Quebec,  a  lot  of  land 
conceded  by  Mr.  Joseph  Frenette  for  the  erection  of  a 
church.  On  the  i6th  May  following,  the  citizens  of 
Quebec  met  and  passed  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  generous 
donor  and  elected  trustees  for  the  construction  of  the 
church.  Amongst  these  trustees  was  Brother  Louis,  a 
Recollet,  and  Mr.  Louis  Claude  Gauvreau,  an  ancestor 
of  the  present  cure  of  St.  Roch. 

The  first  stone  of  the  new  church  was  blessed  on 
the  28th  August  1811  by  Vicar-General  Descheneaux. 



The  fire  of  the  iSth  December,  1816,  destroyed  the 
building  with  the  exception  of  the  sacrist}7.  The  work 
of  rebuilding  began  at  once,  and  on  the  8th  of  October, 
1818,  Monseigneur  Plessis  opened  this  second  chapel 
for  public  worship.  Until  then  the  banlieue  of  St. 
Roch  was  only  a  branch  of  the  parish  of  Notre  Dame 
de  Quebec.  Nevertheless  Monseigneur  Plessis  took 
great  interest  in  this  group  of  well  disposed  faithful 
and  on  the  iyth  June,  1821,  he  had  the  pleasure  of 
consecrating  there,  Monseigneur  McEachern,  the  first 
Bishop  of  Charlpttetown.  This  was  the  occasion  of  a 
general  celebration. 

On  the  1 5th  September,  1829,  Abbe  C.  F.  Cazeau, 
under-secretary  of  the  bishop  of  Quebec,  presided  at  a 
meeting  held  by  the  citizens  of  St.  Roch  suburbs, 
hitherto  a  dependency  of  the  upper  town  parish,  for 
the  purpose  of  erecting  their  suburb  into  a  parish. 
Their  resolution  was  carried  unanimously  and  on  the 
26th  of  September  of  the  same  year,  Monseigneur 
Bernard  Claude  Panet  issued  the  decree  erecting  the 

On  the  28th  May,  1845,  the  church  of  St.  Roch 
was  destroyed  by  fire  ;  the  convent  and  the  catechism 
chapel  (^the  present  mortuary  chapel)  were  saved  ; 
the  latter  was  destroyed  in  the  fire  of  the  24th  May, 
1870,  but  was  rebuilt  the  same  year.  For  a  long  while 
it  was  used  in  connection  with  funerals,  and  in  1882  it 
was  finally  closed  as  a  place  of  divine  worship. 

The  parish  of  St.  Roch  has  increased  since  its 
foundation  to  such  an  extent  that  the  religious  author- 



ities  have  been  obliged,  at  various  intervals,  to  make 
new  parishes  out  of  it ;  these  are  St.  Sauveur,  Limoilou, 
Stadacona  and  Jacques-Cartier. 

St.  Sauveur  was  erected  into  a  parish  on  the  ist  of 
May,  1867.  The  name  was  given  in  remembrance  of 
Abbe  Jean  L,eSueur  de  St.  Sauveur,  the  first  secular 
priest  who  came  to  Canada  (1634)  and  who  had 
charge  of  the  small  chapel  of  St.  John  at  Coteau  Ste. 

The  parish  of  Limoilou  dates  from  the  24th  of 
May,  1893.  The  name  is  that  of  the  residence  of 
Jacques  Cartier,  the  discoverer  of  Canada,  a  few  miles 
from  St.  Malo  in  Brittany.  Stadacona  was  creeled 
into  a  parish  on  the  same  day. 

Jacques-Cartier  was  erected  as  a  parish  on  the 
25th  September,  1901. 

These  four  new  parishes,  detached  from  St.  Roch, 
are  very  flourishing,  especially  St.  Sauveur,  which  has 
become  the  parent  of  another  parish  called  St.  Malo. 

Before  the  erection  of  St.  Roch  suburbs  into  a 
parish,  it  was  in  charge  of  chaplains.  This  period 
covers  eleven  years,  from  1818  to  1829.  The  chaplains 
were  Messrs.  Hyaciuthe  Hudon,  Claude  Gauvreau, 
Jos.  F.  Aubry,  C.  F.  Baillargeon,  Hugh  Paisley, 
Alexis  Mailloux,  Jean  Naud,  L,ouis  Desfosses  and 
Benjamin  Desrochers. 

The  first  curt  was  M.  A.  Mailloux,  from  1829  to 
1831,  then  followed  in  succession,  M.  David  Henri 
T£tu,  from  1833  to  1839  ;  Zephyrin  Charest,  from  1839 
to  1876  ;  F.  X.  Gosselin,  from  1876  to  1885  ;  T.  H. 



B61anger,  from  1885  to  1895.  The  present  curl,  Abb6 
Antoine  Gauvreau,  has  with  rare  disinterestedness 
effected  the  dismembering  of  his  parish  and  has  also 
succeeded  in  founding  an  asylum  which  is  of  great 
service  to  the  poorer  classes  of  St.  Roch. 

The  church  of  St.  Roch  is  sufficiently  spacious, 
178  feet  by  91.  In  1871,  the  chapel  dedicated  to  the 
Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus  was  built  on  St.  Francis  street, 
after  a  retreat  preached  by  Reverend  Father  Resther, 
S.  J.  The  chapel  was  blessed  in  June,  1873. 

In  the  sanctuary  is  the  heart  of  Monseigneur 
Plessis,  which  was  transferred  from  the  General  Hos- 
pital on  the  3<Dth  September,  1847,  and  ^so  tne  body 
of  Abbe  Desfosses,  one  of  the  chaplains  of  St.  Roch. 

The  three  bells  were  placed  in  the  steeple  in  July 
1847,  and  blessed  on  the  3rd  of  the  same  month. 

In  front  of  the  church  is  a  gilt  statue  of  St.  Roch 
with  his  dog. 


The  first  church  of  St.  Jean  Baptiste  suburbs  was 
begun  in  1847  and  blessed  on  the  25th  June,  1849. 
Its  dimensions  were  180  feet  by  80.  From  1849  to 
1886  the  church  was  a  branch  of  the  cathedral  and 
was  in  charge  of  a  chaplain.  On  the  8th  of  June,  1881, 
it  was  destroyed  by  the  disastrous  fire  that  swept  away 
one  half  the  suburbs.  A  new  and  much  larger  church, 
234  feet  by  87  which  was  blessed  on  the  27th  of  July, 
1884,  has  replaced  it. 



The  parish  of  St.  Jean  Baptiste  was  canonically 
erected  on  the  24th  May,  1886,  by  a  decree  of  Cardinal 
Taschereau,  and  the  civil  erection  was  sanctioned  by 
an  act  of  the  Legislature,  dated  the  2ist  of  June  in 
the  same  year. 

The  present  population  of  the  parish  is  12,000  souls. 

The  interior  of  this  church  is  very  pretty,  but  the 
exterior  is  especially  remarkable  for  its  elegant  propor- 
tions and  the  beauty  of  its  fa?ade. 


The  decree  authorizing  the  construction  of  this 
church  is  dated  gth  of  April,  1877.  Work  was  begun 
at  once  on  the  building  which  is  of  cut  stone  100  feet 
by  50.  The  style  is  Roman. 

Notre  Dame  de  la  Garde  was  erected  into  a  parish 
on  the  23rd  of  July  1885,  and  detached  from  the 
cathedral  of  which  it  had  been  a  branch  until  then. 

CHURCH    OF    ST.    MALO 

The  parish  of  St.  Malo  was  founded  on  the  ist  of 
July,  1898.  The  church  was  blessed  on  the  4th  of 
February  1899  by  His  Grace  Archbishop  Begin.  The 
dimensions  are  imposing,  175  feet  by  64  with  a  transept 
of  95  feet.  The  style  is  Roman. 

The  first  cure  of  St.  Malo  was  abbe  Henri  Defoy, 
now  a  religious  of  the  order  of  the  Fathers  of  the 
Blessed  Sacrament.  His  successor  abM  H.  Bouffard  is 
the  present  incumbent. 



Close  by  the  church  stands  the  convent  in  charge 
of  the  Sisters  of  Notre  Dame.  The  corner-stone  of  this 
pretty  building  was  blessed  on  the  i8th  of  August, 
1901  ;  its  dimensions  are  80  feet  by  45,  and  it  is  four 
stories  high. 

The  college,  near  by,  was  built  in  1899.  The 
classes  opened  on  the  i  ith  September  of  the  same  year 
under  the  direction  of  the  Petits  Freres  de  Marie.  It 
is  attended  by  over  400  pupils. 

The  parish  of  St.  Malo  has  a  house  of  Providence. 
This  work  of  charity  was  begun  on  the  loth  of  Novem- 
ber, 1902,  in  the  old  girls'  school.  It  comprises  an 
infant  school  for  both  sexes  and  a  patronage  for  the 
older  girls,  the  latter  being  under  the  direction  of  the 
Franciscan  Nuns. 


On  their  arrival  in  the  beginning  of  August  1639, 
the  Ursuline  nuns  lodged  in  a  poor  dwelling  in  the 
lower  town  at  the  place  now  occupied  by  Blanchard's 
Hotel  facing  the  church  of  Notre  Dame  des  Vicloires. 
It  was  not  until  the  spring  of  1641  that  they  were  in 
a  position  to  begin  building  in  the  upper  town,  on 
grounds  conceded  to  them  by  the  Company  of  the 
Hundred  Associates.  On  the  2ist  November  1642  they 
took  possession  of  their  new  monastery  which  was 
ninety-two  feet  long  and  twenty-eight  deep.  "  It  is 
the  largest  and  the  finest  house  in  Canada  ' '  writes 
Mire  Marie  de  r Incarnation. 


On  the  29th  of  May  1652,  the  nuns  had  the  conso- 
lation of  opening  a  second  monastery  of  larger  propor- 
tions. This  new  building  was  one  hundred  and  eight 
feet  long  and  was  much  more  comfortable  and  spacious 
than  the  first  building  which  was  destroyed  by  fire  on 
the  30th  of  December,  1650.  On  the  2oth  of  October, 
1686  a  second  conflagration  destroyed  the  monastery. 
The  nuns  set  to  work  at  once  and  resolved  to  rebuild 
on  the  same  foundation  with  the  addition  of  a  wing 
called  after  the  Holy  Family  which  was  already  begun. 
The  boarders  were  re-admitted  on  the  gth  of  November, 

From  1712  to  1715  the  monastery  was  again 
enlarged,  but  the  nuns  concentrated  their  efforts  chiefly 
on  the  building  of  a  more  suitable  chapel. 

The  inside  chapel  of  the  Ursulines  is  of  quite 
recent  construction.  The  contract  for  building  it  was 
signed  on  the  i6th  of  May,  1901.  It  is  a  splendid 
structure  of  majestic  proportions  with  a  superb  and 
richly  decorated  vault. 

The  outside  chapel  which  it  was  at  first  intended 
to  preserve  as  it  was  built  in  1720,  had  also  to  be 
demolished  because  the  roof  and  walls  were  in  bad 
order  and  it  would  have  been  imprudent  to  rest  the 
new  inside  chapel  on  such  a  ruin.  The  plan  was  made 
by  Mr.  David  Ouellet,  architect,  who  retained  the  style, 
ornaments,  altars,  pulpit,  columns  and  carving  of  the 
old  building. 

On  the  28th  of  August,  1901,  the  corner-stone  was 
blessed  by  Monseigneur  Begin,  Archbishop  of  Quebec, 



assisted  by  Monseigneur  A.  Vacher,  P.  S.  S.,  Canon  of 
the  Basilica  of  Lorettoand  Procurator  of  the  Canadian 
College  in  Rome. 

The  solemn  benediction  of  both  chapels  took  place 
on  the  2ist  of  November,  1902,  the  26oth  anniversary 
of  the  installation  of  the  foundresses  in  their  first 
monastery  in  the  Upper  Town,  on  the  2ist  of  Novem- 
ber, 1642.  Monseigneur  Begin  officiated  at  this 
ceremony,  which  was  followed  by  a  pontifical  mass  at 
which  the  Lieutenant-Governor  Sir  L,.  A.  Jette,  and 
Lady  and  Mademoiselle  Jette  were  present,  with  many 
members  of  the  clergy. 

In  his  sermon,  the  Abbe  Lindsay,  a  former  chaplain 
of  the  monastery,  related  the  history  of  the  new  chapel 
and  compared  actual  events  with  those  that  had  occurred 
on  the  same  day  in  1642. 

This  chapel  is  the  third  that  has  been  built  since 
the  foundation  of  the  first  monastery.  The  first,  called 
Madame  de  la  Peltrie's  chapel,  was  begun  in  1656.  M. 
de  Lauzon,  then  Governor  of  New  France,  laid  the 

In  1667,  M.  the  Marquis  de  Tracy  caused  a  chapel 
dedicated  to  St.  Anne  to  be  added  to  the  Ursulines' 
church.  He  himself  laid  the  corner-stone,  which  was 
blessed  by  Mgr.  de  Laval.  This  church  was  destroyed 
by  fire  on  the  2oth  of  October,  1686. 

The  second  church,  begun  in  1720,  was  inau- 
gurated on  the  vigil  of  the  Assumption,  the  i4th  of 
August,  1722,  by  Mgr.  de  Saint  Valier.  During  the 
recent  work  of  demolition.the  corner-stone  laid  in  1720 



was  found.  It  is  a  fine  arch  like  stone  closed  with  a 
leaden  plate  bearing  the  inscription  :  ' '  The  first  stone 
was  laid  by  a  poor  boy  representing  St.  Joseph  to  obtain 
the  protection  of  that  great  saint,  i6th  May,  1720." 
A  copper  medal  lying  in  the  hollow  of  the  stone  bears 
the  image  of  Jesus,  of  Mary  and  of  Joseph. 

The  Ursuline  monastery  possesses  riches  of  all 
kinds  :  paintings,  engravings,  books,  and  church 
ornaments.  Most  of  the  paintings  in  the  chapel  were 
bought  in  France  about  1815,  by  Abbe  Desjardins, 
Vicar-General  of  the  Archbishop  of  Paris. 

These  pictures  are  : 


1.  (Over  the  main  altar.}     The  Birth  of  the  Saviour  : 

Shepherds  adoring LeBrun. 

2.  (At  the  side  altar.}  Our  L,ord  revealing  His  Heart 

to  nuns  of  the  Visitation  Order. 

3.  (Along  the  nave,  on  the  left-hand. )  The  Parable. 

of  the  Wise  and  the   Foolish 

Virgins Pietro  da  Cortona. 

4.  The     Miraculous     Draught     of 

fishes Ant.  de  Dieu. 

5.  The  Visitation   of  the    Blessed 

Virgin Collin  de  Vermont. 

6.  Christian    Captives    in    Algers, 

ransomed   by   the   Trinitarian 

Fathers Claude  Guy  Halle. 

7.  (Over  the  Door-way.}     Jesus  at  the  Supper  Table 

of  Simon  the  Pharisee P.  de  Champagne. 

8.  St.  Nonnus,  bishop,  receiving  to  a  penitential  life  the 

converted  comedian,  Pelagia..P.  P.   Prud'hon. 



9.  An  Anchoret,  pleading  for  a  penitent's  admission 
into  a  monastery 

(The  subject  of  this  painting  not  yet  fully  identified) 


1 .  (  Within  the  Sanctuary. )     The  mystic  Espousals  of 

St.  Catherine Pietro  da  Cartona. 

2.  The  Holy  Face  of  Our  Lord. 

3.  {Over  the  pulpit.)     The  Madonna  and  Child. 

4.  Our  Lord  falling  under  the  Cross. 

5.  St.  Jerome  receiving  his  Last  Communion.    {Sup- 

posed copy  of  Domenichini. ) 

6.  Holy  Family,  visited  by  the  Baptist.   {Legendary.) 


1.  To  The  Marquis,  General  Montcalm,  buried  in  1759. 

— Monument  erected  in  1859  ;  Epitaph  composed 
by  the  French  Academy  in  1763. 

2.  A  marble  slab,  erected  by  the  English  Governor, 

I/ord  Aylmer,  in  1831. 

3.  In  memory  of  the  Jesuits  Fathers,  de  Quen  and 

Duperron,  who  had  labored  for  the  conversion  of 
the  Huron  tribes  ;  they  died,  1659,  1655.  Also 
the  lay  brother  Liegeois,  who  died  in  Quebec,  1655. 
Their  mortal  remains  were  removed  from  Sillery 
to  the  church  of  the  Ursulines,  1891. 


1.  Father  Thomas  Maguire,  worthy  chaplain  of  the 

Ursulines  during  18  years.  Deceased,  July  rgth, 
1854,  at  the  age  of  82. 

2.  Father  Patrick  Doherty.     (See  his  epitaph.) 



3.  Father  George  L,eMoine,  devoted  chaplain  of  the 

Ursulines,  from  1854  to   1890.     Died,  aged  73, 

in  the  5oth  year  of  his  ordination  to  the  priesthood. 

Other  memorial  tablets,  along  the  walls,  are  inscribed 

with  the  names  and  age  of  those  whose  bodies 

likewise  repose  beneath  the  church,  awaiting  the 


The  monastery  also  owns  old  engravings  from 
the  establishments  of  Basset  le  jeune,  Andran  and  F. 
Landry,  Paris. 

The  archives  contain  the  annals  of  the  community, 
the  papers,  and  title-deeds,  bearing  the  signature  of 
several  French  governors  ;  the  orignal  of  the  letters 
patent  for  the  erection  of  a  monastery  of  Ursulines 
in  New  France  with  the  signature  and  royal  seal  of 
Louis  XV. 

The  religious  library  contains  3,000  volumes  ;  the 
scientific,  literary  and  pedagogical  library  contains 
7,200.  Until  the  year  1868,  there  was  an  old  ash  tree 
standing  near  the  entrance  to  the  Convent  under  the 
shade  of  which  the  Venerable  Foundress  instructed 
the  Indian  children.  The  wood  of  this  tree  forms  the 
pedestal  of  an  old  French  cross  formerly  on  the  spire 
of  the  first  convent,  and  now  set  up  in  the  garden. 

The  destruction  of  the  first  monastery  by  fire 
despoiled  the  Ursuline  nuns  of  the  gifts  offered  to  the 
foundresses  by  several  important  personages  in  France. 
Nevertheless  they  still  possess  a  monstrance,  a  censer, 
a  reliquary  with  a  relic  of  the  true  Cross,  and  a  massive 
silver  crucifix  given  by  Madame  de  la  Peltrie  ;  two 



altar  cloths  made  out  of  silk  damask  curtains  which, 
according  to  the  traditions  of  the  monastery,  belonged 
to  Louis  XVI.  The  church  ornaments  and  vestments 
were  worked  by  the  first  nuns  and  are  still  in  a  perfect 
state  of  preservation. 

The  monastery  contains  portraits  in  oil  of  the 
Venerable  Mother  Mary  of  the  Incarnation,  of  Mother 
St.  Joseph,  of  Madame  de  la  Peltrie,  of  the  Venerable 
Mgr.  de  Laval,  dating  from  the  iyth  century,  the 
portrait  of  the  Duchesse  de  Senecy,  first  lady  of  honor 
of  Anne  of  Austria  and  governess  of  Louis  XIV  ;  of 
abbe  Desjardins,  of  Lord  and  Lady  Aylmer,  of  Lady 
Prevost,  of  Madame  Lebrun  painted  by  herself.  Bottini, 
an  Italian  painter,  painted  from  imagination  the  portrait 
of  Mere  Marie  de  1' Incarnation,  in  1877. 

The  number  of  professed  nuns  is 58 

' '             novices 9 

professed  lay  sisters  ....  22 

novice             "            ....  4 

pupil  boarders 201 

"             pupil  half-boarders 160 

day  pupils 128 

"             normal  school  pupils. ...  73 

At  Merici,  a  branch  of  the  convent,  formerly 
known  as  Marchmont,  there  are  5  nuns,  2  lay  sisters, 
19  boarders,  3  half-boarders  and  10  day-pupils. 

In  the  Ursuline  chapel  is  a  marble  slab  placed  by 
Lord  Aylmer  in  1831  to  commemorate  the  glory  of 
Montcalm  whose  ashes  repose  in  the  vaults  of  the  chapel. 


The  marble  slab  bears  the  following  inscription  : 





The  Chapel  of  the  Saints  contains  a  precious 
souvenir  of  bygone  da}7s  in  the  form  of  a  votive 
lamp,  the  flame  of  which  was  first  kindled  by  Marie 
Madeleine  de  Repentigny  in  the  year  1717.  During 
the  stormy  days  of  the  siege  of  Quebec  when  shells 
from  the  British  batteries  wrought  havoc  amongst  the 
buildings  in  the  upper  town,  the  Convent  did  not  escape. 
In  the  corridors  may  still  be  seen  the  grim  remains  of 
those  destructive  messengers,  which  were  powerless  to 
deter  the  good  nuns  from  keeping  faithful  vigil  in  the 
Chapel  of  the  Saints.  Ten  of  the  nuns  remained  at 
their  post,  and  thus  throughout  those  days  of  alternate 
hope  and  despair,  the  lamp  was  kept  steadfastlv  burn- 
ing. Recently  a  descendant  of  a  branch  of  the  family, 
Miss  Madeleine  Anthon,  presented  to  the  Convent  a 
solid  silver  lamp  to  replace  it.  The  design  was  executed 
by  the  celebrated  house  of  Armand  Calliat,  of  Lyons, 
and  it  is  described  as  follows  by  the  Rev.  L,.  St.  G. 
Ivindsay,  a  former  chaplain  of  the  Convent. 

"  Cette  lampe,  qui  est  entierement  d'argent  xer 
titre,  avec  dorure  ors  et  couleurs,  et  emaux  au  feu,  aussi 
bien  que  les  chaines  et  le  pavilion,  pese  1398  grammes. 
En  voici  le  poeme  dans  les  details  :  Un  large  bandeau, 



cisele"  en  relief,  supporte  quinze  roses  emaillees,  cinq 
blanches,  cinq  rouges  et  cinq  jaunes,  couleurs  emble- 
matiques  des  mysteres  du  Rosaire.  Trois  volutes 
auxquelles  les  chaines  sont  attachees  supportent  cette 
lampe  qui  se  termine  par  un  pendentif  cisele  en  relief  et 
par  une  croix  emaillee.  Trois  chapelets  aux  grains 
de  lapis  bleu  du  Tyrol  sont  suspendus  au-dessus  du 
bandeau  de  la  lampe.  Des  lys  au  naturel  timbrent  le 
bandeau  du  pavilion  et  s'accrochent  aux  volutes." 

The  lamp  bears  this  inscription  composed  by  the 
Abbe  L,indsay  : 











A      D.     MCMIII 


Marie-Madeleine  de  Repentigny  entered  the  Ursu- 
line  Convent  as  a  pupil  at  the  age  of  ten  years.  Her 
future  career  is  very  well  described  in  ' '  Scenes  from 
the  history  of  the  Ursulines  of  Quebec,"  published  by 
a  member  of  the  community  in  the  year  1897.  The 
extract  here  given  is  from  that  work  : 



"  After  leaving  the  convent,  she,  like  many  others, 
had  not  formed  to  herself  any  fixed  plan  of  life,  and 
soon  found  herself  surrounded  with  those  temptations 
which  often  beset  the  pathway  of  a  young  girl  on  her 
entry  into  the  world.  Gay  parties  of  pleasure,  frivol- 
ous amusements,  idle  conversation,  filled  up  the  precious 
hours  from  day  to  day,  leaving  her  little  time  for 
reflection,  serious  reading  or  prayer.  The  prestige  of 
wit,  rank  and  beauty  on  the  one  side,  that  of  merit, 
politeness  and  noble  demeanour  on  the  other,  soon 
resulted  in  the  preliminaries  of  an  alliance  which 
appeared  advantageous  in  the  eyes  of  the  world,  and 
which  met  with  the  approval  of  Marie- Madeleine's 
parents,  as  well  as  those  of  the  young  officer,  her 
intended,  who  was  a  relative  of  the  family.  On  such 
occasions  when  all  seems  so  bright  for  the  future,  who 
thinks  of  seriously  consulting  to  know  the  will  of  God  ? ' ' 

"  Suddenly  the  young  officer  is  called  away  on 
duty.  Alas,  for  the  fallacious  promises  of  earthly  hap- 
piness !  The  first  report  brings  tidings  of  his  death. 
To  the  violent  grief  and  mourning  of  the  first  months, 
succeeds  an  attempt  to  dissipate  this  irksome  gloom  of 
mind  by  plunging  anew  into  the  whirl  of  worldly 
pleasures.  But  the  kind  hand  of  Providence  was  still 
extended,  waiting  the  moment  to  reclaim  this  prodigal 
child  and  lead  her  to  an  abode  of  peace  and  security. 
At  one  of  the  churches  of  the  city,  an  eloquent  and 
zealous  Jesuit  was  giving  the  exercises  of  a  retreat  for 
young  ladies.  Marie- Madeleine  went  with  the  rest, 
but  soon  found  that  the  sacred  orator  was  preaching — 
so  it  seemed  to  be — for  her  alone.  ' '  What  will  it  avail 
a  man  to  gain  the  whole  world,  and  yet  lose  his  own 
soul,  or  what  shall  a  man  give  in  exchange  for  his  soul  ? ' ' 

"  After  due  consultation,  she  seeks  admission 

into  the  novitiate  of  the  Ursulines.  The  nuns  remem- 
bering her  many  good  qualities,  without  hesitation, 

18  273 


accepted  her.  But  no  sooner  had  she  reached  Quebec, 
than  she  began  to  experience  the  torments  of  doubt 

and  perplexity.     Was  she   truly  called  ? On 

entering  the  novitiate  the  trial  disappears,  but  it  soon 
returns  with  such  violence  that  the  convent  seems  to 
be  as  irksome  as  it  had  at  first  appeared  delightful. 
But  Marie-Madeleine,  now  Sister  Sainte  Agathe,  had 
learned  the  force  of  prayer.  She  takes  refuge  at  the 
feet  of  Mary.  She  calls  upon  her  as  the  Mother  of 
Mercy,  the  Virgin  most  Potent,  and  is  heard.  The 
clouds  have  rolled  back  from  her  soul,  that  now  basks 
in  the  effulgence  of  joy. 

"  Confirmed,  henceforth,  in  her  vocation  ;  grateful 
for  the  protection  of  Heaven,  she  begs  permission  to 
found  a  perpetual  memento  of  the  grace,  the  invisible 
light  she  has  received.  Her  own  life,  cheerful,  cour- 
ageous, mortified,  during  the  twenty  years  she  had  yet 
to  spend  in  the  monastery,  was  another  light,  rejoicing 
her  companions  more  than  the  Votive  Lamp  which  she 
daily  trimmed  with  sentiments  ever  fresh  of  piety  and 
gratitude. ' ' 

These  are  the  facts  regarding  the  Votive  Lamp  in 
the  Ursuline  Convent.  In  the  "  Golden  Dog,"  Mr. 
Kirby  has  represented  a  Mademoiselle  Amelie  Repen- 
tigny  as  seeking  admission  to  the  convent  at  the  time 
of  the  death  of  Nicolas  Jacquin  Philibert  by  the  hand 
of  her  brother,  and  connects  her  name  with  a  gallant 
Colonel,  Pierre  Philibert.  We  have  shown,  however, 
in  a  previous  chapter,  that  this  ' '  brave  officer  ' '  was 
of  the  ripe  age  of  ten  years  and  eight  months  at  the 
death  of  his  father. 

Marie-Madeleine  de  Repentiguy  de  St.  Agathe 
was  called  to  her  rest  on  the  25th  of  February,  1739. 



For  many  years  after  the  Treaty  of  Paris,  which 
gave  to  the  Catholics  of  Canada  "  the  free  exercise  of 
the  Catholic  religion,  in  so  far  as  the  laws  of  Great 
Britain  can  permit ' ' ,  the  Irish  Catholics,  or  those 
speaking  the  English  language  in  the  city  of  Quebec, 
had  no  special  church  set  apart  for  them  ;  and  conse- 
quently the  Parish  Church,  now  the  Basilica,  served 
for  Catholics  of  whatever  race.  Efforts  were  put  forth 
from  time  to  time  to  establish  an  independent  Church  ; 
but  the  necessary  means  were  not  forthcoming.  At  a 
meeting  of  Irish  citizens  held  in  Quebec  in  the  year 
1819,  it  was  resolved  to  honour  the  Feast  of  the  Patron 
Saint  by  the  celebration  of  High  Mass  in  the  Church 
of  the  Congregation  in  the  Upper  Town.  A  sermon 
was  preached  on  this  occasion,  and  this  is  the  first 
record  that  we  have  of  the  observance  of  the  day  in  the 
city.  Three  years  later,  at  an  hour  before  the  regular 
service  in  the  Parish  Church,  the  Irish  and  English 
speaking  Catholics  attended  as  a  congregation,  when 
the  Reverend  Father  L,awlor  officiated.  Very  soon  after 
the  Reverend  Father  McMahon,  who  for  many  years  was 
closely  identified  with  the  development  of  Irish  Catholic 
institutions  in  the  city,  was  appointed  to  the  charge 
of  this  congregation.  The  Parish  Church  appears  to 
have  been  used  regularly  for  some  years,  but  in  1828, 
the  services  were  held  in  the  historic  Church  of  Notre 
Dame  des  Victoires,  in  the  Lower  Town.  The  accom- 
modation offered  by  this  Church  was  totally  inadequate 



for  the  requirements  of  the  Irish  and  English  Catholic 
population,  which  now  numbered  over  6,000.  Subs- 
criptions were  therefore  taken  to  form  a  fund  for  the 
construction  of  an  independent  Church.  The  sum  of 
about  $10,000  was  collected  for  the  purpose,  to  which 
many  Protestants  generously  subscribed,  and  the  land 
was  purchased  upon  which  the  Church  now  stands. 
This  ground  was  sold  and  conveyed  by  Archange 
Baby,  wife  of  John  Cannon,  Architect,  of  Quebec,  to 
the  Reverend  Patrick  McMahon,  J.  Cannon,  Wm. 
Burke,  Wm.  Stillings,  J.  Coote,  Wm.  O'Brien,  Michael 
Quigley  and  J.  Byrne,  under  a  deed  passed  before  W. 
F.  Scott,  N.  P.,  on  the  third  of  November,  1831. 
The  ground  is  thus  described  in  the  deed  : — ' '  All  that 
"  certain  lot,  tract  or  parcel  of  ground,  situated,  lying 
"  and  being  in  the  Upper  Town  of  the  city  of  Quebec, 
"  bounded  in  front,  on  the  south  west,  by  St.  Stanislas 
"  street,  extending  along  the  same  fifty  nine  feet  three 
"  inches,  French  measure  ;  in  the  rear,  to  the  north 
"  east,  by  a  lot  of  ground  belonging  to  Peter  Burnett, 
"  extending  along  the  same,  fifty-nine  feet,  three 
"  inches,  on  the  north  west,  partly  by  a  lot  of  ground 
' '  belonging  to  John  Greaves,  and  partly  by  the  said 
"  lot  of  ground  belonging  to  Peter  Burnett,  extending 
' '  along  the  last  mentioned  lots  of  ground  one  hundred 
"  and  nine  feet  six  inches  ;  and  in  the  south  east  side, 
'•  partly  by  a  lot  of  ground  belonging  to  one  John 
"  Phillips,  and  partly  by  the  Circus  ground  extending 
"  along  the  said  last  mentioned  lots  of  ground  one 
"  hundred  and  ninety  feet  six  inches."  By  another 



deed  passed  on  the  same  day,  a  parcel  of  ground  was 
sold  and  conveyed  to  the  same  persons  by  David 
Brunet.  This  land  was  bounded  on  the  front,  to  the 
north  west,  by  St.  Helen  Street,  and  on  the  south,  by 
the  property  of  Dr.  Montgomery. 

Father  McMahon  organized  a  committee  of  citizens 
to  undertake  the  building  of  a  Church,  and  in  the 
month  of  October,  1831,  the  foundations  of  a  building 
146  feet  by  65  feet  were  commenced.  The  corner  stone 
was  to  have  been  laid  on  the  nth  of  June,  1832,  but 
between  the  date  of  the  announcement  and  this  day, 
-cholera  made  itself  manifest  in  Quebec,  and  all  public 
gatherings  were  prohibited  by  the  authorities.  The 
columns  of  the  Mercury  and  of  the  Quebec  Gazette, 
reveal  the  distressing  condition  of  affairs  in  the  city 
during  this  year.  The  corner  stone  was  laid  later  in 
the  season,  without  the  usual  ceremony.  The  building 
was  sufficiently  advanced  in  the  summer  of  1833  to 
admit  of  services  being  held,  and  on  the  yth  of  July,  the 
first  Mass  was  sung  in  the  new  Church,  by  the  Reverend 
Father  Baillargeon.  The  sermon  was  preached  on 
this  occasion  by  the  Reverend  Father  McMahon,  and 
the  Church  was  dedicated  to  St.  Patrick  by  the 
Reverend  Jerome  Demers,  in  the  absence  of  the  Bishop. 
Three  years  after  the  galleries  were  added,  and  the 
interior  decoration  was  completed. 

In  1845  it  was  found  that  the  Church  was  not 
sufficiently  large  for  the  increasing  population,  and 
more  land  was  required  for  the  purpose  of  the  proposed 
enlargement  and  for  other  buildings  in  connection  with 



the  work  of  the  Parish.  The  church  was  at  this  time 
lengthened  by  about  50  feet.  A  few  years  previous  to 
this  the  Trustees  had  experienced  some  difficulty  with 
the  Corporation  of  the  city  regarding  the  proposed 
widening  of  certain  streets,  which,  if  carried  out, 
would  necessitate  the  expropriation  of  a  certain  portion 
of  the  Church  property.  The  scheme  was  finally 
abandoned.  The  land  required  for  the  enlargement  of 
the  Church  and  for  the  other  buildings,  was  sold  and 
conveyed  by  Dame  Henrietta  Smith,  widow  of  the  late 
Honourable  Jonathan  Sewell,  Chief  Justice  of  Lower 
Canada,  to  the  Reverend  Patrick  McMahon,  Chaplain 
of  the  Catholics  of  Quebec  speaking  the  English 
language,  and  to  John  Patrick  O'Meara  and  Joseph 
Power  Bradley.  The  deed  was  passed  before  Wilbrod 
Larue,  N.P.,  and  the  ground  is  thus  described  : 

"A  lot  of  ground  of  seventy  feet  in  breadth  by 
"  ninety-seven  feet  or  thereabouts,  more  or  less,  as  it 
"  may  be  found  in  depth  the  whole  English  measure, 
"  situate  in  the  Upper  Town  of  the  city  of  Quebec,  in 
"  the  rear  of  the  emplacement  and  house  belonging  to 
' '  the  late  Francois  Nicholas  Mailhiot  or  his  represent- 
' '  atives,  in  St.  John  street :  the  said  lot  of  ground 
"  bounded  towards  the  South  by  the  rear  line  of  the 
' '  emplacement  of  the  said  Francois  Nicholas  Mailhiot 
"  or  his  representatives,  towards  the  North  by  the 
"  rear  or  depth  line  of  an  emplacement  which  Peter 
"  Burnett,  esquire,  or  his  representatives  possess  on  the 
"  Rue  des  Pauvres,  towards  the  East  by  the  heirs 
"  Eckhart  or  their  representatives,  and  towards  the 
' '  West  by  the  remaining  ground  belonging  to  Mr.  John 
"  Phillips  or  his  representatives,  such  as  the  ground 



now  is  lies  and  tends  in  all  its  parts,  with  a  stone 
building  thereon  erected  commonly  called  the  Royal 
Circus  or  Theatre,  together  with  a  strip  of  ground 
on  the  Western  side  thereof  of  a  triangular  shape, 
five  feet  wide  at  the  north  west  corner  of  the  pro- 
perty above  described,  and  from  the  outer  extremity 
of  the  five  feet  running  in  a  straight  line,  and  ter- 
minating in  a  point  within  fifteen  feet  from  the 
south-west  corner." 

Until  the  year  1855,  St.  Patrick's  was  considered  as 
a  branch  of  the  Parish  Church,  and  not  as  an  independ- 
ent parish  :  but  in  that  year  a  petition  was  addressed 
to  the  Legislature  for  an  Act  to  incorporate  "  The 
Congregation  of  the  Catholics  of  Quebec  speaking  the 
English  language  ' ' .  The  petition  set  for  that  certain 
difficulties  had  arisen  in  connection  with  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  Church  property,  and  that  incorporation 
was  desirable.  It  was  therefore  enacted  that  : 

' '  The  holders  of  pews  in  St.  Patricks  Church  in 
the  said  city  of  Quebec,  and  those  who  shall  hereafter 
be  holders  of  Pews  therein,  together  with  such  other 
persons  as  may  under  the  by  laws  of  the  corporation 
hereby  created,  hereafter  become  members  thereof, 
shall  be  and  are  hereby  constituted  a  body  corporate 
under  the  name  of  the  Congregation  of  the  Catholics 
of  Quebec  speaking  the  English  language  ' ' . 

The  petitioners  were,  W.  Downes,  J.  P.  O'Meara, 
Michael  Connolly,  T.  Murphy,  H.  Murray,  W.  Power, 
J.  L,ane,  E.  G.  Cannon,  J.  Sharpies,  C.  McDonald,  E. 
Ryan,  Owen  McNally,  R.  McGillis,  Chas.  Alleyu,  J. 
J.  Nesbitt,  W.  Quinn,  J.  Maguire,  J.  Doran,  J.  Archer, 
C.  Sharpies,  H.  O'Connor,  Patrick  McMahon,  M. 



O'Leary,  L.  Stafford,  M.  Enrigtit,  M.  Kelly,  S.  Bennett, 
E.  Quinn,  P.  Shea,  Wm.  Mackay,  J.  Murray,  J.  Ellis, 
M.  Mernagh,  E.  J.  Charlton  and  J.  O'Leary. 

Authority  was  also  given  under  the  Act  for  the 
Congregation  to  hold  land  not  exceeding  twenty  acres, 
for  Burial  grounds. 

Father  McGauran  continued  as  Rector  until  1874, 
since  which  date  the  Church  has  been  under  the  charge 
of  the  Redemptorist  Fathers.  On  the  2gth  of  September, 
1874,  the  Reverend  Fathers  Burke,  Gates,  Wynn  and 
O'Connor,  accompanied  by  the  Very  Reverend  Father 
Provincial  Helmpraecht,  arrived  in  Quebec,  and  were 
"  lodged  in  a  truly  generous  and  princely  manner 
in  the  Archbishop's  Palace."  Four  days  after,  on 
Saturday,  the  3rd  of  October,  the  Redemptorist  Fathers 
took  up  their  abode  in  St.  Patrick's  Presbytery.  On 
the  evening  of  the  2ist  of  October,  1874,  the  private 
Chapel  and  the  Presbytery  were  blessed  in  the  presence 
of  several  members  of  the  Church  Committee,  including 
Messrs.  Behan,  Golfer  and  McDonald.  The  Superior, 
the  Reverend  Father  Burke,  C.  SS.  R.,  was  the  cele- 
brant, assisted  by  the  Reverend  Fathers  Gates,  Wynn 
and  O'Connor  ;  and  on  the  25th  of  the  same  month,  the 
first  mission  was  given  by  the  Redemptorist  Fathers. 
Since  the  advent  of  this  order  in  Quebec  the  Rectors 
have  been. —  i.  The  Reverend  Father  Burke  ;  2.  The 
Reverend  Father  Henning  ;  3.  The  Reverend  Father 
Burke  ;  4.  The  Reverend  Father  Hayden  ;  5.  The 
Reverend  Father  Gates;  6.  The  Reverend  Father 
Rosbach  ;  7.  The  Reverend  Father  Henning.  The 



following  members  of  the  Order,  are  also  attached  to 
this-  Parish  :  The  Reverend  Father  McCarthy  ;  The 
Reverend  Father  Rein  ;  The  Reverend  Father  Delargy  ; 
The  Reverend  Father  Hickey  ;  The  Reverend  Father 
Gannon  and  The  Reverend  Father  Gunning. 

The  interior  decoration  of  the  church  has  recently 
been  restored  in  a  very  chaste  manner,  and  in  the  dome 
of  the  Sanctuary  there  is  an  excellent  painting  by  Mr. 
Charles  Huot,  representing  the  Coronation  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin.  There  are  also  a  few  good  examples 
of  stained  glass  in  the  windows.  The  Church  is  capable 
of  seating  about  i ,  600  people.  In  the  presbytery  are 
paintings  of  Father  McMahon  and  Father  Nelligan. 
Father  McMahon  died  on  the  3rd  of  October,  1851, 
and  on  the  first  anniversary  of  his  death  a  marble  tablet 
was  uncovered  on  a  pillar  facing  the  pulpit.  It  bears 
this  inscription  : — 

D.  o,  M. 












"  Reverend  Patrick  McMahon,  born  at  Abbeylix, 
Ireland,  on  the  24th  of  August,  1796 :  he  completed 
his  classical  course  of  studies  in  the  Carlow  College. 

"  In  1818  he  arrived  in  Canada  and  was  appointed 
one  of  the  professors  of  the  college  at  St.  Hyacinthe, 
where  he  prosecuted  his  theological  studies  until  his 
ordination  as  a  priest  by  Mgr.  Plessis,  on  the  6th  of 
October,  1822,  when  he  was  attached  as  vicar  to  the 
cure  of  the  parish  of  Notre  Dame  de  Quebec. 

"  In  1825,  he  became  missionary  at  St.  John,  New 

"  In  1828,  he  was  recalled  to  resume  the  exercise 
of  his  ministry  amongst  the  Irish  people  of  the  city  of 

"  In  1832,  he  presided  over  the  construction  of 
St.  Patrick's  Church,  which  was  the  principal  work  of 
his  life. 

"  He  died  at  St.  Patrick's  parsonage  on  the  3rd 
of  October,  1851,  aged  56  years. 

"  He  was  laid  to  rest  in  St.  Patrick's  Church 
where  a  tablet  has  been  placed  to  commemorate  his 
good  work." 

(Note  by  LOCIEN  LEMIEUX.) 


Amongst  the  churches  in  Quebec  there  is  one  of 
very  modest  appearance,  situate  in  a  somewhat  retired 
spot,  but  the  history  of  which  recalls  a  multitude  of 
glorious  recollections  for  French  Canadian  arms.  This 
is  the  Church  of  Notre  Dame  des  Victories,  founded 
two  hundred  and  fifteen  years  ago. 

On  the  first  day  of  May,  1688,  the  corner  stone 
was  laid.  The  Governor  was  present  at  the  ceremony 



at  which  Mgr.  de  Laval  officiated.  When  Mgr.  de  St. 
Vallier  arrived  in  Quebec  on  the  first  of  August  little 
progress  had  been  made,  and  it  was  finished  only  in 
the  following  year.  The  Bishop  had  dedicated  it  to 
the  Infant  Jesus,  and  the  small  chapel  seen  on  the  left 
of  the  entrance  was  named  the  chapel  of  St.  Genevieve. 

When  Phips  besieged  Quebec  in  1690,  the  ladies 
of  Quebec  promised  by  a  solemn  vow  to  make  a 
pilgrimage  to  the  church  in  the  Lower  Town,  if  the 
Blessed  Virgin  obtained  their  deliverance.  When  the 
invader  was  compelled  to  withdraw  without  obtaining 
his  object,  the  Bishop  decided  to  change  the  name  of 
the  Church,  and  dedicated  it  to  Notre  Dame  de  la 
Victoire  ;  and  ordained  that  a  feast  should  be  observed 
and  a  procession  held  in  honour  of  the  Virgin  on  the 
fourth  Sunday  of  October  in  each  year. 

Twenty-one  years  later  the  title  was  changed  after 
a  fresh  intervention  of  Providence,  when  the  town  was 
saved  from  another  siege.  In  1711  the  English  fleet 
commanded  by  Admiral  Walker  sailed  to  attack 
Quebec.  A  heavy  fog  covered  the  waters  of  the  St. 
Lawrence,  defying  the  skill  of  the  pilot,  and  eight 
vessels  were  wrecked  off  Egg  Island.  The  news  of  this 
disaster  reached  Quebec  only  at  the  beginning  of 
October.  It  was  received  with  great  joy.  The  entire 
population  proceeded  to  the  Lower  Town  Church  to  pay 
their  devotion  to  Our  Lady  of  Victory  for  the  delivery 
of  the  colony  from  ruin  on  a  second  occasion.  The 
citizens  raised  a  subscription  to  build  a  portal  to  the 
church  and  the  religious  authorities  decided  that 


' '  Notre  Dame  de  la  Victoire ' '  should  give  place  to 
that  of  ' '  Notre  Dame  des  Victoires ' '  to  recall  to 
future  generations  the  favors  of  the  Mother  of  God 
towards  the  French-Canadians. 

The  first  pilgrimage  to  the  church  of  Notre  Dame 
des  Victoires  dates,  therefore,  from  the  year  1711. 
History  is  silent  as  to  whether  these  pilgrimages  were 
continued  every  year.  Nevertheless,  in  1855,  Mgr. 
Baillargeon,  administrator  of  the  diocese  of  Quebec, 
formally  established  a  pilgrimage  to  the  church. 

But  a  fresh  misfortune  was  to  fall  on  the  colony. 
During  the  siege  of  1759,  the  little  church  in  the  L,ower 
Town  shared  the  fate  of  a  great  many  public  and  private 
buildings.  On  the  8th  of  August  the  whole  of  the  Lower 
Town  was  in  flames.  Wolfe's  shells  spared  nothing, 
and  the  church  of  Notre  Dame  des  Victoires  was  com- 
pletely destroyed.  The  walls  of  the  venerable  edifice 
alone  remained  ;  and  an  appeal  to  public  generosity  was 
made  to  restore  the  church.  Work  was  begun,  and  in 
1765,  divine  service  was  celebrated  in  the  new  church 
as  before.  The  annual  festival  in  the  month  of  October 
was  regularly  observed,  as  well  as  the  festival  of  St. 

In  1817,  the  citizens  resolved  to  finish  the  interior. 
Mass  was  discontinued  from  the  i3th  of  June,  but 
service  was  resumed  with  the  greatest  punctuality  after 
the  repairs  were  completed.  From  time  immemorial  the 
devotion  to  St.  Genevieve  has  attracted  the  faithful  to 
the  feet  of  that  dear  saint.  Her  feast  is  celebrated  on 
the  first  Sunday  following  the  3rd  of  January.  After 



the  Gloria  has  been  chanted,  the  chaplain  blesses  small 
loaves  of  unleavened  bread,  destined  for  those  who  dread 
the  pains  of  child  birth.  This  custom  is  very  ancient 
and  has  not  fallen  into  disuse. 

On  the  23rd  of  May,  1888,  the  bi-centenary  of  the 
foundation  of  the  church  of  Notre  Dame  des  Victoires, 
His  Eminence  Cardinal  Taschereau  officiated  at  the 
ceremony  in  the  presence  of  a  large  number  of  the 
clergy,  and  many  distinguished  citizens.  A  few  months 
previously  painters  had  decorated  the  interior  with  the 
most  delicate  taste.  In  the  frieze  of  the  wall  on  the 
Gospel  side  are  the  arms  of  His  Eminence  Cardinal 
Taschereau  and  of  Jacques  Cartier  ;  on  the  epistle  side 
are  the  arms  of  Mgr.  de  Laval  and  of  Champlain.  On 
the  panels  are  representations  of  the  trophies  taken 
from  the  English  in  the  battle  of  Beauport  in  1690, 
and  of  the  wreckage  of  Walker's  fleet.  In  the  choir 
above  the  altar  are  the  words  Kebeka  Liberata. 

The  city  of  Quebec,  symbolized  by  a  woman 
wearing  a  crown,  is  sitting  on  a  rock  at  the  foot  of 
which  the  Indian  spirit  of  the  St.  Lawrence  empties 
his  urn.  A  beaver  is  seen  near  the  figure.  At  her 
feet  are  shields,  cuirasses  and  standards  bearing  the 
arms  of  England.  The  subject  is  taken  from  a  com- 
memorative medal  struck  in  the  time  of  Louis  XIV  to 
perpetuate  the  memory  of  the  French  victories.  At 
the  back  of  the  church,  on  the  wall,  letters  in  varied 
colours  set  forth  the  most  striking  facts  that  have 
illustrated  the  history  of  the  church  during  the  different 
stages  of  its  existence. 



The  reliquary  on  the  Gospel  side  contains  the 
bones  of  St.  Lawrence,  St.  Bonifatius  and  of  St.  Victor, 
while  the  reliquary  on  the  epistle  side  contains  the  bones 
of  St.  Aurelia,  of  St.  Vincentius,  St.  Ireneus  and  of 
St.  Probus.  In  the  small  towers  on  the  main  altar  are 
relics  of  St.  Charles  Borromee  and  of  St.  Theophilus. 

In  this  church  are  preserved  two  other  relics  for 
the  veneration  of  the  faithful :  one  of  Ste.  Genevieve 
and  one  of  the  true  Cross.  The  latter  is  publicly 
venerated  on  good  Friday  and  on  All  Souls'  Day. 


The  Order  of  the  Soeurs  Franciscaines  Mission- 
naries  de  Marie  was  founded  in  1878.  The  Quebec 
convent  is  situated  at  the  corner  of  Claire  Fontaine 
street,  close  to  the  site  of  Abraham  Martin's  property 
after  whom  the  Plains  were  named. 

The  French  army  was  drawn  upon  this  ground  on 
the  1 3th  of  September,  1759,  and  it  is  therefore  one  of 
the  most  historic  spots  in  the  city. 

The  inception  of  this  institution  is  due  to  the 
noble  idea  of  the  rehabilitation  of  infidel  woman  by 
the  means  of  the  Christian  woman.  United  to  the 
Order  of  St.  Francis,  from  which  it  derives  its  spiritual 
direction,  the  ordinary  field  of  its  labours  is  to  be 
found  in  foreign  missions. 

The  mother  house  is  in  Rome,  and  there  is  the 
Superior  Council  which  directs  the  eighty  establish- 
ments belonging  to  this  congregation,  scattered  in. 
almost  every  part  of  the  world. 



The  number  of  its  nuns  now  reaches  over  four 

The  foundation  of  the  Quebec  Convent  dates  from 
1893,  and  the  Church  and  adjoining  buildings  were 
erected  in  1897-98. 

The  interior  of  the  church  is  exceedingly  attractive. 
A  new  altar  of  Carrara  marble  and  Mexican  onyx  has 
been  completed  lately. 

The  Quebec  house  is  chiefly  a  novitiate  where 
missionary  nuns  are  trained  for  distant  countries. 
In  all  the  churches  and  chapels  of  the  Franciscans, 
whenever  it  is  possible,  the  Blessed  Sacrament  is 
exposed  throughout  the  day.  In  Quebec,  to  comply 
with  the  wishes  of  the  diocesan  authority,  the  nuns 
adore  the  Blessed  Sacrament  day  and  night.  The 
church,  which  is  specially  adapted  for  this,  has  become 
a  centre  of  attraction  for  the  catholics  of  the  city  and 
a  place  of  pilgrimage  for  the  faithful  of  the  diocese, 
and  of  the  whole  province.  The  Quebec  house  has 
within  a  short  time  assumed  considerable  proportions, 
and  a  great  future  seems  to  be  in  store  for  it. 

Recently  there  was  and  exhibition  in  the  Convent 
of  beautiful  specimens  of  work  executed  by  the  nuns 
in  different  parts  of  the  world. 

The  Rev.  Abbe  Paquet  is  the  chaplain  of  the 


When  Mgr.  de  Saint-Vallier  founded  the  General 
Hospital  in  1693  on  the  banks  of  the  river  St.  Charles, 



the  Recollets  transferred  their  establishment  to  the  nuns 
of  the  General  Hospital,  who  installed  themselves  there 
while  the  friars  lodged  in  the  Convent  of  the  Castle 
which  they  had  built  in  1681.  On  the  i4th  of  July, 
1693,  they  began  to  build  their  church,  which  Charle- 
voix  says  was  worthy  of  Versailles.  This  church 
covered  a  space,  the  eastern  and  western  boundaries  of 
which  would  be  about  the  centre  of  the  upper  portion  of 
the  Place  d'Armes,  and  the  south  eastern  extremity  of 
the  ground  occupied  by  the  Court  House.  The  windows 
were  filled  with  stained  glass,  and  in  the  church  were 
pictures  painted  by  Brother  L,uke.  The  lines  of  the 
steeple  were  of  remarkable  purity.  Both  the  monastery 
and  the  church  were  destroyed  by  fire  on  the  6th  of 
September,  1796.  The  remains  of  four  French  Gover- 
nors and  of  a  great  many  of  the  most  noted  personages 
of  the  colony  reposed  in  the  church.  At  the  cession 
the  English  government  took  possession  of  the  monas- 
tery and  church  and  used  the  latter  for  the  services  of 
the  Anglican  church.  After  the  death  of  Father  Felix 
de  Berey,  the  last  representative  of  the  Order,  on  the 
1 8th  May,  1800,  the  estates  of  the  Recollets  were 
escheated  and  the  government  took  possession  of  the 
convent  grounds  to  erect  thereon  the  court  house  and 
offices  for  the  district  of  Quebec.  This  building  was 
finished  in  1804. 


The  building  of  this  church  was  begun   in   the 
month  of  August,  1851.    The  new  edifice  was  inaugur- 



ated  as  a  chapel  for  members  of  the  congregation  of  St. 
Roch  on  the  nth  of  September,  1853.  Its  dimensions 
were  1 1 6  feet  by  60  feet.  In  1865  the  chapel  was  opened 
to  the  public  and  parochial  services  were  celebrated 
therein  on  Sunday,  for  the  benefit  of  those  who  could 
not  find  accommodation  in  the  church  of  St.  Roch.  In 
1875  the  original  chapel  was  enlarged  to  its  present  size. 
In  the  month  of  August,  1901,  the  Congregation 
gave  its  chapel  to  the  Archbishop  of  Quebec,  who 
named  it  as  the  parochial  church  of  Notre  Dame  de 
Jacques  Cartier.  The  decree  erecting  this  new  parish 
is  dated  the  25th  of  September,  1901.  The  new  cur6 
took  possession  on  the  first  Sunday  of  the  same  month. 
The  parish  is  under  the  patronage  of  the  Immaculate 
Conception  and  bears  the  name  of  Notre  Dame  de 
Jacques  Cartier. 


This  church  is  situated  on  Ste.  Foy  road,  about 
fifty  yards  from  the  turnpike,  beside  the  Villa  Manrese, 
occupied  by  the  Jesuit  Fathers  in  charge  of  the  church. 
Its  erection  is  due  to  the  liberality  of  Chevalier  Louis 
de  Gonzague  Baillarge  and  to  the  religious  zeal  of 
many  citizens  of  Quebec.  The  Interior  is  very  pretty  : 
it  contains  several  remarkable  paintings  and  ten  stained 
glass  windows,  representing  ten  saints  of  the  Society 
of  Jesus. 

This  church  was  inaugurated  in  the  spring  of  1895 
amidst  a  great  concourse  of  citizens  and  members  of 
the  clergy. 

19  289 


The  foundation  of  this  church  dates  back  to  over 
50  years  ago,  but  it  was  not  erected  into  a  Parish  until 
the  first  of  May,  1867,  when  its  present  name  was  given 
to  it  in  memory  of  the  first  secular  priest  who  arrived 
in  Quebec  in  1634,  and  became  incumbent  of  St.  Jean's 
Chapel  on  Saint  Sauveur  Hill. 

The  first  church  was  170  feet  long  and  60  feet  in 
width,  and  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  October  1866. 
The  construction  of  the  present  church  was  commenced 
early  in  the  following  year.  Its  interior  decoration 
was  entrusted  to  Mr.  Charles  Huot,  artist  of  Quebec. 
The  steeple  which  is  one  hundred  feet  in  height,  con- 
tains a  fine  peal  of  bells.  A  presbytery  is  attached  to 
the  church  in  which  the  Oblat  fathers  reside  who  have 
charge  of  the  church. 


This  church,  or  chapel,  was  constructed  by  the 
Oblat  fathers  in  1870.  It  was  consecrated  on  the  8th 
of  December,  1880. 

In  1882  His  Eminence,  Cardinal  Taschereau,  re- 
cognized Notre  Dame  de  Lourdes  as  the  chapel  of  the 
third  order  of  the  Franciscains. 


1  8  O  4  - 1  9  O  3 

,ND  IN  £ 




¥  N  order  to  mak.  f  the  Cathedral  of  the  Holy 

*     Trinity  at  Quebec  complete,  a  few  words  iv 
said  about  those  Franciscan  Friars  called  "  Recollets," 
<:re  the  former  proprietors  of  the  lar 
..ifice  was  built. 


of  the  river  St.  Charles,  where  they  built  a  convent 
called  "Notre  Dame  des  Anges,"  sufficiently  strong 
to  resist  the  attacks  of  the  Iroquois  Indians.  On  the 
1 9th  June,  1629,  Quebec  was  captured  by  the  brothers 
Kirke,  and  both  Jesuits  and  Recollets  were  shipped 
back  to  France.  At  the  restoration  of  Canada  to 
France  in  1632,  the  Jesuits  returned,  but  the  Recollets 
were  not  accorded  that  permission  until  1670,  when 
they  arrived  at  Quebec  on  the  i8th  of  August  with 
M.  Talon,  the  Intendant.  They  found  their  property 
in  a  most  dilapidated  condition,  and  at  once  set  about 
rebuilding  what  is  now  the  General  Hospital.  As 
Bishop  St.  Valier  wished  to  institute  this  hospital,  he 
purchased  in  1692,  the  Recollet  property  on  certain 
conditions,  giving  them  in  exchange  a  tract  of  land  in 
the  Upper  Town  of  Quebec  facing  the  Parade,  at  present 
called  the  Place  D'Armes,  comprising  the  whole  square 
on  which  the  Court  House,  Cathedral  and  other  build- 
ings now  stand.  There  they  erected  their  church 
and  convent  which,  on  the  capitulation  of  Canada, 
September,  8,  1760,  became  a  possession  of  the  British 
Crown,  but  the  few  Friars  that  remained  were  permitted 
the  use  of  their  properties  until  the  death  of  Pere 
DeBerey,  the  last  superior  of  the  order  in  Canada. 

The  Friars  generously  allowed  the  Church  of 
England  to  use  their  church,  as  is  shown  by  the  follow- 
ing notice  in  the  Quebec  Gazette  of  May  21,  1767  : 
"  On  Sunday  next,  Divine  service,  according  to  the 
use  of  the  Church  of  England,  will  be  at  the  Recollets' 
church  and  continue  for  the  summer  season,  beginning 



soon  after  eleven.  The  drum  will  beat  each  Sunday 
soon  after  half  an  hour  past  ten,  and  the  Recollets' 
bell  will  ring  to  give  notice  of  the  English  service  the 
instant  their  own  is  ended."  The  Bishop  of  Nova 
Scotia,  Dr.  Charles  Inglis,  held  his  primary  visitation 
at  Quebec  on  August  5,  1789,  in  the  Recollets'  church, 
and  on  his  leaving  for  Halifax  the  clergy  of  the  Church 
of  England  in  Canada,  presented  him  an  address.  The 
convent  and  church  were  burnt  on  September  6,  1796, 
and  the  ruins  were  razed  by  order  of  the  government ; 
the  chancel  of  the  Cathedral  stands  on  a  portion  of 
these  ruins  which  extended  under  the  roadway  near 
the  Court  House.  The  Jesuit  church  was  then  used 
for  divine  service. 

The  first  Lord  Bishop  of  the  Diocese  of  Quebec, 
Dr.  Jacob  Mountain,  arrived  from  England  November 
ist,  1793,  with  his  family,  and  accompanied  by  his 
brother,  Rev.  Jehoshaphat,  and  his  son,  Rev.  Salter 
Jehoshaphat  Mountain,  who  became  at  the  death  of 
the  Rev.  Philip  Toosey  in  1797,  Rector  of  Quebec. 
At  the  solicitation  of  the  Bishop,  His  Majesty  George 
III,  decided  to  build  the  Cathedral,  and  set  apart  a 
portion  of  the  Recollet  property  for  that  purpose.  On 
November  nth,  1799,  he  appointed  a  commission  to 
carry  out  the  undertaking,  composed  of  the  Lord 
Bishop,  William  Osgoode,  Chief-Justice  of  Lower 
Canada,  Sir  George  Pownall,  Rev.  Salter  Jehoshaphat 
Mountain,  and  Jonathan  Sewell  the  Attorney-General, 
with  Matthew  Bell  Esq. ,  as  treasurer. 

The  corner-stone  was  laid  by  His  Excellency,  the 



Lieut.  Governor,  on  November  3,  1800.  At  the  con- 
secration, August  28,  1804,  the  Bishop  was  presented 
with  the  Letters  Patent  of  the  whole  property  as  it 
now  stands,  surrounded  by  a  low  stone  wall,  which  is 
surmounted  by  an  iron  railing  and  closed  with  iron 
gates.  The  organ  was  imported  from  England  in  1801, 
and  its  cost  defrayed  by  a  public  subscription. 

The  Governor- General,  his  Grace  the  Duke  of 
Richmond,  died  on  the  28th  August,  1819,  and  lies 
buried  under  the  chancel  of  the  Cathedral ;  a  brass 
plate  in  the  floor  marks  the  spot  where  his  Excellency 
is  interred,  and  a  marble  tablet  erected  in  the  north 
gallery  to  his  memory  is  the  finest  piece  of  workman- 
ship of  all  the  monuments  on  the  walls  of  the  church. 

Letters  Patent  were  issued  by  His  Majesty  George 
IV,  on  the  8th  of  September,  1821,  erecting  the 
Parish  of  Quebec,  constituting  the  Cathedral  the  Parish 
Church  till  a  Parish  church  would  be  built,  but  likewise 
maintaining  intact  its  cathedral  rights,  and  appointing 
the  Bishop's  son,  Rev.  George  Jehoshaphat  Mountain, 
D.  D.,  Rector,  and  granting  a  piece  of  ground  adjacent 
to  the  Cathedral  ' '  Close  " ,  on  which  are  built  the  rec- 
tory "  All  Saints  "  chapel,  and  the  "  Church  Hall."— 
Bishop  Mountain  died  June  i8th,  1825,  aged  76  years, 
and  lies  buried  within  the  chancel  at  the  north  side  of 
the  altar,  were  a  mural  monument  is  erected  to  his 
memory.  The  Honorable  The  Rev.  Charles  -James 
Stewart,  brother  of  the  Earl  of  Galloway,  and  one  of 
the  clergy  of  the  diocese,  was  consecrated  Bishop  of 



Quebec,  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  at  Lambeth, 
on  January  ist,  1826. 

The  Cathedral  up  to  this  time  had  no  bells,  but  a 
subscription  was  raised  and  a  chime  of  eight  bells 
ordered  ;  the  tenor  weighs  1852  pounds  and  their  total 
weight  is  8,023  pounds.  The  chime  arrived  in  the 
summer  of  1830  and  rang  the  first  peal  on  the  2oth 
of  October,  when  Lord  Aylmer  was  sworn  in  as 
Administrator  of  the  Goverment  of  Lower  Canada. 

On  the  i4th  of  February,  1836,  the  venerable 
Archdeacon  George  Jehoshaphat  Mountain  was  conse- 
crated, at  Lambeth,  Bishop  of  Montreal  without  any 
see  or  jurisdiction,  but  simply  to  assist  Bishop  Stewart, 
who  appointed  him  Coadjutor.  Bishop  Stewart  died 
in  London  in  July  1837,  an(l  a  fine  marble  tablet  was 
erected  to  his  memory  by  the  congregation  and  placed 
on  the  south  wall  of  the  chancel  inside  the  communion 
rails.  Bishop  Mountain  took  charge  of  the  diocese, 
retaining  the  Rectorship  of  the  parish,  and  appointed 
the  Rev.  George  Mackie  his  "  Official"  and  Curate 
of  the  Cathedral.  In  October  1846,  a  new  organ  was 
imported  from  England  and  the  old  one  sold  to  the 
Roman  Catholic  church  at  Lotbiniere,  where  it  is  still 
in  use. 

The  Diocese  was  on  July  i8th,  1850,  divided  into 
that  of  Montreal  and  Quebec,  and  Rev.  Dr.  Fulford 
was  consecrated  at  Westminster  Abbey,  Lord  Bishop 
of  Montreal,  when  new  Letters  Patent  were  issued, 
appointing  Bishop  Mountain  to  the  see  of  Quebec.  In 
1858  the  Rev.  Dr.  Mackie  retired  and  was  succeeded  by 



Rev.  George  Vernon  Houseman.  Bishop  Mountain 
died  on  January  6,  1863,  and  the  churchmen  of  the 
diocese  placed  to  his  memory  the  beautiful  memorial 
window  in  the  chancel  of  the  Cathedral.  It  is  in 
three  parts,  the  centre  representing  the  Ascension, 
and  the  two  side  portions  the  Baptism  and  Transfigur- 
ation of  our  L,ord,  at  the  base  is  inscribed  :  "  To  the 
glory  of  God  and  in  grateful  remembrance  of  George 
Jehoshaphat  Mountain,  D.D.,  some  time  Bishop  of 
this  diocese,  whom  the  Grace  of  Christ  enabled  to  fulfil 
the  duties  of  a  long  ministry  to  the  advancement  of  his 
Church  and  the  lasting  benefit  of  many  souls.  O.B. 
MDCCCLXIII.  ^ET.  LXXIII."  The  Rev.  G.  V. 
Houseman  was  then  appointed  Rector  of  Quebec.  A 
special  meeting  of  the  Diocesan  Synod  was  called  for 
the  4th  of  March,  1863,  at  which  the  Rev.  James 
William  Williams,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Belles-Lettres 
in  the  University  of  Bishops'  College,  Lennoxville, 
was  elected  Bishop.  Her  Majesty  Queen  Victoria's 
mandate  arrived  on  the  i6th  of  June,  and  he  was  con- 
secrated by  the  Metropolitan,  Bishop  of  Quebec,  on 
the  2ist  of  that  month  in  the  Cathedral. 

When  Her  Majesty's  Sixty-ninth  regiment  returned 
from  repelling  the  Fenian  Invasion  on  the  Huntingdon 
county  frontier,  His  Royal  Highness  Prince  Arthur 
presented  a  new  stand  of  colors  to  the  regiment  on  June 
21 ,  1870,  and  the  old  colors  were  the  next  day  deposited 
in  the  Cathedral  with  the  usual  ceremonies.  A  new 
organ  costing  $5,000  was  presented  to  the  church  in 
1 88 1  by  the  late  Hon.  R.  R.  Dobell  and  T.  Beckett,  Esq. 



The  Rev.  G.  V.  Houseman,  M.  A.,  died  Septem- 
ber 26,  1887,  and  the  Rev.  R.  W.  Norman,  D.  D., 
Canon  of  Montreal,  was  appointed  Rector  of  Quebec, 
and  inducted  in  the  Cathedral  on  March  18,  1888.  In 
June,  1888,  the  Synod  created  the  capitular  body  of 
the  Cathedral. 

Bishop  Williams  died  April  20,  1892.  The  Rev. 
Andrew  Hunter  Dunn,  M.  A.,  Vicar  of  All  Saints, 
South  Acton,  in  London,  England,  was  chosen  to 
succeed  him.  He  was  consecrated  at  Montreal  Bishop 
of  Quebec,  and  on  September  23th,  1892,  was  installed 
with  the  usual  impressive  ceremony. 

The  authorised  clergymen  of  the  Parish  of  Quebec, 
were  the  : — Rev.  J.  Brooke  in  1760.  Rev.  David 
Francis  DeMontmollin  in  1768.  Rev.  Philip  Toosey 
in  1785,  who  was  appointed  Rector  by  Bishop  Inglis 
in  1789.  Rev.  Salter  Jehoshaphat  Mountain  constituted 
Rector  by  Letters  Patent  of  8th  September,  1797,  who 
was  succeeded  in  1816  by  Rev.  George  Jehoshaphat 
Mountain,  by  Letters  Patent  of  8th  September,  1821, 
and  retained  the  Rectorship  after  being  consecrated 
Bishop  of  Quebec.  Rev,  George  Vernon  Houseman 
in  1863.  Very  Rev.  R.  W.  Norman,  D.D.  Dean  of 
the  Diocese  in  1887,  and  the  present  Rector  Very  Rev. 
Dean  Lennox  W.  Williams,  D.D.  in  1899. 

The  exterior  of  the  Cathedral  is  much  the  same 
as  it  always  was,  a  substantial,  plain,  rectangular  stone 
edifice,  standing  in  the  centre  of  a  well  kept  "  Close," 
surrounded  by  those  fine  old  trees  which  add  beauty 
to  the  environment  and  remind  Englishmen  of  the 



sacred  buildings  in  Britain.  The  interior  was  some- 
what altered  in  1857,  when  the  building  was  repaired, 
and  the  old-fashioned,  uncomfortably  high  pews  were 
lowered  ;  these  face  the  chancel  in  six  rows,  divided  by 
a  broad  centre  aisle,  and  are  made  of  oak,  as  are  also 
the  front  of  the  galleries  and  floors.  The  high  arched 
ceiling,  so  beautifully  tesselated,  is  made  not  as  many 
suppose  of  plaster,  but  entirely  of  wood,  and  is  sup- 
ported by  eight  massive  pillars  of  the  lonic-Palladic 
order  of  architecture,  made  of  pitch  pine  with  an  outer 
white  pine  casing. 

The  ceiling  is  painted  a  light  cream,  and  the  walls 
light  yellow  sandstone  color,  while  the  pillars  and 
pilasters  are  dark  brick  red  with  their  bases  olive  green. 
The  divisional  lines  of  the  ceiling  and  edgings  of  the 
arches  are  of  gold  colored  cable  pattern,  and  are  gilt 
in  the  chancel. 

On  the  chancel  wall  to  the  south  of  the  altar  are 
the  Ten  Commandments  written  on  two  large  tablets 
with  broad  gilt  cable  borders  reaching  to  the  base  of 
the  cornice,  on  a  level  with  the  top  of  the  window 
frame.  On  the  north  side  are  two  similar  tablets,  one 
containing  the  Apostles'  Creed  and  the  other  the  Lord's 

Outside  the  railing,  on  the  south  side,  is  the 
Bishop's  throne  of  oak  emblazoned  above  with  the 
arms  of  the  diocese,  and  opposite  to  it  stands  the  pulpit. 
On  each  side  of  the  chancel  are  the  stalls  for  the  Dean 
and  Chapter  and  other  clergy,  also  the  choir  seats. 
The  vestry  is  in  the  south  east  end  of  the  building, 



and  the  organ  in  the  western  gallery  over  the  main 
entrance.  The  brass  eagle  lectern,  a  memento  to  the 
late  Bishop  Williams,  is  in  the  centre  of  the  chancel, 
and  facing  it  at  the  main  door  stands  the  font,  a 
memento  to  the  late  R.  H.  Smith,  Esq.,  sometime  a 
prominent  member  of  the  congregation  and  Vestry. 

There  are  twenty-seven  marble  monuments  and 
eight  brass  plates  on  the  walls  of  the  church,  with 
fourteen  fine  memorial  windows,  all  of  which  add  to 
the  historic  interest  of  the  edifice. 

The  Governor- General's  pew  surmounted  by  a 
brass  railing  with  the  Royal  arms  at  the  front,  is  in 
the  north  gallery. 

The  communion  plate  was  the  special  gift  of  King 
George  III  in  1804,  and  consists  of  ten  massive  pieces 
of  solid  silver  exquisitely  engraved  and  embossed  with 
the  Royal  arms  and  those  of  the  Diocese. 

The  large  alms  dish  is  a  particularly  beautiful 
work  of  art,  the  bottom  being  a  representation,  in 
relief,  of  the  Lord's  Supper.  The  remaining  pieces 
consist  of  a  large  credence  paten,  two  tall  flagons  and 
two  heavy  chalices  of  frosted  silver,  two  massive  candle- 
sticks all  with  the  Royal  Arms  and  those  of  the  Diocese 
on  them,  and  two  plain  patens  engraved  with  the 
donor's  inscription  in  latin.  This  service,  which  is  a 
masterpiece  of  silversmith's  workmanship,  was  made 
in  lyondon  and  attracted  considerable  attention  before 
being  despatched  to  Quebec,  where  it  arrived  in  a  man- 
of-war  in  1809. 



On  the  2ytli  June,  1766,  General  James  Murray, 
the  Governor  of  Canada,  gave,  in  the  King's  name, 
a  communion  service,  consisting  of  a  large  silver  paten 
and  chalice  engraved  with  the  King's  Arms,  to  the 
Episcopal  Parish,  of  Quebec,  whenever  it  would  be 
established,  and  it  is  still  in  use  in  the  Cathedral. 

A  prominent  event  in  the  annals  of  the  diocese 
was  the  celebration  of  its  centenary  on  the  ist  June, 
1893,  in  the  Cathedral.  This  was  participated  in  by 
the  Metropolitan,  the  Bishop  of  Ontario,  the  Bishops 
of  New  York,  Nova  Scotia,  Niagara  and  Quebec  and  a 
large  number  of  the  clergy.  An  eloquent  sermon  by 
the  Rt.  Rev.  Dr.  Potter,  Bishop  of  New  York,  and 
impressive  music  by  an  augmented  choir  (the  surpliced 
choir  then  reestablished  after  forty  years  disuetude,) 
were  noteworthy  features  of  the  service. 

Many  historic  services  have  been  celebrated  in  this 
Cathedral,  prominent  among  which  were  the  church 
parades  of  the  2nd  battalion  of  the  Royal  Canadian 
Infantry  on  Sunday,  2gih  October,  1899,  and  that  of 
the  Mounted  Rifles  and  Field  Artillery  on  i4th  Jan- 
uary, 1900,  before  they  severally  embarked  for  the  war 
in  South  Africa,  where  they  manfully  upheld  the 
honor  of  the  British  Empire  and  good  name  of  Canada. 

On  the  2nd  February,  1901,  an  official  memorial 
service  was  held  in  the  Cathedral  at  the  hour  of  the 
burial  of  Her  late  Majesty  Queen  Victoria,  at  which 
were  present  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen,  the  Judges  and 
Bar  of  Quebec,  members  of  the  Provincial  Govern- 



ment,  the  Military,  and  representatives  of  His  Honor 
the  Lieutenant- Governor. 

On  the  2oth  June,  1902,  the  day  on  which  His 
Majesty  King  Edward  VII  was  to  have  been  crowned, 
an  intercessory  service  for  his  recovery  from  serious 
illness,  was  held  in  the  church,  and  on  the  9th  August 
his  coronation  was  celebrated  by  an  official  service  in 
the  Cathedral  attended  by  the  whole  Garrison  of 
Quebec,  His  Excellency  Lord  Minto,  the  Governor- 
General,  and  His  Honor  Sir  Louis  Jett£,  the  Lieutenant  - 
Governor  of  the  Province,  with  their  staffs,  all  in  full 
uniform.  The  only  church  decorations  were  the  Royal 
standard  and  other  British  flags  draped  round  the  altar. 
The  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  Dumoulin,  of  Niagara,  officiated 
at  the  communion  service,  and  in  place  of  a  sermon, 
read  from  the  chancel  the  King's  Proclamation. 

The  centenary  of  the  Cathedral  will  doubtless  be 
celebrated  with  all  due  ceremony  on  the  28th  August, 


The  church  of  England  had  rapidly  increased  in 
Quebec  and  its  members  were  scattered  all  over  the 
city,  moreover  the  Cathedral  began  to  be  inconveniently 
crowded,  so  much  so  that  it  was  found  desirable  to 
establish  chapels  in  different  parts  of  the  Parish  accord- 
ing as  locations  could  be  obtained  ;  these  chapels  were 
appendages  of  the  Cathedral  and  under  the  control  of 
its  Rector  and  Church-wardens,  except  that  of  the 
Holy  Trinity  which  was  an  independent  one. 



The  chapels  of  St.  Matthew,  St.  Peter  and  St. 
Michael  in  1875,  and  that  of  St.  Paul  1888,  were  by 
Canon  of  the  Synod  of  the  Diocese  of  Quebec  constituted 
Churches,  their  districts  Parishes  and  their  incumbents 
Rectors.  But  Trinity  being  a  proprietary  church  came 
under  a  separate  Canon. 


St.  Matthew's  Church  in  its  present  form  is  of 
recent  date,  but  its  existence  dates  back  to  1822  when 
the  Archdeacon,  Dr.  George  Jehoshaphat  Mountain, 
instituted  Sunday  evening  services  in  a  large  room  in 
the  house  of  Mr.  Rickaby,  the  Sexton  of  the  Protestant 
Burying  Ground,  St.  John  Street ;  the  congregation 
grew  so  rapidly  that  the  sexton's  domain  was  invaded 
and  other  quarters  were  obtained  for  him. 

In  1827  the  building  was  given  an  ecclesiastical 
appearance  by  arching  the  windows,  erecting  a  belfry 
with  a  small  bell  therein  and  fitting  out  the  whole 
interior  for  divine  service,  and  in  1830  it  was  further 
enlarged  by  the  addition  of  a  transept. 

On  the  28th  June,  1845,  St.  John's  suburbs  was 
destroyed  by  fire  and  the  Chapel  fell  a  prey  to  the 
flames  ;  but  funds  were  raised  and  on  the  25th  July, 
1848,  the  corner  stone  was  laid  by  Bishop  Mountain, 
of  a  neat  stone  building,  which  was  opened  for  service 
on  29th  April,  1849.  Hitherto  St.  Matthew's  was  a 
chapel  of  the  Cathedral  and  was  served  by  the  clergy 
of  the  Parish  of  Quebec  under  the  particular  care  of 
its  curate  the  Rev.  Armine  W.  Mountain,  but  in  1855, 



after  he  became  the  incumbent  of  St.  Michael's,  it 
became  a  separate  chapel  with  the  present  district 
attached  ;  and  on  the  ist  February  it  was  placed  in  the 
sole  charge  of  the  Rev.  Henry  Roe,  now  Archdeacon 
of  the  Diocese,  who  in  January,  1868,  was  succeeded 
by  the  Rev.  Charles  Hamilton,  M.A.,  who  had  been 
his  assistant  since  1865,  under  whose  pastoral  care  it 
continued  for  seventeen  years  when  he  was  on  the  ist 
May,  1885,  consecrated  Bishop  of  Niagara,  and  subse- 
quently translated  Bishop  of  Ottawa.  The  next  Redlor 
was  the  Rev.  F.  J.  B.  Alnatt,  D.D.,  and  in  1887 
he  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Lennox  W.  Williams, 
M.A.,  who  resigned  the  charge  on  being  installed  at 
the  Cathedral,  on  26th  May,  1899,  Dean  and  Redlor  of 
Quebec,  when  the  present  Redlor  the  Rev.  F.  G.  Scott 
was  appointed. 

A  special  plan  for  enlarging  and  embellishing  the 
church  had  been  drawn  out,  the  work  to  be  carried  on 
as  the  funds  permitted.  The  building  as  it  now  stands 
was  commenced  in  1870,  by  the  erection  of  the  chancel 
and  transepts,  the  corner  stone  of  which  was  laid  on 
the  2nd  June,  in  which  were  placed  the  mementos  of 
that  of  1848,  including  a  piece  of  the  original  bell  found 
among  tne  debris  after  the  fire. 

In  1875  the  old  portion  of  the  church  was  pulled 
down,  and  the  nave,  south  aisle  and  vestries  eredled  ; 
the  spire  which  completed  the  specification  was  finished 
in  1882  and  received  its  chime  of  eight  bells  in  1888, 
but  the  old  bell  of  1849  still  does  duty  on  the  roof  at 
the  western  gable. 



In  1875,  by  a  canon  of  the  Diocesan  Synod,  St. 
Matthew's  Chapel  was  constituted  a  Church  and  its 
district  a  Parish. 

A  debt  of  $3,000  had  to  be  incurred  by  the  build- 
ing, of  what  may  be  called,  the  new  church,  which 
was  paid  off  in  1892,  and  the  edifice  was  consecrated 
by  the  Bishop  of  Quebec  on  the  ist  March  of  that  year. 
A  new  and  enlarged  chancel  was  creeled  in  1901  by 
the  Hamilton  family  and  the  new  organ  chamber  by 
the  congregation,  as  a  memorial  of  the  late  Robert 
Hamilton,  D.C.L,.,  and  were  consecrated  by  the  Bishop 
of  Quebec  on  Sunday  i3th  October  of  that  year,  when 
the  Rev.  Harold  F.  Hamilton,  M.A.,  son  of  the  Bishop 
of  Ottawa  was  ordained  priest ;  which  double  ceremony 
was  rendered  most  interesting,  because  the  occasion 
offered  to  gather  together  all  the  rectors  of  St.  Matthew's 
from  the  beginning,  who  each  took  some  part  in  the 

The  church  is  now  one  of  the  handsomest  buildings 
exteriorally  and  interiorally  in  the  country  :  it  contains 
many  beautiful  memorials  of  deceased  members  of  the 
congregation,  such  as  the  marble  pulpit,  a  splendid 
work  of  sculpture,  erected  by  the  late  Robert  Hamilton 
in  memory  of  his  son  the  Rev.  George  Hamilton,  M.  A. ; 
the  marble  altar  was  erected  to  the  memory  of  Judge 
Irvine,  and  the  reredos  is  a  gift  in  memory  of  William 
Evans  Price  of  Wolfesfield,  and  among  the  many 
exquisite  stained  glass  windows  .is  one  erected  by  the 
congregation  in  1866  in  the  old  church,  to  its  founder 
Bishop  George  Jehoshaphat  Mountain. 



The  font  and  baptistry  were  erected  near  the 
western  entrance,  by  the  congregation,  in  memory  of 
the  Right  Reverend  James  William  Williams,  fourth 
Bishop  of  Quebec,  and  were  consecrated  on  the  2ist 
February,  1895. 

Among  the  mural  tablets  are  two  fine  brasses  to 
the  memory  of  brave  Canadian  soldiers,  members  of  St. 
Matthew's,  who  gave  their  lives  in  defence  of  the 
Empire  on  the  battle-fields  of  South  Africa,  Private 
Hector  MacQueen,  who  was  killed  at  Paardeberg  on 
the  i8th  February,  1900,  and  Major  J.  H.  C.  Ogilvy, 
D.  S.  O.,  who  died  on  the  igih  December,  1901,  from, 
wounds  received  the  previous  day  at  Klipgat. 

In  1872  the  Parish  building  was  eredled  at  the 
corner  of  St.  Augustin  and  D' Aiguillon  streets,  within 
a  stone's  throw  of  the  Church,  and  is  used  by  the 
several  parish  organizations  and  the  Sunday  School. 
The  Burial  ground,  part  of  which  forms  the  site  of  the 
church,  is  the  property  of  Trustees,  but  by  agreement 
is  cared  for  by  St.  Matthew's  Parish.  The  building 
thereon  erected,  the  first  St.  Matthew's  Chapel,  was 
secured  to  the  Church  of  England,  and  in  1868,  the 
Provincial  Government  granted  to  the  authorities  of 
St.  Matthew's  the  right  of  appropriating  so  much  of 
the  ground  as  might  be  needed  for  enlarging  the 


Trinity  Church  in  St.  Stanislas  street  in  the  Upper 
Town,  was  built  as  a  "  Chapel  of  Ease,"  to  the  Cathe- 

20  305 


dral  by  Chief  Justice  Jonathon  Sewell,  at  a  cost  of 
$16,000,  and  the  corner  stone  was  privately  laid  in  the 
north  east  angle  on  the  i6th  September,  1824.  The 
edifice  is  built  of  cut  stone  and  is  of  Doric  architecture, 
and  with  the  galleries  will  seat  600  persons.  On  the 
walls  of  the  church  are  five  marble  monuments,  one  of 
which  is  an  especially  fine  work  of  art  to  the  memory 
of  its  founder  Chief  Justice  Sewell,  and  a  beautiful 
stained  glass  window  has  recently  been  erected  in  the 
east  end  of  the  chancel  to  his  son  the  Rev.  E.  W. 
Sewell.  The  large  marble  font  was  originally  imported 
from  England  in  1831  for  the  Cathedral  where  it  was 
in  use  until  1902,  when  it  was  presented  to  Trinity 
Church  by  the  Vestry  on  the  erection  of  one  to  the 
memory  of  the  late  R.  H.  Smith,  Esq. 

At  the  death  of  the  Chief  Justice  in  1839,  Trinity 
became  the  property  of  his  son  the  Rev.  E.  W.  Sewell, 
who  had  been  admitted  to  the  diaconate  on  nth  May, 
1824,  by  Bishop  Jacob  Mountain,  and  on  the  chapel 
being  opened  for  service  on  the  2yth  November,  1825, 
became  its  pastor  who,  on  2yth  December,  1827,  was 
ordained  priest  by  Bishop  Stewart.  For  forty-three 
years  he  had  faithfully  ministered  to  his  congregation, 
until  advancing  years  compelled  a  rest  from  active 
service,  and  to  his  death  on  24th  October,  1890,  at  the 
advanced  age  of  91  years,  always  took  a  lively  interest 
in  the  affairs  of  the  Church. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Sewell  generally  had  an  assistant 
styled  the  "  Evening  Lecturer, "  and  from  1846  to  1855 
the  position  was  held  by  a  German  clergyman  of  the 



Church  Missionary  Society  the  Rev.  C.  L,.  F.  Haensel, 
who  came  to  Quebec  in  1840,  having  served  several 
years  at  Sierra  L,eone  on  the  West  coast  of  Africa, 
where  he  opened  the  Christian  institution  at  Fourah 
Bay.  In  1822  H.  M.  S.  Myrmidon  rescued  from  a 
Portuguese  slaver  among  others,  a  negro  boy  called 
Adjai,  who  was  placed  by  Capt.  Sir  Henry  I^eeke  in 
charge  of  the  Missionary  at  Sierra  Leone,  later  he  was 
baptised  Samuel  Adjai  Crowther,  and  when  Mr. 
Haensel  opened  the  Christian  Institution  in  1827  he 
became  its  first  student,  eventually  becoming  the  Rev. 
S.  A.  Crowther,  D.D.,  and  in  1864  was  consecrated 
Bishop  of  the  Niger  Territory. 

Mr.  Haensel  left  Quebec  in  1855  for  Ontario,  and 
in  1869  went  to  reside  in  St.  John,  New  Brunswick, 
where  he  died  on  i3th  January,  1876,  aged  80  years. 

In  1868  the  chapel  was  leased  for  ten  years  to  the 
British  Government  for  a  "  Garrison  Chapel,"  and  at 
the  withdrawal  of  the  Imperial  troops  in  1872,  the 
building  virtually  was  closed  to  the  expiration  of  the 
lease.  But  during  that  period  it  was  permitted  to  be 
used  by  the  Port-Chaplain,  the  Rev.  J.  S.  Sykes,  who 
in  a  measure  succeeded  in  gathering  together  many  of 
the  former  congregation  which  had  become  scattered 
over  the  Parish  ;  at  the  expiration  of  the  lease  in  1878, 
his  successor  was  the  Rev.  R.  W.  B.  Webster  and  on 
his  retiring,  the  Rev.  E.  W.  Sewell  nominated  the  Rev. 
Robert  Kerr,  who  was  licensed  as  curate  by  the  Bishop. 

On  the  3oth  June,  1881,  the  congregation  was 
incorporated  by  the  Provincial  Government  as  ' '  The 



Congregation  of  Trinity  Church,  Quebec,"  (Vic.  44- 
45.,  chap.  47.)  and  the  next  year  purchased  the 

The  Rev.  R.  Kerr  remained  in  charge  until  1885, 
when  he  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  A.  Bareham,  and 
on  his  resigning,  the  Rev.  W.  T.  Noble  took  charge 
until  1896,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  E. 
J.  Etherington,  who  at  faster  1903,  was  called  to 
Hamilton,  Ontario,  and  the  Rev.  B.  Watkin's  M.  A., 
was  appointed  Rector. 


The  origin  of  St.  Peter's  Church  dates  back  to 
the  year  1833.  In  December  of  that  year  the  Rector 
and  Church- Wardens  of  the  Cathedral  purchased  from 
Mr.  George  Pozer  a  two  story  stone  building  on  Church 
street,  and  converted  the  upper  story  into  a  temporary 
chapel  for  the  use  of  the  members  of  the  Church  of 
England  residing  in  St.  Rochs  ;  the  lower  story  being 
used  as  a  Male  Orphan  Asylum. 

The  first  curate  was  the  Rev.  W.  Anderson,  who, 
whilst  honorary  Canon  of  the  Cathedral  in  Montreal, 
died  at  the  age  of  90  years  on  3rd  March  1891.  This 
building  being  found  no  longer  serviceable  or  suitable, 
was  abandoned  in  1842,  and  steps  were  taken  to  erect 
a  building  worthier  of  its  sacred  purpose.  A  site  (the 
present  one)  on  St.  Valier  street,  at  the  foot  of  the  St. 
Augustine  street  steps,  was  purchased  from  Mr.  Isaac 
Dorion  by  two  members  of  the  congregation,  Messrs. 



William  Brown  and  Robert  Ward,  who  also  contracted 
for  the  erection  of  the  proposed  building.  The  corner 
stone  was  laid  on  25th  July  1842,  and  the  new  building 
consecrated  on  the  2oth  October  of  the  same  year  by 
Bishop  G.  J.  Mountain.  The  Rev.  W.  Chaderton,  who 
had  succeeded  Mr.  Anderson  in  1836,  was  curate  at 
this  date.  The  terrible  fire  of  28th  May  1845,  which 
devastated  the  whole  of  St.  Rochs,  left  St.  Peter's 
Chapel  a  charred  ruin,  and  many  of  the  members 
thereof  homeless.  Undaunted  by  this  heavy  blow  the 
little  congregation  took  immediate  steps  to  repair  the 
House  of  God,  and  their  brave  efforts  found  many 
and  generous  friends  ready  to  help  them  ;  the  Society 
for  Promoting  Christian  knowledge  donating  ^"100  stg. 
towards  the  object.  The  new  building  was  consecrated 
on  Sunday  2oth  September  1846.  The  following  year 
is  memorable  as  the  year  of  the  ship- fever,  when  vast 
numbers  of  immigrants,  for  the  most  part  Irish,  fell 
victims  to  the  disease  both  at  the  Quarantine  Station 
and  in  the  Marine  Hospital  at  Quebec.  Bishop  Moun- 
tain and  the  clergy  of  the  city,  notably  Mr.  Chaderton, 
were  unremitting  in  their  attendance  upon  the  afflicted. 
St.  Peter's  Parish  register  for  that  year  contains  the 
record  of  373  interments  ;  the  burial  service  in  no  less 
than  48  cases  having  been  taken  by  the  Lord  Bishop 
in  person.  Mr.  Chaderton,  a  man  of  marked  devoutness 
and  self-abnegation,  whilst  in  the  discharge  of  his 
sacred  office  contracted  the  disease  and  died  therefrom 
on  the  1 5th  July.  A  mural  tablet  on  the  chancel  wall 
of  St.  Peter's  bears  witness  to  the  love  in  which  he 



was  held  by  his  congregation.  The  Reverend  R.  G. 
Plees  succeeded  Mr.  Chaderton  as  curate  :  and,  on  his 
appointment  to  the  incumbency  of  St.  Paul's  in  1851, 
was  followed  by  the  Rev.  Gilbert  Percy  D.  D.  who 
remained  in  charge  for  five  years.  In  1856  the  Rev. 
Septimus  Jones  was  appointed  curate,  but  served  only 
until  1858  when  he  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Charles 
Hamilton,  the  present  Bishop  of  Ottawa.  For  the 
first  four  years  of  his  curacy  Mr.  Hamilton  had  as  a 
co-worker,  the  Rev.  H.  J.  Petry.  The  English  residents 
of  St.  Rochs,  Hedleyville  and  other  suburban  points 
were  far  more  numerous  at  that  date  than  at  present. 
In  1864  Mr.  Hamilton  resigned  to  assume  charge  of 
St.  Matthew's  and  was  succeeded  at  St.  Peter's  by  the 
Rev.  M.  M.  Fothergill.  Prior  to  1875  St.  Peter's  was 
a  chapel  in  connection  with  the  Cathedral,  but  in  that 
year  a  Canon  of  the  Diocesan  Synod  constituted  it  a 
Church  and  its  district  the  Parish  of  St.  Peter's.  After 
a  service  of  twenty-five  years  Mr.  Fothergill  resigned 
and  removed  from  the  Diocese,  and  was  succeeded  in 
1888,  by  the  Rev.  Canon  A.  J.  Balfour,  M.  A.,  the 
present  Rector. 

A  memorial,  in  the  shape  of  a  reredos,  has  been 
erected  in  St.  Peter's  commemorative  of  the  services 
of  Mr.  Fothergill,  who  died  at  Toronto  on  the  29th 
of  October  1902. 


Many  members  of  the  Church  of  England  resided 
in  Champlain  Street,  commonly  known  as  the  ' '  Coves, ' ' 



and  a  number  of  Protestants  were  found  among  the 
seamen  on  the  numerous  vessels  arriving  in  the  Port 
of  Quebec,  so  the  Archdeacon  held  services  in  the 
moulder's  loft  of  Mr.  Black's  shipyard  and  later  in 
Mr.  Munn's  store  ;  hence  he  and  the  Cathedral  author- 
ities applied  for  and  obtained  from  the  Government 
a  site  under  Cape  Diamond  where  they  erected  the 
Mariner's  Chapel,  which  was  consecrated  by  Bishop 
Stewart  on  the  3rd  June,  1832,  naming  it  St.  Paul's. 

In  1888  by  a  Canon  of  the  Diocesan  Synod  the 
Chapel  was  constituted  a  church  and  its  district  a 

The  church  is  a  neat  wooden  building  with  stone 
foundations,  and  can  seat  200  persons.  It  contains 
several  mementos  of  bygone  times  ;  the  font  is  the 
original  one  placed  in  the  Cathedral  in  1804,  and  the 
Royal  Arms  over  the  door  formerly  graced  the  front 
of  the  Governor- General's  pew,  and  the  pulpit  was 
one  of  the  old  reading  desks  of  the  Cathedral. 

But  the  marble  top  of  the  Communion  Table  is 
peculiarly  interesting,  as  it  formerly  belonged  to  the 
old  Jesuit  Church  ;  after  the  destruction  of  the  Recollet 
Church  by  fire  in  1796,  this  church  was  used  by  the 
Church  of  England,  and  before  its  demolition  in  1807, 
the  Government  it  appears  gave  this  slab  to  the  Bishop r 
but  in  what  capacity  it  had  been  originally  used  is  not 
on  record.  However,  in  1818,  there  was  some  corres- 
pondence over  it  between  the  Archdeacon  and  the  Rev. 
N.  Dufresne,  S.J.,  which  satisfied  the  latter  as  to  the 
Bishop's  right  to  the  slab. 


The  Archdeacon  and  Cathedral  clergy  conducted 
the  services  of  St.  Paul's  until  1833,  when  the  Rev. 
Joseph  Brown  was  appointed  the  first  incumbent  and 
was  succeeded  in  1841  by  the  Rev.  R.  R.  Burrage,  and 
the  next  year  the  Rev.  W.  W.  Wait  took  charge  to 
1843,  after  whom  the  duties  were  performed  by  the 
Rev.  S.  Bancroft,  Woolryche,  Torrance  and  E.  C. 
Parkin,  till  the  Rev.  J.  F.  L.  Simpson  was  appointed 
in  1844,  and  remained  till  1849,  when  he  was  succeeded 
Toy  the  Rev.  Gilbert  Percy,  and  in  1851  the  Rev.  R. 
G.  Plees  was  the  incumbent  and  ministered  to  St.  Paul's 
until  his  death  on  igth  June,  1872. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Mitchell  was  then  appointed  Rector 
and  was  succeeded  in  May,  1877,  by  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Richardson,  who  in  1888,  was  created  a  Canon  of  the 
Cathedral  ;  failing  health  and  advancing  years  com- 
pelled Canon  Richardson  to  retire  in  1894,  when  he  was 
presented  by  the  congregation  with  an  address  and  a 
substantial  token  of  their  appreciation  of  his  seventeen 
years  ministration  at  St.  Paul's.  He  died  on  28th  of 
April  1903,  and  the  funeral  cortege  proceeded  to  the 
Cathedral  from  the  Bishop's  residence. 

The  curate  the  Rev.  E.  A.  Dunn  was  left  in  charge, 
and  on  the  loth  November,  1895,  was  inducted  Rector, 
which  position  he  filled  till  his  appointment  to  the 
chair  of  Pastoral  theology  at  Bishop's  College,  L/ennox- 
ville,  in  August  1901,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  the 
present  Rector,  the  Rev.  H.  R.  Bigg. 



The  increasing  number  of  Church  of  England  folk 
on  the  St.  Louis,  St.  Foy  and  Sillery  Roads  caused  the 
erection  of  St.  Michael's  Chapel. 

Mrs.  Mary  Orkney,  wife  of  Dr.  Joseph  Morrin, 
M.D.,  had  inherited  from  her  former  husband  Frost 
Ralph  Gray,  Esq.,  a  large  tract  of  land  in  the  Fief  St. 
Michael,  and  gave  to  the  Bishop  a  site  on  the  St.  Louis 
Road  on  which  to  build  a  chapel ;  hence  a  subscription 
was  raised  and  building  operations  begun  in  1854,  and 
the  chapel  was  consecrated  on  the  i6th  September, 
1856,  by  Bishop  Mountain  and  named  St.  Michael's. 

It  is  a  picturesque  edifice  of  Gothic  architecture, 
resembling  the  country  churches  of  old  England,  built 
of  Cap  Rouge  stone  and  situated  on  the  north  side  of 
the  road  opposite  to  the  main  gate  of  Mount  Hermon 

The  interior  is  very  neat  and  pretty  with  its  high 
pitched  roof,  and  arches  of  varnished  oak,  of  which 
material  all  the  pews  and  wood-work  are  made.  The 
chancel  was  built  by  Bishop  Mountain  and  his  family 
as  a  memorial  of  his  son,  Lieutenant  Jacob  George 
Mountain,  of  H.M.  26th  Regiment,  and  all  the  appurt- 
enances of  the  church  are  memorial  gifts  :  The  marble 
font  was  erected  by  the  Rev.  George  Mackie,  D.D.,  in 
memory  of  his  brother  Major  W.  C.  M.  Mackie  ;  the 
pulpit  is  a  memorial  of  Lady  Elizabeth  Boxer,  and  the 
brass  eagle  lectern  of  Charles  E.  Levey,  Esq.  The 
Hon.  E.  J.  Price  gave  the  bell  and  chancel  screen  as 


memorials  to  his  brothers  Hon.  David  and  William. 
The  reredos  was  erected  by  the  Misses  Price  in  memory 
of  their  brother,  the  late  Senator  Hon.  Evan  J.  Price. 
The  windows  are  all  memorials  to  members  of  the 
families  Mountain,  Price,  Boxer,  Fisher  and  others. 
A  fine  brass  plate  on  the  wall  in  the  chancel  is  inscribed 
to  the  memory  of  the  Rev.  Armine  Wale  Mountain, 
the  first  Rector  of  St.  Michael's  and  a  brass  plate 
records  the  death  of  his  father,  the  Reverned  George 
Jehoshaphat  Mountain,  third  Bishop  of  Quebec. 

The  organ  was  purchased  from  subscriptions  raised 
in  England  by  the  late  Charles  E.  I^evey,  Esq. 

This  Chapel  was  opened  for  Divine  service  on  the 
24th  December,  1 854, by  the  Rev.  Armine  W.  Mountain, 
who  for  fifteen  years  ministered  to  the  congregation  of 
St.  Michael's,  when  he  resigned,  in  1869,  to  reside  in 

In  1875,  the  Chapel  was,  by  a  Canon  of  the  Dio- 
cesan Synod,  constituted  a  Church,  and  the  district 
attached  to  it  the  Parish  of  St.  Michael's. 

The  Present  Rector,  the  Rev.  A.  A.  Von  Iffland, 
M.  A.,  D.  C.  Iy.,  was  the  immediate  successor  of  Mr. 
Mountain,  and,  in  1888,  was  created  a  Canon  of  the 
Cathedral  Church  of  Quebec. 

The  Rectory  is  a  substantial  stone  house,  built  in 
1860,  upon  land  given  by  the  late  Bishop  George 
Jehoshaphat  Mountain,  and  is  the  property  of  the 



A  short  distance  .from  the  church  is  St.  Michael's 
School-house,  erected  in  1865,  by  the  Rev.  A.  W. 
Mountain  and  his  sisters,  in  memory  of  the  late  Bishop, 
their  father. 


The  Charitable  Institutions  connected  with  the 
Church  of  England  in  Quebec  are  the  Male  and  Female 
Orphan,  and  the  Finlay  Asylums,  also  the  National 
Schools  when  they  existed. 

The  National  Schools  were  started  by  the  old 
Society  for  Promoting  Christian  Knowledge  when  it 
established  a  branch  at  Quebec,  and  opened  their 
schools  in  the  Hope  Gate  Guard  House  in  November 
1819  ;  subsequently  a  site  was  obtained  from  the 
Government  on  D' Auteuil  street  hill  where  the  present 
building  was  erected  in  1823.  The  schools  were  carried 
on  until  1883,  when  their  conduct  was  by  agreement 
undertaken  by  the  Protestant  Board  of  School  Com- 
missioners, but  the  building  remained  the  property 
of  the  Church,  and  was  used  by  the  Cathedral  and  St. 
Matthew's  Sunday  schools  until  the  Church  Hall,  and 
St.  Matthew's  Parish  Room  were  built  ;  at  present  it 
is  occupied  by  the  offices  of  the  Inspector  of  Superior 
Education,  and  several  Fraternal  Associations. 

The  Quebec  Asylum  was  instituted  in  1821,  in  a 
house  on  the  Little  River  Road  known  as  La  Maison 
Rouge,  which  was  found  to  be  inconveniently  situated, 
being  too  far  from  town  ;  so  the  house  was  sold  in  1826 
and  the  children  placed  in  charge  of  Mr.  Rickaby  the 



Sexton  of  the  Protestant  Burying  ground  St.  John 
street,  and  the  adults  were  lodged  with  sundry  persons 
and  given  pensions.  This  disorganization  continued 
for  two  years,  till  in  1828,  the  Ladies'  Committee  of  the 
female  department  of  the  National  Schools  organized 
the  Female  Orphan  Asylum,  and  established  it  in  the 
upper  story  of  the  National  School  building  in  March 


The  Female  Orphan  Asylum  was  incorporated  on 
the  1 8th  May  1861  (24  Victoria  Cap.  113)  under  the 
name  of  "  The  Church  of  England  Female  Orphan 
Asylum  of  the  City  of  Quebec,"  and  on  the  opening  of 
the  Fiulay  Asylum  in  1862,  the  inmates  were  removed 
to  that  building,  occupying  the  western  end  until  their 
present  building  was  purchased. 

Surgeon  Blatherwick  and  the  officers  of  the  Im- 
perial troops  then  garrisoning  Quebec,  established  the 
Military  Asylum  for  soldier's  widows  and  orphans, 
and  erected  for  their  comfort  that  substantial  stone 
building  on  the  south  side  of  Grande  Allee  near  the 
Martello  tower. 

The  Imperial  garrison  was  removed  from  Quebec 
in  1871,  and  in  1873,  the  property  was  purchased  by 
the  L,adies  of  the  Female  Orphan  Asylum  who  also 
undertook  the  care  of  its  military  occupants. 

The  Institution  is  in  charge  of  a  matron,  and  is 
admirably  managed  by  a  committee  of  twelve  ladies, 
who  in  rotation  supervise  each  month  its  interior 


economy,  and  are  assisted  by  an  advisory  committee 
of  four  gentlemen.  The  present  officers  are  Mrs. 
Dunn,  president,  Mrs.  Colin  Sewell,  secretary  and  Mrs. 
Edward  L,.  Sewell  the  treasurer. 


The  Quebec  Male  Orphan  Asylum  was  founded 
in  1832,  when  cholera  was  epidemic  in  the  City  and 
Provinces,  and  to  alleviate  distress,  the  Rector  and 
Church-wardens  of  the  Cathedral  called  a  meeting  by 
advertisement  in  the  Quebec  Gazette  of  6th  July  of 
that  year,  for  : — "  The  purpose  of  taking  into  con- 
sideration the  cases  of  some  forty  orphans,  and  also  a 
number  of  distressed  subjects  actually  thrown  upon 
the  charge  of  the  Church  by  the  effect  of  the  visitation 
from  the  hand  of  God  which  has  been  upon  the  City." 

The  original  records  of  the  meeting  are  not  extant, 
but  immediate  action  was  taken,  and  a  house  rented  for 
the  purpose,  till  in  1834  a  stone  house  was  purchased 
in  Rue  de  1'Eglise  St.  Rochs,  whose  second  story  was 
fitted  up  for  divine  worship  and  the  lower  one  for  the 
male  orphans.  In  1842  the  building  was  condemned 
and  the  bo"ys  were  installed  in  the  National  School,  a 
part  of  which  house  had  been  fitted  up  for  them. 

On  the  27th  May,  1857,  the  Institution  was  incor- 
porated under  the  name  of  "  The  Managers  of  the 
Church  of  England  Male  Orphan  Asylum  of  Quebec, ' ' 
the  corporation  being  the  Rector  and  Chnrch-wardens 
of  the  Parish  of  Quebec. 


In  1862  the  Finlay  Asylum  was  opened  in  that 
commodious  building  on  the  St.  Foy  Road  and  the 
eastern  wing  was  leased  to  the  Male  Orphan  Asylum, 
and  the  children  removed  thither. 

The  interior  affairs  of  the  M.  O.  Asylum  are 
supervised  by  a  committe  of  twelve  ladies,  approved 
by  the  corporation  ;  each  lady  takes  in  rotation  the 
duty  of  visitor  for  the  month,  and  the  retiring  visitor 
presides  at  the  meetings  of  the  succeeding  month. 


After  the  sale  of  L/a  Maison  Rouge  in  1826  and 
the  old  men  pensioned  off  and  scattered  all  over  the 
Parish  in  lodgings,  the  Quebec  Asylum  became  extinct. 
This  sad  state  of  affairs  continued  for  many  years,  and 
although  some  efforts  were  made  to  improve  the  condi- 
tion of  these  old  people,  nothing  of  a  permanent  nature 
was  accomplished  till  1854,  when  one  of  the  church- 
wardens of  the  Cathedral,  William  G.  Wurtele,  Esq., 
rented  a  house  in  L/achevrotiere  street  and  gathered 
the  Parish  pensioners  of  both  sexes  therein  with  a 
matron  in  charge.  This  establishment  was  removed 
to  Sutherland  street  and  subsequently  the  house  was 
purchased  with  money  bequeathed  by  Miss  Margaret 
Finlay,  which  legacy  was  supplemented  by  a  further 
sum,  and  on  the  loth  May,  1857,  the  Institution  was 
incorporated  by  the  Rector  and  Churchwardens  of  the 
Cathedral,  the  Rt.  Rev.  George  Jehoshaphat  Mountain, 
and  Messrs.  W.  G.  Wurtele  and  Edward  Poston,  under 
the  name  of  "  The  Finlay  Asylum  of  Quebec." 


The  following  year  the  Bishop  received  several 
large  donations  which  enabled  the  corporation  to  pur- 
chase a  lot  of  ground  on  the  north  side  of  the  St.  Foy 
Road  about  three  hundred  yards  outside  the  city  limits, 
from  the  heirs  Tourangeau,  and  to  erect  thereon  that 
fine  building,  the  corner  stone  of  which  was  laid  by 
the  late  Mrs.  Robert  Hamilton  on  the  loth  May,  1860. 
The  formal  opening  of  the  building  took  place  on  the 
2nd  August,  1862,  that  being  the  5oth  anniversary  of 
the  Bishop's  ministration  in  the  Diocese  of  Quebec, 
and  was  celebrated  in  the  Asylum  by  a  special  sendee 
prepared  by  his  Lordship. 

The  asylum  is  of  Gothic  architecture,  built  of  Cap 
Rouge  stone  dressing  and  plinths,  with  variegated 
arches  over  each  aperture  ;  it  is  about  no  feet  long  by 
55  feet  wide,  two  stories  high  with  basement  and  attic. 
The  system  adopted  in  the  Finlay  is  that  of  small  wards 
containing  from  three  to  six  persons,  and  every  possible 
liberty  is  given  to  these  old  people.  The  chapel  is  in 
the  centre  of  the  building  with  four  rooms  opening  off 
from  it,  so  that  very  infirm  persons  and  those  confined 
to  bed  can,  without  leaving  their  rooms,  join  in  the 
service  which  is  held  every  morning. 

The  management  is  under  the  control  of  the  war- 
dens of  the  Cathedral  assisted  by  a  committee  of  twelve 
ladies  chosen  throughout  the  parishes  of  the  city. 

All  these  Institutions  are  maintained  by  revenues 
from  endowments,  anual  subscriptions,  donations  and 
small  Government  grants  ;  the  late  Quebec '  Provident 
and  Savings  Bank  annually  divided  some  of  its  profits 



among  all  the  charities  of  Quebec,  and  on  transferring 
its  business  to  the  Union  Bank  of  Canada  in  March 
1872,  likewise  divided  the  balance  giving  $  10,000  each, 
to  the  Finlay  and  Male  Orphan  Asylums,  and  $3,800 
to  the  Female  Orphans,  which  was  a  great  assistance 
to  them  all,  but  the  revenues  are  still  inadequate. 


According  to  the  obituary  notices  in  the  Quebec 
Gazette,  the  mortal  remains  of  Protestants  were  interred 
in  divers  places  in  Quebec  ;  some  in  the  St.  Joseph 
Cemetery,  situated  between  the  Seminary  and  the 
French  Cathedral ;  others  on  the  south  side  of  that 
edifice,  as  proved  by  the  memorial  on  the  western  wall 
of  the  Presbytery,  removed  to  that  position  when  the 
wall  on  Buade  street  was  lowered  : — 





WHO    PIED    MARCH    14TH,    1767 

AGED  25   YEARS. 

If  virtue's  charms  had  power  to  save 
Her  faithful  vot'ries  from  the  grave 

With  beauty's  e'vry  form  supplied 
The  lovely  Ainslie  ne'er  had  died. 

The  gorge  of  the  St.  Louis  Bastion  was  also  used 
as  a  burial  ground,  where  among  others,  the  Continental 
General  Richard  Montgomery,  who  was  killed  when 



assaulting  the  Pres-de-Ville  barricade  on  the  early 
morning  of  the  3ist  December,  1775,  was  there  interred 
on  the  4th  January,  1776,  the  military  chaplain  Rev. 
F.  De  Montmollin  reading  the  burial  service.  The 
General's  remains  were  exhumed  in  1818  by  permis- 
sion of  the  Governor  General  and  interred  in  New 
York  with  great  ceremony. 

On  the  i Qth  December,  1771,  Demoiselle  An gelique 
Denis  de  St.  Denis  and  her  family,  (heirs  of  the  late 
M.  St.  Simon)  sold  a  lot  of  land  on  St.  John  Street 
M.  St.  Simon  had  purchased  from  the  nuns  of  the  Hotel 
Dieu,  to  Thomas  Dunn,  who  on  2Qth  March,  1778  sold 
it  to  the  Government,  which  also  purchased  another 
portion  of  the  property  from  the  heirs  St.  Simon  on 
22nd  August,  1778,  and  the  balance  on  4th  July,  1780. 

These  lots  were  bounded  on  the  north  by  St.  John 
Street,  on  the  south  by  St.  Gabriel  Street,  on  the  east 
by  St.  Augustin  Street,  and  on  the  west  by  the  garden 
of  Justice  Kerr,  representing  the  heirs  St.  Simon,  the 
whole  surrounded  by  a  stone  wall,  and  appears  to  have 
been  used  for  a  cemetery  ;  to  secure  which  in  perpetuity, 
the  Protestant  Community  petitioned  the  Government, 
and  on  igth  August,  1833,  His  Majesty  George  IV, 
issued  letters  patent  granting  the  property  to  the 
Trustees  of  the  Protestant  Burying  ground  : — Dr.  G. 
J.  Mountain  the  Archdeacon  and  Rector  of  Quebec, 
Messrs  Francis  Coulson  and  William  Morrison,  Church- 
Wardens  of  the  Parish  of  Quebec,  and  Andrew  William 
Cochrane,  and  his  successors  to  be  nominated  by  the 
Rector.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Mills  Chaplain  of  the  Forces, 

21  321 


Rev.  J.  Archbold  assistant  minister  of  the  Cathedral 
and  Rev.  James  Harkness  minister  and  John  Neilson, 
Andrew  Patterson,  James  Ross  and  Thomas  White 
Trustees  of  the  Church  of  Scotland 

There  was  a  building  on  it  used  for  the  Burial 
services  of  both  Churches  and  sexton's  residence,  but 
the  Church  of  England  had  the  paramount  right  in 
the  building  and  appointment  of  the  sexton,  but  the 
Church  of  Scotland  might  put  up  another  bnilding  on 
the  grounds  and  appoint  a  sexton  to  it  should  they 
deem  it  necessary. 

On  the  1 6th  December,  1844,  the  Rector,  with  the 
Rev.  John  Cook,  L,.L,.D.,  Messrs.  H.  Jessop,  Thomas 
Gary,  A.  Simpson  and  A.  Patterson  purchased  from  Dr. 
Nault,  whose  wife  was  a  Miss  Durette,  the  additional 
ground  outside  the  stone  wall,  (which  was  removed,) 
and  added  it  to  the  burying  ground,  so  that  the  pro- 
perty extended  to  St.  Genevieve  street  on  the  west, 
but  did  not  include  the  corner  lot  and  stone  house  on 
St.  John  street,  now  owned  by  D.  S.  Rickaby,  Esq. 

After  the  fire,  in  1 845,  St.  John  street  was  widened, 
the  city  paying  ^423  iys.  6d.  for  the  ground  and  ,£420 
to  rebuild  the  stone  wall  on  the  line  of  the  street. 

For  sanitary  reasons,  the  Government,  at  the  peti- 
tion of  the  City  Council,  by  Act  of  Parliament  on  the 
1 9th  May,  1860,  closed  the  burial  ground  and  pro- 
hibited, under  penalty,  all  further  interment  ;  hence 
the  place  was  neglected  and  became  a  disgrace  to  the 
city,  there  being  so  many  parties  concerned  it  seemed 
to  be  nobody's  business  to  keep  the  grounds  in  order ; 



but  in  1875  St.  Matthew's  Congregation  appointed  a 
committee  to  take  what  steps  would  be  advisable  to 
put  the  burial  ground  in  order  ;  but  the  appeal  made 
to  friends  and  relatives  of  those  interred  there  did  not 
meet  with  much  success,  so  the  small  amount  received 
was  expended  to  the  best  advantage. 

For  thirteen  years  nothing  further  was  done  and 
the  place  lapsed  into  delapidation  and  became  over- 
grown with  weeds  and  rubbish  till  in  1888,  when  St. 
Matthew's  Congregation  undertook  to  care  for  the 
grounds  provided  the  Trustees  put  them  in  proper 
order.  An  appeal  was  made  to  the  Protestant  public 
and  sufficient  means  were  raised  to  accomplish  the 
work  so  the  burying  ground  is  now  well  kept  and  worth 
a  visit  to  recall  the  names  of  Quebec's  respedted  citizens 
as  written  on  the  old  tombstones. 

It  may  here  be  interesting  to  relate  some  of  the 
inscriptions  : — 

At  the  western  end  of  the  church,  near  the  gate, 
rest  the  mortal  remains  of  a  brother  of  Sir  Walter 
Scott,  the  celebrated  novelist : 





WHO    DIED   ON  THE    5TH    OCTOBER    1821 







29TH  JANUARY  1832. 
















20TH  JULY  1838  IN  HIS  79TH  YEAR. 

Here  is  a  double  inscription  on  a  stone  erected  by 
veterans  of  the  campaign  of  1759  to  a  brother  officer. 


DlEN GALLON    EN     ECOSSE    QUI    MOURUT    DE    LA     FlEVRE    EN 









In  Col.  Malcolm  Fraser's  journal  of  the  siege  of 
Quebec  1759,  it  is  stated  that  on  the  3rd  of  September 
his  detachment  was  camped  at  Point  Levy  and  ' '  this 
day  died  my  worthy  Captain,  Alexander  Cameron  " — 
and  "  was  interred  on  the  4th,  in  front  of  our  colors  ". 

It  may  therefore  be  safely  inferred  that  after  the 
capitulation  of  the  City  Captain,  Cameron's  remains 
were  transferred  to  Quebec  and  the  stone  placed  over 
them  in  its  present  position. 



Amongst  the  many  noble  works  undertaken  by  the 
ladies  of  Quebec,  the  Protestant  Home  is  a  monument. 
This  institution  has  accomplished  much  real  work,  and 
it  deserves  all  the  support  necessary  for  its  efficient 

The  act  of  incorporation  was  assented  to  on  the 
4th  of  May,  1859. 

The  preamble  of  the  adl  reads  as  follows  : — 

"  Whereas  an  association  has  existed  for  several 
"  years  in  the  City  of  Quebec,  in  this  Province,  under 
"  the  name  of  the  Quebec  Ladies'  Protestant  Relief 
"  Society,  for  the  purpose  of  affording  relief  and  sup- 
"  port  to  the  destitute  poor  in  the  said  city;  whereas, 



'  the  said  association  is  composed  of  the  several  persons 
'  hereinafter  mentioned,  who  have  by  their  Petition 
'  represented  that  their  success  in  carrying  out  their 
'  benevolent  prospects  aforesaid,  as  well  as  providing 
'  a  '  Home '  for  the  friendless  and  unprotected,  would 
'  be  greatly  augmented  by  their  legal  incorporation, 
'  and  have  prayed  to  be  incorporated  under  certain 
'  regulations  and  provisions  hereinafter  mentioned  : 
'  Therefore,  Her  Majesty,  by  and  with  the  advice  and 
'  consent  of  the  Legislative  Council  and  Assembly  of 
'  Canada,  enacts  as  follows  : 

"  Eliza,  Stewart,  Caroline  Newton,  Mary  Ann 
'  Bankier,  Harriet  Newton,  Margaret  Newton,  Louisa 
'  Stewart,  Ann  Sheppard,  Jane  White,  Caroline 
'  Gilmour,  Mary  Chaderton,  Sarah  Walker  Veasey, 
'  Myerka  Austin,  Lavinia  Sewell,  Henrietta  Blather- 
'  wick,  Mary  Powis,  Mary  Richardson,  Francis 
'  Tremain,  Gertrude  Sewell,  Sophy  Griffin,  Jane 
'  Durnford,  Matilda  Ward,  Elizabeth  Drum,  and  Jessy 
'  Cradock,  and  such  other  persons  as  shall  under  the 
'  provisions  of  this  statute  become  members  of  the 
'  said  association,  shall  be,  and  are  hereby  declared  to 
'  be  a  body  politic  and  corporate  in  deed  and  in  name, 
'  by  the  name  of  the  Ladies'  Protestant  Home  of 
'  Quebec." 

The  President  is  Mrs.  Gregor,  and  Miss  Anderson 
is  the  Secretary. 

THE  REV.  A.  T.  LOVE,  B.A.,  PASTOR 

St.  Andrew's  Church  (Presbyterian)  is  one  of  the 
oldest  churches  in  Canada.  Divine  services  may  be 
said  to  date  from  the  year  of  the  Siege,  being  conducted 



by  the  Reverend  Robert  Macpherson,  the  brave  chaplain 
of  Fraser's  Highlanders,  the  regiment  so  highly  distin- 
guished at  the  battle  of  Louisbourg,  as  well  as  the 
capture  of  Quebec  under  General  Wolfe  in  1759.  In 
the  Highland  regiment  we  come  across  the  names — 
Campbell,  Cameron,  Fraser,  McLeod,  Macpherson, 
Thomson,  Blackwood,  Munro,  Paterson,  McL,ean, 
McDonald  members  of  the  Church  of  Scotland,  so  that 
very  soon  after  the  taking  of  Quebec  a  Presbyterian 
Church  was  organized.  The  Reverend  George  Henry, 
an  ex-military  chaplain,  and  said  to  have  been  present 
at  the  capture  of  Quebec,  was  the  first  regular  pastor 
of  the  Scottish  Church,  beginning  his  duties  as  such 
in  1765.  An  apartment  which  was  fitted  up  for  a 
chapel  was  set  apart  by  the  King's  representative  in 
the  Jesuit's  College  for  the  use  of  the  members  of  the 
Scottish  Church,  this  being  occupied  until  1807,  when 
the  building  was  appropriated  for  the  use  of  the  troops 
quartered  in  the  city.  Mr.  Henry  died  on  the  6th  of 
July,  1795,  in  the  86th  year  of  his  age.  The  following 
notice  appeared  at  the  time  in  the  Quebec  Gazette  : — 
' '  To  the  character  of  an  able  divine  he  united  that 
benevolence  of  heart  and  practical  goodness  which 
made  his  life  a  constant  example  of  the  virtues  he 
recommended  to  others,  and  rendered  him  both  a  useful 
teacher  of  Christianity,  and  an  ornament  of  Society." 
Mr.  Henry  was  succeeded  by  the  Reverend  Dr.  Spark, 
a  native  of  Marykirk,  Scotland,  and  a  graduate  of  the 
University  of  Aberdeen.  After  arriving  in  Quebec  and 
before  undertaking  the  pastorate  of  the  church,  Mr. 



Spark  was  for  several  years  tutor  in  the  family  of  Sir 
John  Caldwell,  at  Belmont.  His  ministry  continued 
for  thirty-four  years  from  the  death  of  his  predecessor. 
In  1802  a  petition  was  addressed  to  King  George  III 
desiring  that  a  lot  of  ground  be  granted  to  the  congre- 
gation upon  which  to  erect  a  place  of  worship.  This 
memorial  was  signed  by  148  persons.  A  copy  of  the 
petition  and  of  the  names  attached  to  it  is  given  in 
an  interesting  address  on  ' '  The  Scot  in  New  France  ' ' 
by  Sir  James  Macpherson  L,emoine.  One  of  these 
petitioners  was  Sergeant  James  Thomson,  of  Fraser's 
Highlanders,  who  had  also  served  under  Wolfe  at  the 
Siege  of  Quebec  ;  who,  68  years  afterwards,  assisted 
Lord  Dalhousie  in  laying  the  corner-stone  of  the  Wolfe 
and  Montcalm  monument,  and  who  died,  in  1830,  aged 
98  years.  Among  other  names  on  the  petition  were 
Mrs.  Jane  Sewell,  wife  of  Solicitor-General  Sewell, 
Mrs.  Hamilton  Sewell,  wife  of  Chief  Justice  Sewell, 
and  daughter  of  Chief  Justice  Smith.  Chief  Justice 
Smith  was  one  of  the  office-bearers  and  a  strong  sup- 
porter of  the  Scottish  Church.  He  was  born  in  New 
York  in  1728,  and  became  Chief  Justice  of  New  York  ; 
afterwards,  in  reward  for  his  loyalty,  being  made  Chief 
Justice  of  Lower  Canada,  to  which  he  came  in  1786. 
In  1802,  letters  patent  were  issued  granting  as  a  place 
for  the  erection  of  a  church,  a  lot  of  ground  on  St.  Ann 
Street  to  the  Reverend  Alexander  Spark,  John  Black- 
wood,  John  Mure,  David  Munro  and  John  Paterson, 
and  their  successors  in  trust  for  ever.  The  building 
was  completed  and  opened  for  public  worship  on  No- 



vember  3oth,  1810,  and  was  named  St.  Andrew's 
Church.  Previous  to  this  the  congregation  was  called 
the  Scotch  Church.  From  this  time  the  congregation 
rapidly  grew  and  became  strong  and  influential.  Dr. 
Spark  died  in  1819.  The  Quebec  Mercuty  said  of  him  : 
"  We  may  say  beyond  the  reach  of  contradiction,  that 
he  was  not  only  skilled  in  letters  ;  that  in  life  and 
manners  he  showed  a  simplicity  and  innocence  beyond 
what  are  seen  in  most  men,  and  that  few  here  died 
more  universally  and  more  sincerely  lamented.  " 

The  Reverend  Dr.  Harkness,  a  native  of  Sanquhar, 
Scotland,  succeeded  Dr.  Spark  in  1820.  He  is  spoken 
of  as  a  warm  hearted  and  generous  man,  and  a  fearless 
defender  of  the  rights  of  his  church.  He  was  a  great 
favourite  with  L,ord  Dalhousie,  and  was  a  frequent 
guest  at  the  Castle.  He  died  in  1835  in  the  46th  year 
of  his  age  and  the  1 5th  of  his  ministry.  The  Reverend 
John  Cook  D.  D.  followed  in  1836.  He  like  his  pre- 
decessor, was  a  native  of  Sanquhar,  Scotland,  and  was 
educated  at  Glasgow  University.  He  was  born  in 
1805,  and  died  on  the  3ist  of  March,  1892.  Dr.  Cook 
was  in  many  respects  a  remarkable  man.  For  well 
nigh  half  a  century  he  was  a  leader  in  his  Church 
and  used  his  best  influence  to  bring  about  the  union 
of  all  the  branches  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in 
Canada  in  1875.  He  was  honoured  by  being  the 
first  Moderator  of  the  general  assembly  of  the  United 
Church.  Dr.  Cook  whilst  being  an  able  preacher,  took 
a  lively  interest  in  all  matters  affecting  education, 
and  was  a  trustee  of  Queen's  College,  Kingston,  a 



member  of  the  corporation  of  McGill  University, 
Montreal,  and  a  member  of  the  Council  of  Public 
Instruction  for  the  Province  of  Quebec,  and  Principal 
of  Morrin  College,  Quebec,  from  1862  till  death.  A 
beautiful  tablet  was  placed  behind  the  pulpit  by  the 
members  of  the  congregation  to  the  memory  of  one 
who  had  been  their  devoted  pastor  for  forty  eight 
years.  The  Reverend  Andrew  Tannahill  Love,  B.  A. 
a  native  of  Dunlop,  Ayrshire  Scotland,  succeeded  Dr. 
Cook,  and  was  inducted  to  the  pastorate  on  the  i8th 
of  December  1884.  Mr.  I,ove  is  a  graduate  in  Arts 
of  Queen's  College,  Kingston,  and  took  his  divinity 
course  at  Glasgow  University.  His  pastorate  has 
been  highly  successful,  and  he  continues  to  gather 
around  him  a  large  and  influential  congregation,  a 
people  contributing  not  merely  for  their  own  local 
church,  but  giving  largely  of  their  means  for  the  mis- 
sionarj-  educational  and  benevolent  work  of  the  church 
throughout  Canada.  Mr.  I^ove  is  a  member  of  the 
Provincial  Council  of  Public  Instruction,  and  is  much 
interested  in  educational  work  generally. 

The  old  church  presents  a  very  antique  appearance 
with  its  odd  looking  sky-light  windows,  and  stair  ways 
going  up  inside  the  building.  There  are  a  number  of 
very  handsome  and  costly  windows  erected  to  the 
memory  of  departed  office  bearers,  there  are  also  several 
fine  old  tablets,  one  on  the  east  wall  bearing  this 
inscription  : 







AD.  1848-1851 


Then  follows  the  names  and  rank  of  thirty-six 
officers  and  men. 

The  following  gentlemen  are  the  present  office 
bearers  of  the  Church  : 

Kirk  Session 

The  Rev.  A.  T.  Love,  B.A.         Minister 

Mr.  J.  C.  Thomson,  Mr.  W.  R.  Dean, 

Mr.  J.  H.  Clint,  Mr.  Jas.  Reid, 

Mr.  A.  J.  Elliot,  Mr.  Robert  Stewart, 

Mr.  John  Strang,  Mr.  John  Jack. 


Rev.  A.  T.  L,ove,  Mr.  John  Breakey, 

Mr.  Andrew  Thomson,        Mr.  F.  L,ampson. 
Mr.  Wm.  Cook, 

BY   REV.    W.    H.    SPARLING,  B.    A. 

The  first  Methodist  preacher  in  Quebec  was  a  Mr. 
Tuffey,  a  commissary  of  the  44th  regiment,  which  was- 
quartered  in  the  city  in  the  year  1780.  This  pious  and 



devoted  man,  being  a  Local  preacher,  preached  to  the 
soldiers,  and  such  of  the  Protestant  immigrants  of  the 
city  as  were  disposed  to  attend,  and  continued  to  do 
so  until  his  regiment  was  disbanded  and  he  returned 

The  first  Methodist  Itinerant  to  visit  the  city  was 
the  famous,  but  somewhat  eccentric,  Lorenzo  Dow. 
Being  sent,  in  the  year  1799,  by  Bishop  Asbury,  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  in  the  United  States, 
to  form  a  Circuit  in  Lower  Canada,  he  travelled  through 
Sutton  and  Dunham  Townships  to  Montreal.  Believing 
himself  called  of  God  to  visit  Ireland  he  sailed  down 
the  river  to  Quebec  and,  while  waiting  for  a  vessel 
to  cross  the  ocean,  preached  as  he  had  opportunity. 
Under  his  ministry  some  twenty  persons  were  seriously 
impressed  but,  so  far  as  known,  no  Class  was  formed 
and  no  effort  made  to  establish  a  permanent  organ- 

The  City  was  not  again  visited  by  a  Methodist 
preacher  till  the  year  1803  when  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Merwin,  who  was  them  stationed  in  Montreal,  came  to 
Quebec  with  the  view  of  forming  a  Class  and  estab- 
lishing a  Church  in  the  city,  but  not  meeting  with 
much  encouragement  he  returned  to  Montreal,  after 
staying  about  a  month,  and  continued  his  labors  there. 

In  the  year  1806,  the  Rev.  Nathan  Bangs,  subse- 
quently famous  as  a  Methodist  historian,  came  to 
Quebec.  Arriving  on  a  Saturday  morning,  with  letters 
of  introduction  to  some  persons  in  the  city,  he  at  once 
presented  them  and  set  about  securing  a  place  in  which 



to  hold  service  and  succeeded  in  renting  a  room  over  the 
Free  Masons  Hall,  where  the  Post  Office  now  stands. 
Here  on  the  following  day  he  preached  to  a  fairly 
good  congregation  and  at  once  set  earnestly  to  work  to 
establish  Methodisim  in  the  city.  Calling  on  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Dick  pastor  of  St.  John's  (nowChalmer's  Church) 
he  was  most  cordially  received  and  treated  with  much 
affection  and  respect.  For  a  while  his  congregation 
was  quite  good,  but  soon  the  interest  in  the  services 
began  to  grow  less  and  the  hearers  few,  while  only 
three  or  four  seemed  to  be  under  serious  impressions. 
He  persevered,  however,  and  succeeded  in  forming  a 
class  and  from  that  time  to  the  present  Methodisim 
has  taken  a  firm  stand  in  the  city. 

The  next  year,  1807,  the  Reverend  Samuel  Coate 
was  sent,  whose  ministry  was  greatly  appreciated,  re- 
sulting in  a  marked  increase  in  the  congregation  and 
membership.  Mr.  Coate' s  immediate  successors  were 
Thomas  Madden,  Samuel  Cochrane,  George  McCracken, 
James  Mitchell  and  Joseph  Scull.  Those  were  days  of  a 
short  pastoral  term,  it  being  seldom  more  and  sometimes 
even  less  than  one  year.  The  Society  in  Quebec  had 
thus  far  been  supplied  by  ministers  from  the  Genesee 
Conference,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  in 
the  United  States ;  but  now,  owing  to  the  breaking 
out  of  the  war  of  1812,  the  supply  was  interrupted 
and  for  a  considerable  time  the  society  was  without 
any  regular  pastor.  During  this  period  services  were 
maintained  by  a  sergeant  named  Webster,  of  the  103 
Regiment,  then  quartered  in  Quebec,  who  preached 



regularly  to  the  Methodists  of  the  city,  with  great 
acceptability,  until  his  regiment  was  removed  to  Upper 
Canada  in  the  summer  of  1813.  For  the  next  eight 
months  the  care  of  the  Society,  and  the  maintenance  of 
its  services  devolved  on  a  local  Preacher  named  Peter 
L,anglois.  This  pious  and  zealous  man  regularly  con- 
ducted service,  and  kept  the  Society  together,  until  the 
Rev.  John  B.  Strong  was  sent  out  from  England  by 
the  Weslyan  Methodist  Conference  in  June,  1814. 
Upon  his  arrival  Mr.  Strong  found  a  Society  of  about 
35  members  closely  united  in  the  bonds  of  Christian 
affection,  and  entered  upon  his  work  with  great  zeal 
and  earnestness.  So  steadily  and  quickly  did  the  Society 
grow  under  his  wise  and  faithful  administration,  that 
the  place  in  which  they  had  hitherto  worshipped  became 
too  strait  for  them,  and  it  was  found  necessary  to  pro- 
vide a  larger  and  more  commodious  place  of  worship 
for  the  rapidly  increasing  congregation.  Accordingly 
a  subscription  of  four  hundred  pounds  was  taken  and 
a  lot  purchased  on  Ann  street,  where  Tara  Hall  now 
stands.  In  the  Autumn  of  1815,  Mr.  Strong  was 
removed  to  Montreal,  and  the  Rev.  Richard  Williams 
appointed  to  Quebec.  In  the  summer  of  1815  the 
building  of  the  church  was  begun  and  completed  the 
following  Spring,  at  a  cost  of  about  fifteen  hundred 
pounds.  On  the  ijih  day  of  April,  1817,  this  first 
Methodist  Church  in  the  city  of  Quebec  was  dedicated 
by  the  Rev.  John  Hick,  and  the  Rev.  Richard  Williams 
preaching  the  sermons  of  the  day.  In  the  years  follow- 
ing the  opening  of  the  Church,  the  Society  steadily 



grew  in  numbers  without  any  very  marked  increase  in 
any  one  year  ;  but  in  the  year  1832,  under  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  Rev.  Matthew  Lang,  a  most  gracious 
revival  of  religion  took  place,  which  resulted  in  the 
addition  of  155  members  in  one  year,  greatly  strength- 
ening the  church  and  increasing  its  influence  in  the 

In  1815,  the  first  Sunday  School  was  organized,  by 
a  young  man  named  Walker,  which  rapidly  grew  in 
numbers  and  efficiency  after  the  opening  of  the  church 
provided  suitable  accommodation  for  it. 

In  1831,  a  second  Methodist  Church  was  erected 
on  Chatnplain  street  which  was  used  until  the  threat- 
ening character  of  the  overhanging  cliff  made  it  dan- 
gerous as  a  place  of  assembly.  It  stood  almost  directly 
underneath  the  place  from  which  the  rock  fell  in  1841 
and  1889.  The  people  being  afraid  to  worship  in  it 
after  the  fall  of  rock  in  1841,  it  was  soon  abandoned 
as  a  place  of  worship,  and  sold. 

In  1839,  a  third  Methodist  Church  was  opened  in 
St.  Louis  suburbs,  where  a  Sunday  School  was  organ- 
ized, and  public  service  regularly  held,  until  it  was 
destroyed  by  fire  in  one  of  the  great  conflagrations 
with  which  the  city  was  visited. 

The  steady  growth  of  the  membership  of  the 
Society,  together  with  the  misfortunes  attending  the 
smaller  churches  just  referred  to,  rendered  the  church 
in  Ann  street  too  small  for  the  Methodism  of  the  city, 
and  led  to  the  erection  of  the  present  substantial  and 
commodious  edifice  which  was  dedicated  on  the  yth 



day  of  October,  1849,  the  Rev.  Matthew  Richey,  D.D., 
preaching  the  opening  sermon. 

The  Church  had  now  become  firmly  established, 
and  an  important  factor  in  the  religious  life  of  the  city, 
a  position  which  it  has  continued  to  maintain  down  to 
the  present  time.  The  order  of  its  pastorate  being 
that  of  the  itinerancy,  a  large  number  of  ministers  have 
served  in  its  pulpit  during  its  history.  Prominent 
among  these,  and  still  well  remembered,  are  such  names 
as  William  Squire,  Matthew  Lang,  William  Harvard, 
Jas.  Brock,  William  Pollard,  John  Gemley,  John  Bor- 
land, E.  Botterell,  George  Young,  D.D.,  Geo.  H.  Davis, 
James  Elliott,  D.D.,  Henry  F.  Bland,  LeRoy  Hooker, 
Andrew  B.  Chambers,  B.C.L.,  J.  W.  Sparling,  D.D., 
W.  J.  Jolliff,  B.C.L. ,  Thos.  J.  Mansell,  William  Spar- 
ling, B.A.,B.D.,  and  Thos.  Griffith,  Ph.D.  Under  the 
judicious  and  faithful  administration  of  these  ministers 
seconded  by  "  those  whose  hearts  God  had  touched," 
it  has  been  a  power  making  for  righteousness  through- 
out all  the  years  of  its  history. 

The  following  are  the  present  Office  Bearers  in 
the  church  : 

Rev.  W.  H.  Sparling,  B.A.,  minister. 

Official  Board  : 

John  Shaw,  W.  G.  L.  Paxman, 

Raymond  Lindsay,  T.  Andrews, 

J.  J.  Dunlop,  Chas.  F.  Thorne, 

Lome  C.  Webster,  Alex.  Forrest. 
Richard  Ackerman, 



Trustees  : 

Gordon  C.  Renfrew,  T.  A.  Piddington, 

Walter  Ray,  J.  J.  Dunlop, 

Wm.  McWilliam,  Frank  Glass, 

John  Shaw,  Wm.  Shaw, 

A.  Dunlop  Webster,  T.  S.  Hethrington, 

John  H.  Holt,  Joseph  Whitehead, 
Geo.  Alford. 


On  Sunday  March  the  8th  1903,  Chalmers'  Church 
celebrated  its  fiftieth  anniversary,  the  preacher  being 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Mowatt  of  Montreal.  In  the  report  of 
the  service  published  in  the  press  of  the  gih  of  March, 
there  is  an  excellent  sketch  of  the  church,  which  we 
here  quote  in  part,  after  revision  by  the  pastor  : 

"  Although  the  present  church  building  was 
opened  for  worship  only  fifty  years  ago,  the  congre- 
gation has  been  in  existence  for  about  a  hundred  years, 
having  been  organized  about  the  beginning  of  last 
century.  The  Congregation  assumed  the  name  of 
"  Chalmers'  "  Church  at  the  time  of  the  opening  of 
the  present  building  ;  previously  it  was  known  as  "  St. 
John's."  For  a  number  of  years  after  its  organization 
the  congregation  met  for  public  worship  in  a  rented 
house.  It  was  not  till  June  2oth,  1816,  that  the 
foundation  stone  of  St.  John's  Church  was  laid.  The 
record  states  that  on  the  2oth  of  June,  1816,  the 
foundation  stone  was  laid  by  the  Freemasons  amidst 
a  great  concourse  of  spectators  and  was  called  "  St. 
John's  ",  in  occasion  to  the  day,  and  on  yth  of  April, 
1817,  being  Easter  Monday,  the  building  was  opened 
for  public  worship." 

22  337 


The  first  minister  of  the  congregation  was  the 
Rev.  Clark  Bentom,  who  was  sent  out  to  Quebec  by 
the  London  Missionary  Society  in  response  to  a  petition 
sent  home  by  a  number  of  persons  who  desired  a 
minister  of  Evangelical  sentiments.  On  the  arrival  of 
Mr.  Bentom  in  Quebec  in  1800  a  room  was  rented  and 
he  commenced  his  ministry  with  much  acceptance. 
Mr.  Bentom  returned  to  England  in  1807,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Rev.  Francis  Dick,  of  whom  is  said  he 
was  a  plain  preacher,  a  sound  divine  and  a  good 
English  Biblical  scholar,  but  owing  to  ill-health  he 
returned  to  Scotland  in  1812,  although  he  did  not 
sever  his  connection  with  the  congregation  till  1814, 
when  the  Rev.  George  Spratt  was  called  to  the  pas- 
torate. It  was  during  the  ministry  of  Mr.  Spratt  that 
St.  John's  Church  was  built. 

Mr.  Spratt  continued  to  labor  till  April,  1821. 
During  1822-23  the  pulpit  was  supplied  by  Rev.  Isaac 
Purkiss.  In  1824  the  congregation  extended  a  call  to 
Rev.  Geo.  Bourne,  of  the  Presbytery  of  New  York, 
and  he  remained  minister  till  29th  of  September,  1829. 
Up  till  this  time,  although  some  of  the  ministers  and 
many  of  the  members  were  Presbyterian,  the  church 
was '  not  formaly  connected  with  the  Presbyterian 
Church,  but  was  a  Union  or  Congregational  Church. 

In  1830  the  congregation  became  formallv  con- 
ne6ted  with  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  Canada  in 
connection  with  the  Church  of  Scotland,  and  the  Rev. 
John  Clugston  became  minister  and  continued  pastor 
till  1848.  During  the  ministry  of  Mr.  Clugston  in 



1844  the  "  Disruption"  took  place  and  the  congre- 
gation severed  its  connection  with  the  established 
Church  of  Scotland  and  became  connected  with  the 
Canada  Presbyterian  Church.  Mr  Clugston  returned 
to  Scotland  in  1848.  The  congregation  was  without 
a  settled  minister  from  1848  till  1853,  but  had  very 
excellent  pulpit  supply  during  this  long  vacancy. 
Among  those  who  supplied  the  pulpit  at  this  time  were 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Walker,  of  Newton  Stewart,  Scotland,  and 
the  Rev.  George  Paxton  Young,  afterwards  Professor 
of  Mental  and  Moral  Philosophy  in  the  University  of 
Toronto,  and  one  of  the  greatest  teachers  our  country 
has  ever  had. 

In  1853  the  Rev.  W.  B.  Clark,  of  Dumfries 
Scotland,  became  minister  and  continued  his  faithful 
labors  for  twenty  years.  In  the  same  year,  on  the  6th 
of  March,  1853,  the  present  church  was  opened  with 
appropriate  services  conducted  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Donald 
Fraser,  then  of  Montreal,  and  by  Rev.  W.  B.  Clark, 
the  newly  elected  minister.  The  Rev.  Peter  Wright 
(now  Dr.  Wright  was  minister  during  the  years  1875-77. 
Dr.  Wright  is  now  minister  in  Nelson,  B.  C.  Dr.  Wright 
was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Dr.  Matthews,  who  was  called 
to  the  pastorate  in  1879  and  continued  the  faithful 
and  successful  minister  of  the  congregation  till  1888, 
when  he  was  appointed  General  Secretary  of  the  Pan- 
Presbyterian  Alliance,  and  now  resides  in  London, 

The  present  minister,  Rev.  Donald  Tait,  B.  A., 
was  inducted  on  5th  September,  1889. 



The  first  Trustees  were  Messrs.  James  Gibb,  O. 
L.  Richardson,  J.  G.  Ross,  John  Ross,  James  Hossack, 
John  R.  Young  and  H.  McBlain. 

The  Session  at  the  time  of  the  opening  of  the 
church  consisted  of  the  following  members  : — Rev. 
W.  B.  Clark,  minister  ;  Alexander  Haddan,  O.  L. 
Richardson,  James  Gibb,  John  Munn,  John  Young. 

The  present  Session  consists  of  the  following  mem- 
bers : — The  Minister,  Rev.  D.  Tait  ;  Robert  Brodie, 
Session  Clerk  ;  W.  C.  Young,  Peter  Johnston,  James 
Muir,  J.  B.  Logic. 

Board  of  Management. — William  Brodie  Chair- 
man ;  R.  F.  Cream,  Secreta^ ;  Gavin  Moir, Treasurer ; 
C.  H.  Geggie,  John  T.  Ross,  F.  W.  Ross,  Herman 
Young,  D.  Waiters. 

Trustees. — William  Brodie,  Frank  Ross,  D.  H. 
Geggie,  John  T.  Ross,  Peter  Johnston,  A.  Miller, 
Herman  Young. 

Chalmers'  Church  has  always  taken  a  deep  interest 
in  missionary  and  benevolent  work  and  contributes 
liberally  to  these  objects.  There  are  few  congregations 
in  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  which  the  average 
givings  are  higher  than  in  this  congregation. 

At  the  time  of  the  opening  of  Chalmers'  Church, 
and  for  many  years  after,  John  Munn,  one  of  its  mem- 
bers, was  the  largest  employer  of  labor  in  Quebec. 
His  shipyards  furnished  for  many  winters  almost  the 
only  work  the  laboring  population  of  St.  Roch's  had, 
and  the  relations  of  employer  and  employed  were  so 
cordial  that  he  was  universally  esteemed  as  the  special 



friend  of  the  laboring  masses.  He  did  yeoman  service 
to  the  city's  interests  in  his  persistent  efforts  to  establish 
a  line  of  first-class  passenger  boats  to  Montreal,  and 
built  and  ran  for  years  on  that  route  the  steamer  John 
Mumv,  at  that  time  the  finest  passenger  boat  on  the 
St.  Lawrence. 

During  his  career  two  other  members,  John  and 
James  Ross,  were  laying  the  foundations  of  the  largest 
wholesale  grocery  business  in  Canada,  which,  in  the 
early  fifties,  had  assumed  immense  proportions.  In 
addition  to  their  headquarters  in  Quebec  they  had 
depots  of  goods  in  Montreal,  Kingston,  Toronto, 
Hamilton,  and  in  the  States,  Boston,  New  York,  New 
Orleans,  St.  Louis,  Chicago,  Cincinnati  and  Cleveland, 
wherever  goods  could  be  sold  to  advantage. 

The  shipbuilding  industry  in  Quebec  was  carried 
by  them  to  the  highest  success  it  ever  attained  in  the 
Province.  They  sailed  their  ships  when  they  could 
not  sell  them,  and  were  the  first  owners  of  seagoing 
craft  to  employ  French- Canadian  sailors  and  ship's 
officers,  whose  only  training  had  been  the  coasting 
trade  of  the  St.  Lawrence .  They  soon  became  the 
equal  of  the  best  sailors  in  British  or  foreign  fleets  and 
usually  surpassed  them  in  sobriety  and  economy. 

Their  services  to  the  railway  interests  of  the 
Province  were  no  less  signal  and  important  than  those 
devoted  to  shipping.  They  were  the  first  to  take  up 
the  scheme  of  Mr.  Hulbert,  an  American  contractor, 
for  a  wooden  railway  from  Quebec  to  Gosford,  and 
advanced  over  a  hundred  thousand  dollars,  which, 


augmented  by  large  subscriptions  from  F.  B.  Renaud 
and  Wm.  Withall,  secured  the  testing  of  the  scheme, 
and  resulted  in  the  loss  of  the  money,  but  that  loss  to 
them  developed  into  the  building  of  the  Lake  St.  John 
Railway,  and  became  to  the  city  and  district  the  most 
valuable  service  rendered  them  by  private  capital  since 
the  city's  foundation. 

The  Quebec  Central  also,  during  the  severe  strug- 
gles of  its  earlier  history,  was  liberally  aided  from  the 
same  source,  and  kept  on  the  road  to  success,  which 
crowned  it  at  last. 

Their  uncle,  James  Gibb,  who  died  suddenly  in 
October,  1858,  founder  of  their  house  and  their  partner 
until  his  death,  was  also  a  member  of  Chalmers' 
Church.  He  had  retired  from  active  business  for  some 
years  ;  was  President  of  the  Quebec  Bank  at  the  time 
of  his  death,  owner  of  valuable  properties,  wharves  and 
warehouses,  having  established  himself,  by  his  just, 
upright  business  methods  in  the  esteem  of  all,  French 
and  English  alike.  He  left  the  great  commercial 
interests  he  had  inaugurated  in  a  most  healthy  and 
progressive  state.  There  are  other  names  connected 
with  Chalmers'  Church  that  will  not  soon  be  forgotten 
in  the  Ancient  Capital.  Their  contributions  to  their 
Church's  and  city's  prosperity  having  established  for 
them  a  worthy  record." 




BY  THE  REV.    DONALD  GRANT,    B.  A. 

The  Quebec  Baptist  Church  was  organized  in  the 
year  1845,  the  constituent  members  numbering  fifteen. 
At  this  date  and  for  some  years  previous  to  it  the  con- 
gregation worshipped  in  an  upper  room  of  the  old  Post 
Office  on  Buade  street.  Among  those  who  supplied 
their  pulpit  mention  is  made  of  Dr.  Benjamin  Davies, 
and  Dr.  J.  M.  Cramp,  men  who  figured  prominently 
in  Baptist  Educational  work.  In  the  fifty-eight  years 
of  its  history  the  church  has  had  nine  pastors,  the 
Revs.  David  Marsh,  H.  F.  Adams,  E.  J.  Stobo,  W.  B. 
Hutchinson,  A.  T.  Dykeman,  C.  H.  Day,  John  Alex- 
ander, G.  J.  Cliff  and  Donald  Grant.  The  first  pastor, 
the  Rev.  David  Marsh,  arrived  from  England,  in  1845. 
His  pastorate  extended  over  thirty-nine  years,  and 
forms  a  remarkable  record  of  devoted  service.  On  the 
tablet  placed  to  his  memory  in  the  audience  room  of 
the  church  occur  these  words  :  ' '  This  tablet  was  erected 
in  loving  remembrance  of  him  to  whose  instrumentality 
under  God  this  Church  chiefly  owes  its  existence,  and 
whose  earnest  labours  and  consistent  walk  during  his 
long  pastorate  won  the  respect  and  esteem  of  all  classes 
of  the  community." 

The  building  on  McMahon  street  in  which  the 
congregation  now  worships  was  erected  in  1853.  In 
the  Deed  of  Sale  recording  the  Church's  acquisition  of 
this  property,  the  names  of  Rev.  David  Marsh,  James 



Bowen,  James  Woodley,  Joseph  Woodley,  William 
Wright  and  Charles  McKenzie  appear  as  trustees.  In 
1877  the  Sunday-school  Hall  was  added. 

The  membership  of  the  Church  has  never  been 
large;  in  1882  it  numbered  fifty-one,  at  present  it 
numbers  one  hundred  and  five.  The  congregation  is 
composed  mainly  of  families  that  have  long  been  con- 
nected with  the  Church.  The  members  in  general 
give  cheerfully  for  its  support,  and  there  have  always 
been  connected  with  it  those  who  have  been  able  and 
willing  to  respond  liberally  to  special  demands.  About 
twenty-five  of  its  members  are  French-Canadians  who 
are  under  the  pastoral  care  of  Rev.  Iy.  R.  Dutaud  of 
the  Grande  L4gne  Mission.  They  meet  for  worship  in 
a  chapel  on  St.  Margaret  street,  St.  Roch. 

Individual  members  of  the  Quebec  Baptist  Church 
have  taken  a  deep  interest  in  the  undenominational 
enterprises  of  the  city,  as  the  Young  Men's  Christian 
Association,  the  Women's  Christian  Association,  the 
I/adies'  Protestant  Home,  the  Jeffery  Hale's  Hospital 
and  the  Bible  Society. 

In  1889  the  Church  entered  the  Eastern  Associa- 
tion comprising  the  Baptist  Churches  of  Montreal  and 
the  Eastern  Townships,  and  was  thus  brought  into 
closer  touch  with  Baptist  denominational  life. 

The  organizations  connected  with  the  Church  are 
the  Sunday-School,  of  which  Mr.  W.  A.  Marsh,  son 
of  the  Rev.  Uavid  Marsh,  is  Superintendent  ;  the 
Young  People's  Society  of  Christian  Endeavour,  the 
Women's  Mission  Circle,  the  Ladies'  Aid  Society  and 



the  Mission  Band.  The  Deacons  for  the  current  year 
are  Messrs.  W.  A.  Marsh,  Robert  Stanley,  H.  Wood- 
side,  and  H.  H.  Distin  ;  the  Trustees,  Messrs.  W.  A. 
Marsh,  R.  Stanley,  W.  Vincent,  H.  A.  Calvin,  E.  C. 
Fry,  H.  Woodside,  William  L,ee,  Edson  Fitch  and 
John  Darlington. 

The  Eastern  Association  held  its  annual  meeting 
with  this  church  in  1893,  and  in  June  of  this  year, 
1903,  it  met  with  it  again.  At  the  same  time  the 
church  celebrated  the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  the  open- 
ing of  its  house  of  worship. 


This  building  is  situated  on  St.  John  street,  near 
St.  Matthew's  Church.  It  was  built  about  25  years 
ago.  The  present  pastor  is  the  Rev.  M.  Boudreault. 


In  Quebec,  as  in  many  other  cities,  there  is  a 
Salvation  Army.  In  the  first  years  of  its  existence 
opposition  was  manifested  and  a  series  of  riots  attended 
its  establishment,  like  those  though  on  a  smaller  scale, 
which  attended  the  establishment  of  the  army  in  certain 
districts  in  I^ondon.  The  meetings  were  commenced 
in  the  month  of  August,  1886,  and  addresses  were 
delivered  in  French  by  Mrs.  Simcoe. 

In  January,  1887,  two  female  members  of  the  army 
named  I/ong  and  Staples  conducted  meetings  in  the  old 
Congregational  church  situated  at  the  corner  of  Palace 
and  MacMahon  streets. 



On  the  25th  of  August,  1887,  the  Army  celebrated 
the  first  anniversary  of  its  foundation.  A  band  from 
Montreal  was  engaged  for  the  procession,  but  a  crowd 
of  idlers  and  ill-advised  young  men  followed  the  pro- 
cession, yelling,  and  throwing  stones  at  the  members 
of  the  army  who  were  in  full  uniform.  These  disturb- 
ances occurred  whenever  the  army  paraded  in  the 
streets,  and  on  several  occasions  the  public  and  the 
civic  authorities  had  to  interfere  to  maintain  order. 

Since  1888,  the  army  has  discontinued  its  proces- 
sions, and  confined  its  operations  to  meetings  and  to 
relieving  the  distressed. 

The  army  has  a  refuge  where  unfortunates  can 
obtain  food  and  temporary  shelter.  The  charitable 
work  of  the  army  is  maintained  by  voluntary  sub- 
scriptions, and  a  large  number  daily  receive  aid  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Army. 



;  OF  QT;- 


?IAIX     MO'-. 

SHORT-  v-  — QUEEN 


AT  a  <nce  from  the  Quebec  Gaol,  to 

nort;  .-ids  a  simple  monument  to  the 

immortal   Wolfe.     1 1  nd   colum 

moUa  ; 

On  one  side  of  the  pedastal  are  these  wo 



cut  in  r 


On  the  other  side  : 




IN  CANADA  1849 




G.  C.  B.,    K.  C.  H,    K.  C.  T.  S-,  ETC. 



IN  1832 


When  Wolfe  fell  mortally  wounded  on  the  i3th 
of  September,  1759,  he  was  carried  to  the  rear  of  his 
line,  and  died  on  this  spot  shortly  after.  For  seventy- 
three  years  after  this  event,  no  monument  in  Quebec 
marked  either  the  scene  of  his  victory  or  of  his  death  ; 
although  fifty-seven  years  before,  the  British  officers 
had  erected  an  oblelisk  in  his  honour  in  the  city  of 
New  York.  In  1832,  Lord  Aylmer  erected  at  his  own 
expense  a  simple  monument,  and  this  was  replaced  in 
1849,  through  the  generosity  of  the  British  officers 
forming  the  garrison  of  Quebec. 


Under  the  administration  of  Lord  Dalhousie,  the 
Wolfe-Montcalm  monument  was  erected,  which  is 
situated  at  the  entrance  to  the  Governor's  Garden, 



facing  the  river.  The  first  meeting  of  citizens  was 
held  on  the  ist  November,  1827,  under  the  presidency 
of  the  governor.  On  the  i5th  of  the  same  month, 
Lord  Dalhousie  laid  the  corner  stone  in  the  presence 
of  the  official,  religious,  military  and  civil  world  of 
Quebec.  On  this  stone  is  engraved  the  following 
inscription  : 






P.     C. 











The  ceremony  concluded  with  the  firing  of  a  salute 
from  the  Citadel  and  the  singing  of  the  national  an- 
them "  God  save  the  King." 

The  work  of  building  the  monument  was  begun 
in  1828  and  completed  on  the  8th  September,  the  day 
fixed  for  L,ord  Dalhousie' s  departure.  Capt.  Fox  Maule, 
of  the  ygth  Highlanders,  had  undertaken  at  the  Gov- 
ernor's request  to  lay  the  crowning  stone  of  the 



monument.  The  ceremony,  less  solemn  than  the  first, 
possessed  a  certain  element  of  sadness  for  amongst 
those  present  were  a  great  many  who  were  very  sympa- 
thetic to  the  noble  lord  and  were  really  grieved  at  his 
final  departure  from  Canada.  Sir  James  Kempt,  the 
new  administrator,  was  present  at  this  demonstration. 
At  the  beginning,  the  committee  appointed  for  the 
eredlion  of  the  monument,  had  opened  a  competition 
and  offered  a  medal  to  the  person  who  would  compose 
the  best  inscription.  It  was  won  by  J.  Charlton  Fisher, 
L,L,.D.,  with  a  very^short,  very  simple  but  very  suitable 
Latin  inscription.  It  is  engraved  on  the  cenotaph  of 
the  monument  and  reads  as  follows  : 







This  monument  was  made  after  a  design  by  the 
Chevalier  Charles  Baillarge  of  Quebec.  It  consists  of 
a  column  of  fluted  bronze  standing  on  a  pedestal,  the 
four  corners  whereof  support  four  mortars  also  of 
bronze.  The  front  of  the  pedestal  facing  Ste.  Foy 
road  bears  the  following  inscription  :  "  Aux  braves 
de  1760— Erig6  par  la  Socie"te  St.  Jean  Baptiste  de 



Quebec,  1860."  On  the  side  towards  the  city,  the 
name  of  MURRAY  stands  out  in  relief  above  the  arms 
of  Great  Britain,  on  the  side  of  Ste.  Foy,  the  name  of 
IvEvis  stands  above  the  emblems  of  Old  France.  In 
the  rear  a  bas-relief  represents  the  famous  wind-mill  of 
Dumont,  which  was  held  in  turn  by  the  English  and 
the  French,  and  finally  carried  by  the  Grenadiers  de 
la  Reine  under  M.  d'Aiguebelles,  after  a  furious  battle 
with  the  Scotch  Highlanders,  under  Colonel  Fraser. 

A  statute  of  Bellona  ten  feet  high,  the  gift  of 
Prince  Jer6me  Napoleon,  cousin  ofc  Napoleon  III, 
crowns  the  monument  which  is  itself  sixty-five  feet  high. 

The  human  bones  found  on  the  site  of  Dumont's 
mill  in  1854  were  transported  with  much  pomp  to  the 
Quebec  Cathedral  and  before  being  buried  at  the  spot 
where  the  commemorative  monument  now  stands, 
Archbishop  Turgeon,  in  a  very  solemn  ceremony, 
pronounced  over  the  remains  of  the  rival  warriors, 
the  words  of  hope  and  faith  in  the  resurrection. 

In  the  following  year,  on  the  i8th  of  July,  1855, 
General  Rowan,  the  administrator  and  acting  governor 
of  Canada,  laid  the  corner  stone  of  this  monument  in 
the  presence  of  M.  de  Belveze,  commander  of  the 
corvette  "  La  Caprfa'euse,"  the  first  French  man  of  war 
that  had  sailed  up  the  St.  Lawrence  since  1759  ;  in  the 
presence  also  of  the  i6th  regiment  of  British  infantry 
with  colours,  of  a  detachment  of  artillery,  a  detach- 
ment of  sailors  from  the  French  corvette  under  arms, 
of  a  group  of  Hurons  from  Lorette  in  war  costume 
and  an  immense  crowd  of  spectators. 



The  idea  of  this  monument  originated  in  the  midst 
of  the  Cercle  Catholique  of  Quebec  about  the  year 
1885.  In  the  following  year  it  purchased  from  the 
Parke  family  the  ground  on  which  it  was  intended  to 
«rect  a  monument  to  the  memory  of  the  Discoverer  of 
Canada  and  to  the  Jesuit  Fathers  de  Brebeuf ,  Masse  and 
Lalemant.  It  was  decided  also  to  erect  a  fac-simile  of 
the  cross  planted  by  Cartier  on  the  3rd  May  1536  at 
the  confluence  of  the  river  St.  Charles  and  the  river 

In  1887  the  Literary  and  Historical  committee  of 
the  Cercle  issued  a  warm  appeal  for  subscriptions. 
The  public  who  had  favorably  received  the  project, 
responded,  and  generously  subscribed  the  $4,500  which 
was  the  cost  of  the  ground,  the  monument  and  cross. 
Amongst  the  most  eminent  .subscribers  may  be  men- 
tioned His  Excellency  the  Marquess  of  Lansdowne, 
Governor-General  of  Canada,  Hon.  L,.  R.  Masson, 
Lieutenant- Governor  of  the  Province  of  Quebec,  H. 
H.  the  Ccmte  de  Paris,  the  Due  d'Aumale,  the  Mar- 
quis de  Bassano,  His  Eminence  Cardinal  Taschereau, 
His  Excellency  Lord  Stanley  of  Preston,  Governor- 
General,  Prince  Roland  Bonaparte,  and  the  city  of  St. 

The  shape  of  the  Jacques-  Cartier  monument 
greatly  resembles  that  of  an  antique  cippus.  Its  height 
is  about  25  feet  including  the  tumulus  upon  which  it 
stands .  The  pedestal  is  of  Laurentian  gneiss  nine  feet 



square  and  consists  of  three  courses  with  projections 
of  eight  inches  on  each  face.  The  base,  of  Descham- 
bault  limestone,  is  ornamented  on  each  side  with  a 
cartouch  carved  in  high  relief.  The  die  resting  on 
that  base  is  a  single  block  magnificently  polished 
resembling  lapis  lazuli.  It  bears  the  following  inscrip- 
tions, engraved  and  gilt. 

At  the  entrance  : 






DE  1535-36 






OF  1535-36 

Facing  the  city : 

On  the  3rd  May  1536  Jacques  Cartier  creeled  at 
the  spot  where  he  had  spent  the  winter,  a  cross  35 
feet  high,  bearing  a  shield  with  fleurs-de-lys,  and  the 
inscription  : 




23  353 


On  the  East  side  : 

On  the  23rd  September  1625,  Fathers  Jean  de 
Brebeuf,  Ennemond  Masse  and  Charles  Lalemant 
solemnly  took  possession  of  the  ground  known  as  Fort 
Jacques  Cartier  at  the  confluence  of  the  rivers  St. 
Charles  and  Lairet  to  erect  thereon  the  first  residence 
of  the  Jesuit  missionaries  in  Quebec. 

On  the  side  facing  the  river  L,airet,  above  the 
cypher  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  in  the  middle  of  a  large 
palm,  appear  the  names  of  the  principal  martyrs  of 
the  Society  of  Jesus  in  Canada  :  Brebeuf,  Lalemant, 
Jogues,  Gamier,  Buteux,  Masse,  Daniel  and  de  Noue. 

The  principal  mouldings  of  the  cornice  and  the 
frieze  with  carved  rosettes,  contain,  (facing  the  en- 
trance,) the  arms  of  the  cit}'  of  St.  Malo ;  on  the  other 
side  those  of  the  Cercle  Catholique  de  Quebec. 

The  whole  is  surmounted  by  a  naval  crown  resting 
on  a  small  cylindrical  base.  This  crown  has  the  usual 
masts,  sails,  poops  of  vessels  and  crenellated  tops. 

The  honour  of  executing  the  plan  of  this  monument 
is  due  to  Mr.  E.  E.  Tache  and  it  was  executed  by 
M.  J.  A.  Belanger,  marble-cutter  of  St.  Roch,  Quebec. 

The  inauguration  of  the  Jacques  Cartier  monu- 
ment took  place  on  the  24th  of  June  1889  amidst  an 
immense  concourse  of  people.  His  Eminence  Cardinal 
Taschereau  celebrated  mass  on  the  monument  grounds. 
After  the  service  the  Hon.  P.  J.  O.  Chauveau  delivered 
a  very  eloquent  speech  worthy  of  figuring  beside  that 
which  he  had  delivered  in  1855  at  the  inauguration  of 
the  Ste  Foy  monument. 



Hon.  Mr.  Angers,  then  Lieutenant-Governor  of 
the  Province  of  Quebec,  had  opened  a  literary  compe- 
tition in  connection  with  Jacques  Cartier.  The  medals 
were  distributed  at  the  same  place.  Messrs.  J.  Pope, 
N.  E.  Dionne,  H.  B.  Stephens  and  Joiion  des  Longrais 
were  proclaimed  laureates  amidst  the  applause  of  the 


The  idea  of  erecting  a  monument  to  the  Founder 
of  Quebec  has  been  discussed  on  various  occasions 
during  the  last  fifty  years.  In  1890  the  St.  Jean 
Baptiste  Society  resolved  to  carry  out  the  project  in 
earnest.  A  meeting  of  citizens  was  called  to  under- 
take the  work,  and  a  committee  was  appointed  with 
the  Hon.  Judge  Chauvean  as  chairman.  Subscription 
lists  were  opened,  and  in  less  than  two  years  the  sum 
of  $i  7 ,000  had  been  obtained.  The  committee  decided, 
however,  that  at  least  $30,000  would  be  required  for  a 
monument  worthy  of  Quebec  and  of  its  Founder. 

On  the  2oth  of  February,  1895,  the  site  of  the 
future  monument  was  chosen,  and  the  committee, 
through  the  newspapers,  called  for  plans  and  specifica- 
tions and  for  tenders  for  the  monument.  Fourteen 
plaster,  casts  and  eleven  drawings  were  examined  by 
a  jury,  who  chose  the  design  submitted  by  Messrs. 
Chevre  and  L,eCardonnel,  the  former  a  sculptor,  and 
the  latter  an  architect,  of  Paris.  The  contract  was 
signed  on  the  23rd  of  May,  1896. 



Work  on  the  foundation  was  begun  about  the  1 5th 
of  June,  1898.  All  the  materials  were  brought  from 
France.  The  steps  are  of  granite  from  the  Vosges, 
and  the  pedestal  of  stone  from  Chateau  L,andon. 
Cham  plain  stands  on  the  summit,  hat  in  hand,  saluting 
the  soil  of  Canada.  The  statue  is  14  feet  9  inches  high 
and  weighs  6927  Ibs.  On  the  pedestal  is  a  bas-relief 
in  bronze  of  superb  appearance  :  a  woman  representing 
the  city,  enters  on  a  tablet  the  works  of  the  founder  ; 
on  her  right  the  genius  of  navigation,  in  the  form  of  a 
child,  recalls  the  fact  that  Cham  plain  was  a  sailor 
before  he  was  a  governor ;  above  this  group  P'ame,  with 
outspread  wings  and  a  trumpet,  proclaims  the  glory  of 
the  great  Frenchman  and  seems  to  call  upon  young 
French  Canadians  to  follow  in  his  footsteps. 

In  the  distance  may  be  seen  the  outline  of  the 
cathedral  of  Quebec,  surmounted  by  a  cross.  Several 
cartouches  with  the  arms  of  Canada,  of  Quebec,  and 
of  Brouage,  Champlain's  native  city,  complete  the 

The  inscription  is  as  follows  : — 





1569  A  1601, 

L'ACADIE  PE  1604  A  1607  ; 
FONDA  QUEBEC  EN  1608  ; 





DE  1609  A  1615  ; 


The  bronze  statue  was  placed  on  its  pedestal  on 
the  ist  August,  1898,  but  the  installation  was  com- 
pleted only  on  the  2oth  September,  the  day  before  the 
inauguration.  The  statue  was  unveiled  by  His  Excel- 
lency, Lord  Aberdeen,  Governor- General  of  Canada, 
in  the  presence  of  50,000  persons.  Amongst  the  most 
notable  personages  were  :  Admiral  Sir  John  Fisher, 
General  Lord  Seymour,  Lieutenant-Governor  Jett6, 
Sir  Wilfrid  Laurier,  Lord  Herschell,  Sir  R.  Cartwright, 
Sir  L.  Davis,  Mgr.  Marois,  M.  Kleczkowski,  Consul- 
General  of  France,  Hon.  Mr.  Marchand,  Prime  Minister 
of  the  Province  of  Quebec  and  the  members  of  the 
Cabinet,  Honourable  Judge  Routhier,  and  all  the 
members  of  the  Monument  Committee,  including  Mgr. 
Laflamme,  Mgr.  Gagnon,  Hon.  P.  Garneau,  Mr.  S. 
Le  Sage,  Mr.  H.  M.  Price,  Mr.  F.  X.  Berlinguet,  Mr. 
Ernest  Gagnon,  Hon.  Mr.  Chapais,  Dr.  N.  E.  Dionne, 
Mr.  A.  Evanturel,  Mr.  G.  E.  Tanguay,  Mr.  L.  Brunet 
and  Mr.  A.  Talbot. 

The  St.  Jean  Baptiste  Society  took  this  opport- 
unity to  celebrate  the  national  festival  of  the  French- 
Canadians.  The  celebration  began  with  a  solemn  High 
Mass  in  the  Basilica.  A  magnificent  procession  defiled 



through  the  principal  streets  of  the  city,  with  banners 
and  bands.  A  grand  banquet  crowned  all  and  gave  our 
best  orators  an  opportunity  of  making  patriotic  speeches 
in  which  Champlain's  name  was  repeated  more  than 
once  and  was  always  received  with  applause. 

Its  work  over,  the  Committee  handed  to  the  city 
a  sum  of  $500.00,  which  remained  in  its  hands  after 
paying  all  expenses,  and  requested  the  Mayor  and  citi- 
zens to  take  possession  of  the  monument  and  assume 
its  maintenance.  On  the  loth  February,  1899,  the  city 
passed  a  resolution  to  that  effect,  and  the  city  of  Quebec 
now  owns  the  monument  and  is  bound  to  preserve  it. 


This  monument  is  erected  at  Sillery  on  the  very 
spot  where  stood  the  first  chapel  built  by  the  Com- 
mandeur  de  Sillery,  in  memory  of  Father  Ennemond 
Masse,  the  first  Jesuit  missionary  who  labored  in  that 
mission,  called  the  St.  Joseph  Mission.  It  was  inaugur- 
ated on  the  26th  of  June,  1870,  in  the  presence  of  the 
parishioners  of  Sillery  and  of  several  notable  personages 
of  Quebec.  Speeches  were  made  by  Vicar-General 
Cazeau,  Hon.  P.  J.  O.  Chauveau,  and  Mr.  R.  R. 

The  monument  occupies  a  very  pretty  site.  It 
consists  of  a  column  in  the  shape  of  an  obelisk  of  cut 
stone,  twenty  feet  high  and  surmounted  by  a  white 
marble  cross.  The  column  stands  on  a  white  brick 
vault  containing  the  remains  of  Father  Masse.  It  is 



surrounded  by  a  palisade  with  a  black  walnut  gate. 
Inside  the  palisade,  stone  posts  with  chains  indicate 
the  outline  of  the  main  nave  and  sanctuary  of  St. 
Michael's  church.  On  two  faces  of  the  monument  are 
two  inscriptions  in  French  which  are  repeated  in 
English  on  the  two  other  faces,  as  follows  : 





BURIED  IN  1646 

IN    THE   CHURCH    OF   ST.    MlCHEL 





FOUNDER  IN  1637,  OF  THE 



On  the  1 6th  May,  1889,  St.  Sauveur  suburbs  were 
devastated  by  fire  which  threatened  to  destroy  the 
entire  ward.  Several  hundred  houses,  mostly  of  wood, 
had  already  been  burned,  when  the  soldiers  thought 
that  the  only  way  to  arrest  the  progress  of  the  destroying 
element  would  be  to  blow  up  some  buildings.  Barrels 
of  gun-powder  were  prepared  for  the  purpose,  and 
Major  Short  of  the  Royal  Canadian  Artillery,  with  a 



sergeant  of  the  same  corps,  approached  the  flames  too 
closely  with  the  dangerous  burden,  and  became  the 
victims  of  their  bravery.  It  is  supposed  that  a  spark 
must  have  set  fire  to  one  of  the  barrels.  In  any  case 
a  terrible  explosion  suddenly  occurred  and  the  bodies 
of  both  were  blown  into  space.  When  found  they  were 
nothing  but  disfigured  corpses. 

Moved  by  this  double  death  and  desirous  also  of 
expressing  their  gratitude  to  these  two  heroes  of  charity, 
the  citizens  of  Quebec  contributed  to  the  erection  of  a 
monument  to  their  memory.  When  it  became  necessary 
to  choose  a  site,  some  wished  to  place  it  on  the  spot 
where  the  tragedy  had  occurred,  but  after  mature  con- 
sideration, the  committee  of  citizens  decided  to  place 
it  where  it  now  stands  on  the  grounds  of  the  Drill  Hall, 
close  to  the  Grande  Alice. 


This  excellent  bronze,  which  surmounts  a  stone 
pedestal  designed  by  Mr.  Tache,  I.  S.  O.,  is  placed 
towards  the  centre  of  Victoria  Park,  on  the  banks  of 
the  river  St.  Charles.  The  statue  is  the  work  of 
Marshall  Wood,  who  offered  it  to  the  government  for 
the  sum  of  $20,000. 

For  some  years  the  statue  was  lying  in  Dufferin 
Avenue,  but  finally  the  Hon.  Mr.  Parent  purchased  it 
for  the  sum  of  $1,700,  and  placed  it  in  its  present 
position.  The  statue  was  unveiled  by  L,ord  Aberdeen 
in  the  year  1897. 






ON  the  1 3th  of  September,  1692,  Mgr.  de  Saint  Vallier 
bought  the  convent  of  the  Recollets  on  the  bank 
of  the  River  St.  Charles  and  a  little  later  gave  it  to 
some  nuns  of  the  Hotel  Dieu  who  were  chosen  to  found 
a  General  Hospital.  By  the  terms  of  the  contract  the 
Recollets  conveyed  to  the  bishop  one  hundred  and  six 
arpents  of  land,  their  church  and  convent  of  Notre 
Dame  des  Anges,  consisting  of  a  cloister  of  seven  or 
eight  arcades  on  each  side  ;  of  a  dormitory  containing 
twenty-four  cells,  beneath  which  were  the  pantry, 
kitchen,  refectory,  and  a  vestibule,  with  cellars  and 



On  the  30th  of  October  of  the  same  year,  the  poor 
people  who  had  hitherto  been  kept  in  the  house  of 
Providence  in  the  upper  town,  were  transferred  to  this 
building,  which  was  to  be  the  refuge  of  the  homeless 
and  friendless  poor.  On  the  ist  of  April,  1693,  four 
hospitalieres  nuns  took  possession  of  the  new  hospital, 
which  soon  had  forty-two  inmates. 

In  1710  and  1711  two  wings  were  added  to  the 
former  buildings,  thanks  always  to  the  care  of  Mgr. 
de  Saint  Vallier,  who  spared  no  expense  in  connection 
with  a  work  in  which  he  took  a  deep  interest.  Some 
years  afterwards,  Father  Charlevoix  wrote  :  ' '  The 
General  Hospital  is  the  finest  house  in  Canada,  and 
would  be  no  discredit  to  our  largest  cities  in  France. 

In  1736  the  nuns  decided  to  receive  in  the  hospital 
discharged  soldiers  unfit  for  service,  and  built  a  wing 
one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  long.  The  foundations 
were  commenced  in  the  following  spring,  and  the 
corner  stone  was  solemnly  laid  on  the  6th  of  June. 

In  1743,  a  new  building,  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet 
long,  by  forty-four  in  width  was  begun  to  the  west  of 
the  building  commenced  in  1736.  The  hospital  having 
become  too  small,  the  nuns  were  compelled  to  open 
a  ward,  on  the  spot  where  the  former  dormitory  of  the 
Recollets  stood.  The  narrow  cells  of  the  Recollet 
Fathers  disappeared,  and  with  them  the  antique  char- 
acter of  the  monastery  of  Notre  Dame  des  Anges, 
which  until  then  could  be  considered  the  oldest  religious 
monument  of  New  France. 



In  1850,  a  considerable  amount  of  work  was  done 
towards  embellishing  the  building.  Nine  years  later 
the  Hospitalieres  nuns  had  a  wing  built  on  the  site  of 
the  old  asylum  for  the  insane.  Until  the  Beauport 
Asylum  was  opened  on  the  i2th  of  September,  1845, 
the  General  Hospital  took  charge  of  the  insane. 

The  General  Hospital  is  one  of  the  most  interesting 
convents,  historically  speaking.  Whenever  it  became 
necessary  to  succour  the  unfortunate,  of  whatever 
nationality,  either  in  times  of  epidemic  or  in  time  of 
war,  the  Hospital  opened  its  doors  to  all  in  need  of 
medical  care.  After  the  siege  of  Quebec,  in  1759,  the 
wounded  of  the  English  army  were  received  with  the 
same  charity  as  the  French.  The  wounded  soldiers  of 
Arnold  and  Montgomery  were  also  as  carefully  attended 
to  as  if  they  had  been  in  a  Boston  hospital. 

Four  bishops  and  more  than  sixty  priests  have  been- 
taken  there  to  die,  as  the  surest  retreat,  feeling  nearer 
to  God  and  heaven  there  than  anywhere  else. 

At  present  the  staff  of  the  Hospital  consists  of  50 
nuns,  2  novices,  19  lay  sisters,  4  postulant  nuns  and  4 
postulant  lay  sisters.  The  number  of  poor  inmates 
varies  from  200  to  230.  There  are  also  six  priests  and 
six  old  lady  boarders. 

The  sacristy  of  the  chapel  contains  an  Ecce  Homo 
which  is  admitted  by  connoisseurs  to  be  a  master-piece. 
Unfortunately  the  name  of  the  painter  is  not  known. 
The  greater  portion  of  the  treasures  of  the  church  date 
from  the  time  of  Mgr.  de  Saint  Vallier  and  consist  of 
a  chalice,  altar-cruets,  censer  and  candle-sticks  of  silver, 



the  gifts  of  Madame  de  Maintenon  to  Mgr.  de  Saint 
Vallier,  the  value  of  which  is  estimated  at  3,000 


The  Hotel  Dieu,  like  the  Ursuline  convent,  is  the 
oldest  monastery  in  Canada.  Its  foundation  dates  from 
the  year  1637.  Two  years  after,  Mere  Marie  Guenet  de 
Saint  Ignace,  and  two  other  hospitalieres,who  had  been 
sent  by  the  Duchesse  d'Aiguillon,  niece  of  Cardinal 
Richelieu,  arrived  in  Quebec.  In  the  early  days  of  the 
country's  history,  the  nuns  had  to  lodge  temporarily 
at  Sillery,  and  afterwards  in  a  house  in  Quebec.  The 
corner  stone  of  the  present  convent  was  laid  in  1654. 
The  building,  which  contained  a  chapel  and  a  hospital, 
was  finished  in  1658;  it  was  consecrated  by  M.  de 
Queylus,  on  the  loth  of  August.  Another  building 
was  added  to  it  in  1672.  In  1696  considerable  additions 
were  made  to  the  main  building.  Two  centuries  later 
a  very  large  wing  was  built  in  the  modern  style, 
intended  chiefly  for  private  patients. 

The  Hospitalieres  nuns,  as  their  name  indicates, 
take  care  of  the  sick  of  all  classes.  The  poor  are 
admitted  as  well  as  the  rich.  All  receive,  either  in 
private  rooms,  or  in  the  public  wards,  medical  care 
and  assiduous  attention  from  the  nuns.  A  splendid 
operating  room  is  connected  with  the  building  which 
contains  everything  calculated  to  give  the  patient  the 
best  possible  chance  of  being  cured. 



The  medical  service  is  irreprochable  and  is  per- 
formed by  a  certain  number  of  professors  of  Laval 

The  convent  chapel,  the  entrance  to  which  is  on 
Charlevoix  street,  is  old,  and  contains  several  mural 
tablets,  and  master-pieces  by  artists  such  as  L,esueur, 
the  French  Raphael,  Coypel  and  Stella. 

In  the  Hotel  Dieu  there  are  several  souvenirs  of  a 
by-gone  age  which  are  carefully  preserved  ;  besides 
relics  of  the  first  Canadian  martyrs.  Amongst  other 
treasures  may  be  mentioned  a  silver  gilt  chalice,  richly 
chiseled,  and  of  older  date  than  the  foundation  of  the 
hospital ;  a  ciborium,  two  silver- gilt  altar  cruets  with 
stand,  and  a  silver  censer  given  by  M.  Dannemarche, 
cousin  of  Mother  Jeanne  Suppli  de  Sainte  Marie,  who 
died  in  1641  in  the  monastery  of  Sillery  ;  a  silver  lamp 
suspended  in  front  of  the  main  altar,  given  to  the  Hotel 
Dieu  by  M.  de  Courcelles,  Governor  of  New  France, 
and  bearing  his  arms.  There  is  also  a  silver  bust 
representing  Father  de  Brebeuf  who  suffered  martyr- 
dom at  the  hands  of  the  Iroquois,  but  the  origin  of  the 
bust  is  unknown.  The  bust  stands  upon  an  ebony 
pedestal  containing  the  skull  of  Father  de  Brebeuf. 
This  relic  was  brought  to  the  Hotel  Dieu  by  the 
Hurons,  when  the  tribe  came  to  Quebec.  Another  reli- 
quary contains  the  two  thigh-bones  of  Father  Gabriel 
Lalemant,  a  Jesuit,  who  was  Father  de  Brebeuf 's  com- 
panion in  martyrdom  ;  a  very  rich  reliquary  containing 
the  skull  and  bones  of  Mother  Catherine  de  L,ongprey 
of  St.  Augustin,  an  Augustine  nun  who  died  in  the 



odour  of  sanctity  at  the  Hotel  Dieu  on  the  8th  of  May, 
1668,  at  the  age  of  36,  after  having  edified  Canada  for 
twenty  years  by  the  nobility  of  her  virtuous  life. 
Two  reliquaries  containing  bones  of  the  martyrs  of 
Montmartre  sent  from  France  in  1640  by  Madame  de 
Beauvilliers,  abbess  of  the  Benedictine  nuns,  whose 
monastery  stood  on  the  very  spot  where  now  stands 
the  Basilica  of  the  Sacred  Heart,  on  the  butte  Mont- 
martre,  in  Paris. 

Amongst  several  remarkable  and  very  rare  pictures, 
some  of  which  date  back  to  1640,  preserved  in  the  Hotel 
Dieu,  are  a  Crucifixion,  by  Van  Dyke  ;  a  Christmas  night 
by  Stella,  given  by  Mgr.  Dosquet  ;  a  Presentation  of 
Mary  in  the  Temple,  by  Lebrun;  a  Visitation,  by  Rubens. 
on  copper,  given  by  the  Duchesse  d'Aiguillon  ;  a  St. 
Francis  of  Assist,  by  Zurbaran  ;  the  Martyrs  of  the  Society 
of  Jesus  in  Canada  ;  a  very  fine  tapestry  in  two  pieces 
one  of  which  is  the  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,  and  the 
other,  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  given  by  Mr.  Dan- 
nemarche  ;  portraits  of  Louis  XIV,  the  Intendant 
Talon,  Louis  XV,  Marie  Leckzinska  ;  Fathers  Rague- 
neau  and  Charlevoix  ;  Mother  Benigne  Therese  de 
Jesus,  a  carmelite,  daughter  of  M.  de  Denonville, 
Governor  of  New  France.;  Mother  St.  Augustin  ; 
Mother  St.  Ignace,  annalist  of  the  Hotel  Dieu  and  the 
first  Canadian  superioress  of  the  institution. 

Amongst  the  engravings  are  those  of  Father  Le 

Jeune,  Cardinal  Richelieu  and  theDuchesse  d'Aiguillon. 

The  archives  of  the  Hotel  Dieu  are  very  precious. 

They  contain  a  number  of  old  plans  and  other  manu- 



script  documents,  such  as  deeds  of  purchase,  of  sale,  of 
exchange,  of  immoveables,  several  of  which  bear  the 
signature  of  a  governor  or  intendant  with  his  arms  on 
the  seal ;  deeds  of  gift,  inventories,  wills  and  even  con- 
tracts of  marriage  of  various  persons  interested  in  the 
affairs  of  the  Hotel  Dieu  ;  very  old  letters,  amongst 
others  one  from  St.  Francis  de  Sales,  another  from  St. 
Vincent  de  Paul,  from  Talon,  Montcalm,  Mgr.  de 
Pontbriand  ;  Vaudreuil,  Bigot,  Maisonneuve,  Madame 
D' Ailleboust ;  Father  F.  X.  Duplessis  ;  the  registers  of 
the  entry,  discharge  or  death,  of  all  the  patients  admit- 
ted to  the  Hotel  Dieu  since  1689,  with  the  place  of 
their  birth  ;  the  registers  of  the  patients  who  died  in 
the  hospital  and  were  buried  in  the  Cemetery  of  the 
Poor  from  1723  to  1867  ;  the  manuscript  Annals  of  the 
Hotel  Dieu  by  Mother  Marie  Andree  Duplessis  de  Ste 
Helene,  under  the  direction  of  Mother  Jeanne  Francoise 
Juchereau  de  St.  Ignace  ;  six  volumes  of  the  sermons 
of  M.  Joseph  de  la  Colombiere,  brother  of  the  celebrated 
Jesuit  Father  Claude  de  la  Colombiere. 

Many  of  the  original  documents,  especially  of  those 
relating  to  the  Siege  of  Quebec  in  1759,  were  kindly 
lent  by  Mother  Saint  Andre  in  1902,  for  an  exhibition 
in  the  Franciscan  Convent. 

Three  hundred  and  eight  nuns  and  85  lay  sisters 
have  lived  in  the  Hotel  Dieu  du  Precieux  Sang  since 
its  foundation.  Of  this  number,  17  nuns  were  supplied 
from  1639  to  1670,  both  by  the  house  in  Dieppe  and  by 
the  French  communities  which  issued  from  it.  Three 
nuns  returned  to  France,  being  unable  to  stand  the 



rigours  of  hospital  life  in  Canada  ;  four  sisters  died  in 
the  General  Hospital,  two  of  whom  were  foundresses 
and  two  auxiliaries.  Three  nuns  and  a  lay-sister  are 
now  in  the  Hotel  Dieu  of  L,evis,  which  they  founded 
in  1892  ;  64  nuns  and  19  lay-sisters  are  now  living  in 
the  Hotel  Dieu. 


As  the  General  Hospital  was  an  off-shoot  from 
the  Hotel-Dieu  du  Precieux  Sang,  so  is  the  Hotel 
Dieu  an  off-shoot  of  the  General  Hospital.  Its  foun- 
dation in  the  j'ear  1873,  is  due  to  the  efforts  of  the 
Archbishop  of  Quebec,  nobly  assisted  by  Chevalier 
Falardeau,  notary,  who  was  its  temporal  founder. 

The  objedl  of  this  institution  is  wholly  charitable, 
and  is  devoted  to  the  care  of  foundlings  and  of  infirm 
old  people. 

The  staff  of  the  monastery  at  present,  is  as  follows  : 

Professed  Nuns 38 

Novices ii 

Lay  Sisters 19 

Patients 146 

Children 40 

Boarders 17 

The  community,  being  still  a  young  one,  has  not 
accumulated  many  paintings,  engravings  or  books. 
Nevertheless  it  possesses  a  memento  of  the  old  Jesuit 



church  under  the  French  regime,  consisting  of  sixteen 
statues  of  wood,  painted  a  bronze  colour,  representing 
the  twelve  Apostles,  St.  John  the  Baptist,  St.  Paul, 
St.  Ignatius  of  Loyola  and  St.  Francis  Xavier.  They 
are  said  to  have  been  carved  by  a  lay  brother  of  the 
Society  of  Jesus. 

The  Hotel-Dieu  also  has  a  picture  in  relief  of  the 
crucifixion  of  Our  Lord  between  two  thieves.  This 
picture  was  found  in  the  attic  of  the  Basilica  by  Mr. 
Regali,  a  statuary  of  Quebec.  There  is  also  a  picture 
of  the  birth  of  Our  Lord,  that  came  from  the  gallery 
of  Lord  Metcalfe,  a  former  governor  of  Canada. 

The  principal  business  carried  on  by  the  community 
is  the  cultivation  of  plants  and  flowers,  the  manufacture 
of  mass-wine  and  wafers  ;  and  laundrying  for  outside 
persons,  and  sewing. 


This  hospital  was  founded  in  1865  through  the 
liberality  of  Mr.  Jeffrey  Hale,  who  gave  a  portion  of 
the  money  required  to  purchase  a  ground  and  hospital 
for  the  Protestant  sick.  In  the  month  of  December, 
1865,  a  property  was  bought  situated  on  the  edge  of 
the  cliff  overlooking  St.  Roch  suburbs,  at  the  corner  of 
Richelieu  and  Glacis  streets.  This  hospital  was  opened 
in  1867  and  remained  open  until  1901.  Shortly  before 
that  date  the  authorities  of  the  Jeffrey  Hale  Hospital 
had  found  that  they  had  not  sufficient  room  for  their 
patients,  and  had  purchased  from  the  nuns  of  the  Hotel 
Dieu  an  extensive  piece  of  ground  between  Claire 

24  369 


Fontaine  and  deSalaberry  streets, on  which  they  ere<5led 
a  new  building  on  the  most  modern  plan, with  a  special 
department  for  contagious  diseases.  A  generous  legacy 
of  $150,000  from  the  Hon.  James  Gibb  Ross  was  of 
great  assistance  in  enabling  the  governors  to  attain 
their  object. 

The  present  Jeffrey  Hale  Hospital  is  a  splendid 
brick  building  whose  shape  greatly  resembles  a  Maltese 
cross.  Its  dimensions  are  142  feet  by  34.  The  arms 
of  the  cross  are  66  feet  by  45.  The  building  is  four 
stories  high,  with  a  basement.  It  can  easily  accom- 
modate 60  patients  apart  from  the  paying  patients. 

The  administration  is  in  the  hands  of  six  governors 
elected  yearly.  The  actual  president  is  Mr.  J.  Theodore 

Jeffrey  Hale  whose  name  is  given  to  the  hospital, 
was  born  in  Quebec  in  1 803  and  died  in  England  in  1 864. 
He  was  a  man  of  high  character  and  great  liberality. 
He  founded  the  Quebec  Provident  Savings  Bank,  which 
on  several  occasions  gave  sums  of  money  to  the  religious 
institutions  in  Quebec,  both  Catholic  and  Protestant. 


This  asylum  dates  from  the  i  ith  of  January,  1850. 
The  first  Asylum,  on  Richelieu  street,  was  only  of  a 
temporary  nature,  for  in  the  month  of  October  of  the 
same  year,  the  St.  Vincent  de  Paul  Society  assisted  by 
the  Chevalier  Muir  and  Mr.  Cazeau  purchased  a  house 
on  Lachevrotiere  street,  which,  for  four  years  served 
the  purpose  of  the  foundress,  Madame  Roy. 



In  1854,  the  Asylum  of  the  Good  Shepherd  was 
built  on  the  same  street,  the  house  being  72  feet  by  55. 
Six  years  later  the  building  on  St.  Amable  street,  called 
after  the  Holy  Family,  was  added  to  the  others.  The 
corner-stone  of  the  chapel  was  laid  on  the  2nd  of  July, 

1867,  and  it  was  opened  for  worship  on  the  28th  of  May, 

1868.  The  St.  Magdalen  building,  on  L,achevrotiere 
street,  was  erected  in  1876.     The  building  dedicated 
to  Notre  Dame  de  Toutes  Graces,  on   the  corner  of 
Berthelot  and  St.  Amable  streets,  and  the  St.  Joseph 
Building  on  Berthelot  street,  date  from  1899. 

The  St.  lyouis  Academy  was  opened  in  1892.  The 
St.  Jean  Berchman's  School,  purchased  in  1890,  in 
which  at  first  only  little  girls  were  taught,  was  opened 
as  a  school  for  little  boys  in  1 90 1 .  The  school  belonging 
to  the  School  Board  dates  from  1900. 

The  St.  Louis  Academy  was  inaugurated  with  the 
view  of  obtaining  additional  resources  for  the  main 
work  of  the  Good  Shepherd  convent  ;  providing  a 
home  for  young  women  of  dissolute  life.  This  Aca- 
demy is  under  the  exclusive  control  of  the  community 
and  the  course  of  study  laid  down  by  the  Council  of 
Public  Instruction  is  followed.  At  the  present  time 
140  pupils  attend  the  Academy. 

The  Good  Shepherd  school  dates  from  the  7th  of 
January,  1851.  As  soon  as  it  was  opened,  it  received 
the  support  of  a  friend  of  education,  Mr.  Jacques  Cre- 
mazie,  who  spared  no  sacrifice  for  it.  He  may  justly 
be  considered  as  the  founder  of  this  school. 


In  1880,  the  Council  of  Public  Instruction  con- 
ferred the  title  of  Academy  on  the  Good  Shepherd 

The  Good  Shepherd  community  has  charge  of  the 
St.  Charles  Asylum  and  the  Lying-in  Hospital.  The 
former  is  a  reformatory  and  industrial  school  for  girls. 
It  occupies  the  old  Marine  Hospital,  which  the  nuns 
purchased  from  the  Federal  Government  in  1891 .  The 
staff  consists  of  a  chaplain,  and  16  nuns,  and  there  are 
221  children  under  their  charge. 

Thirteen  nuns  have  charge  of  the  Lying-in  Hos- 
pital, on  Couillard  street.  The  Asylum  of  the  Holy 
Angels  is  an  annex  to  the  latter. 

The  staff  of  the  Good  Shepherd  community  is  as 
follows  : — 

Nuns 221 

Lay-Sisters 58 

Novices 56 

Total 335 

The  number  of  penitents  at  the  present  time  is 
150,  but  the  number  varies,  and  is  generally  greater, 
than  less. 


The  asylum  of  the  Sisters  of  Charity  was  founded 
in  1848,  by  Mgr.  C.  F.  Turgeon,  Archbishop  of  Quebec, 
by  means  of  collections  and  subscriptions  throughout 
the  diocese. 



Poor  as  it  has  always  been,  the  community  of  the 
Sisters  of  Charity,  or  Grey  Nuns,  has,  by  the  exercise 
of  perseverance,  succeeded  in  carrying  out  and  deve- 
loping its  work,  morally  and  materially,  in  amarVelous 
manner.  Twenty-five  years  ago  the  convent  staff  con- 
sisted of  65  nuns  and  24  novices  ;  at  present  that  number 
has  doubled,  without  including  those  sent  to  the  country 

The  number  of  inmates  at  present  is  : 

Nuns 1 30 

Novices 67 

Lay  nuns 137 

Orphans  of  both  sexes 397 

L^ady  boarders 2 

Infirm  old  women 84 

Children  in  the  asylum  rooms. ...  152 

Out-door  pupils i ,  579 

At  the  asylum  of  St.  Louis  de  Gonzague  there  are 
5  priests,  172  boy  boarders  and  half-boarders,  and  25 
old  men. 

The  Sisters  of  Charity  have  charge  of  the  Asylum 
of  St.  Michael  the  Archangel,  at  la  Canardiere,  on  the 
Beauport  road.  The  inmates  are  :  4  physicians,  36 
nuns,  54  lay-sisters,  12  female  keepers,  37  male  keepers 
and  porters,  31  mechanics,  tradesmen  and  others  ;  570 
male  patients,  10  boarders  ;  485  female  patients  and  13 



Moreover,  the  Sisters  of  Charity  have  charge  of 
the  St.  Antoine  Asylum  of  St.  Roch,  and  St.  Bridget's 
Asylum  on  Grande  Alice. 

The  archives  of  the  convent,  since  its  foundation, 
are  contained  in  two  enormous  volumes,  besides  ten 
volumes  of  Annals,  or  the  History  of  the  Institute. 

The  library  contains  6,121  well  selected  volumes. 


On  the  28th  of  October,  1897,  the  Cercle  Catkolique 
of  Quebec  handed  over  to  the  archiepiscopal  corporation 
the  handsome  building  owned  by  it  on  St.  Francis 
street.  On  the  25th  of  March,  1898,  that  corporation 
transferred  the  property  to  the  pastor  of  St.  Roch,  who 
had  obtained  an  act  of  incorporation  from  the  Legis- 
lature on  the  1 5th  of  January  previous.  The  object  of 
this  foundation  is  to  care  for  the  old  people  of  the 
parish.  On  the  very  day  the  asylum  was  opened  8  old 
men  and  16  old  women  were  comfortably  installed 
in  suitable  apartments.  Soon  afterwards  the  building 
became  too  small  to  accommodate  the  number  of  appli- 
cants. The  parish  priest  at  once  resolved  to  add  a 
wing  to  the  old  building.  This  was  begun  on  the 
26th  of  July,  1900,  and  finished  in  1901,  the  cost  being 
$26,950,  which  was  collected  by  means  of  subscriptions. 
On  the  9th  of  May,  1901, Archbishop  Begin  blessed  the 
building  and  presided  at  a  banquet  at  which  many 
priests  and  citizens  were  present,  as  well  as  the  aged 
inmates  of  the  asylum. 



Eleven  Sisters  of  the  Grey  nuns  are  in  charge  of 
this  asylum,  which  at  present  has  a  hundred  and  four 
inmates.  It  has  no  private  revenues  and  relies  on  public 
charity  for  its  support ;  so  far  the  latter  has  not  failed  it. 


This  Association  which  perpetuates  the  name  of 
the  famous  Abbess  of  Kildare,  may  be  considered  to 
date  from  the  spring  of  1856,  when  a  few  of  the  non- 
commissioned officers  of  the  regiments  of  the  line 
stationed  in  the  garrison,  collected  the  sum  of  seventeen 
pounds,  which  they  handed  to  the  Reverend  Father 
Nelligan,  V.  G. ,  for  the  relief  of  the  poor.  This  modest 
sum  formed  the  nucleus  of  a  fund  for  the  establishment 
of  a  home  for  destitute  children  and  orphans.  Father 
McGauran  continued  the  work  commenced  by  Father 
Nelligan,  and  in  December,  1856,  a  house  was  obtained 
nearly  opposite  the  church,  which  for  two  years  served 
as  a  home  for  children  and  an  asylum  for  the  aged  and 
infirm.  In  185-8  this  building  was  found  to  be  too 
small  for  the  growing  needs  of  the  parish,  and  a  property 
was  purchased  on  the  St.  L,ouis  Road  upon  which  the 
present  building  now  stands.  There  was  a  stone  build- 
ing upon  the  grounds  60  feet  by  40  which  was  fitted 
up  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  Association.  Two 
years  later  the  members  of  the  Congregation  of  St. 
Patrick's  who  had  carried  out  this  charitable  work, 
sought  incorporation,  and  on  the  iQth  of  May,,  1860, 
Sir  Edmund  Head  assented  to  an  Act,  the  preamble  of 
which  read  as  follows  :  — 



"  Whereas  an  Association  has  been  formed  in  the 
city  of  Quebec  for  the  purpose  of  providing  for  the 
maintenance  of  aged  and  infirm  persons  ; 

' '  And  whereas  the  said  Association  has  established 
an  Asylum  for  destitute  orphans  and  immigrants,  and 
has  also  in  contemplation  the  establishing  of  an  hospital 
where  medical  aid  and  attendance  may  be  offered  to 
the  indigent ; 

' '  And  whereas  certain  members  of  the  said  Asso- 
ciation and  others  interested  in  its  welfare,  have,  by 
their  petition,  represented  that  the  said  Association 
would  be  more  efficient  by  giving  to  it  the  character 
of  a  corporation  ; 

"  Therefore,  Her  Majesty,  &c.,  enacts  as  follows  : 
1 '  The  Reverend  Bernard  McGauran,  Henry  O'Con- 
nor, Thomas  J.  Murphy,  Maurice  O'Leary,  John  Lane, 
jr.,  John  Baxter,  Patrick  Shee,  Wm.  Quinn,  E. 
O'Doherty,  M.  J.  O'Doherty,  J.  C.  Nolan,  Jas.  Mur- 
phy, J.  Lilly,  J.  Magee,  J.  Flanagan.  J.  Thomas,  J. 
Lane,  sr.,  T.  Morgan,  P.  Lawlor,  J.  Teaffe,  T.  M. 
-Quigley,  Hon.  C.  Alleyn,  M.  Kelly,  T.  McGreevy, 
W.  Kirwin,  E.  Quinn,  J.  Quinn,  M.  Cavanagh,  M. 
Cullen,  M.  A.  Hearn,  R.  McGreevy,  M.  F.  Walsh, 
H.  Martin,  G.  Smith,  J.  O'Leary,  Sergeant  Walsh, 
R.  W.  Behan,  G.  W.  Golfer,  D.  Carey,  E.  G.  Cannon, 
M.  Enright,  J.  Archer,  G.  Neilan,  J.  M.  Jordan,  M. 
Connolly,  A.  McDonnell,  H.  Devlin,  M.  Dunn,  J. 
Ryan,  J.  Kindelin,  J.  O'Kane,  T.  Malone,  J.  B. 
O'Doherty,  P.  O.  O'Doherty,  J.  O'Reilly,  G.  McGlynn, 
J.  Enright,  P.  Hanning,  J.  O'Brien,  P.  Teaffe,  J. 
Cook,  J.  Sharpies,  J.  P.  O'Meara,  N.  Lee,  W.  Nolan, 
D.  O' Sullivan,  P.  McMahon,  P.  Wlash.  W.  Scanlan, 
M.  Lynch,  J.  O' Donovan,  W.  Haunon,  C.  Gilbride, 
D.  Malone,  L.  Stafford,  J.  Reid,  R.  Alleyn,  E.  Teaffe 
and  the  chaplain  for  the  time  being  of  the  Catholics  of 



Quebec  speaking  the  English  language,  and  all  others 
who  may  be  from  time  to  time,  elected  members  of  the 
said  Association,  and  who  shall  continue  to  be  members 
by  the  observance  of  the  Rules  and  By-laws  which  may 
be  framed  in  that  behalf,  shall  be,  and  are  hereby  con- 
stituted and  made  a  body  politic  and  corporate  by  the 
name  of  St.  Bridget's  Asylum  Association." 

In  1866,  a  new  wing  was  commenced  at  a  cost  of 
$26,000,  which  was  completed  in  1873,  and  various 
additions  have  since  been  made. 

In  the  year  1870,  the  Act  of  Incorporation  was 
amended,  by  which  the  property,  real  or  personal,  then 
held  by  the  Association,  was  transferred  and  vested  in 
five  trustees,  four  of  whom  were  to  be  laymen  residing 
in  the  district  of  Quebec,  and  the  fifth,  the  Chaplain, 
for  the  time  being.  The  first  trustees  were  to  be  elected 
by  the  Chaplain  for  a  term  of  five  years,  and  afterwards 
the  trustees  were  to  be  elected  by  the  members  of  the 

St.  Bridget's  Asylum  Association  has  accomplished 
much  good  work,  and  it  heartily  deserves  all  the  en- 
couragement necessary  to  enable  it  to  extend,  to  the 
utmost,  its  sphere  of  usefulness.  The  Grey  Nuns 
attend  to  the  Asylum,  and  at  present  there  are  9  pro- 
fessed nuns  and  8  lay  sisters  attached  to  the  Asylum. 
In  August,  1903,  there  were  twenty-five  old  men  and 
fifty-six  old  women  provided  for  in  the  Asylum,  and 
there  were  thirty-nine  boys  and  fifty  girls  in  the  or- 
phans branch. 

Mr.  Edward  Foley  is  the  Secretary  of  the  Asso- 


;;R  xvn 
i  7  o  o  - 1 I- 



—  TH 


—  THE     CHA 


LAVAL  '  R     M  A  N  O  R  — 

Tnent   Buildings 
the  old  Fief  St. 

Francois,  which  was  conceded  to  Jean  Bourdon  by  the 

company  of  New  France  on  the  r6th  of  March,  1646. 

The  area  of  the  ground  occupied  by  the  Legislative 

and  Departmental  buildings  is  251,763  square  feet,  and 

Avenue,  18,000  square  feet,  making 

a  total  of  269,763  square  feet. 

:  ,ie  notes  is  taken  froi 
'  by  Ernest  c.  1.,  Secretary  t 


The  green  sandstone  used  in  the  basement  was 
taken  from  the  Levis  quarries.  The  stone  of  the  facing 
of  the  outer  walls  from  Deschainbault,  and  the  stone 
used  for  the  facing  of  the  Court  yard  came  from  Murray 
Bay  and  Terrebonne. 

The  total  cost  of  the  buildings,  including  the 
purchase  of  the  ground,  the  statues  and  the  embellish- 
ment of  the  surrounding  grounds,  was  $1,669,249.16. 
Two  accidents  increased  the  cost  of  construction .  First , 
the  destruction  of  the  old  Parliament  Building,  near 
the  Archbishop's  Palace  in  April,  1883,  which  rendered 
it  necessary  to  construct  a  temporary  chamber,  within 
the  building  in  progress,  for  the  use  of  the  approaching 
session  of  the  Legislature,  and  the  double  dynamite 
explosion  caused  by  wanton  hands  in  October,  1884, 
which  necessitated  the  rebuilding  of  a  portion  of  the 

The  building  is  of  quadrangular  form  with  an 
inner  court  yard.  The  face  of  each  building  is  300 
feet  in  length.  The  building  facing  Dufferin  Avenue 
is  occupied  by  the  Legislative  Council  and  by  the 
Legislative  Assembly,  the  minimum  width  of  this  por- 
tion is  60  feet,  and  the  maximum  107  y2  feet.  The 
height  of  the  walls  from  the  soil  to  the  cornice  is  60 
feet,  the  roof  rising  17  feet  above. 

The  tower  of  the  campanile  is  153  feet  in  height, 
but  the  crest  surmounted  by  an  iron  crown  is  19  feet 
above,  making  the  total  height  from  the  ground  to  the 
summit,  172  feet. 


The  three  sides  of  the  building  occupied  by  the 
Public  Departments  have  a  minimum  depth  of  47^  feet 
and  a  maximum  width  of  57^  feet.  The  outer  walls  to 
the  cornice  have  the  same  height  as  those  of  the  main 
front,  60  feet  and  103  feet  to  the  top  of  the  rdof. 

The  whole  building  has  a  basement,  a  ground  floor 
of  rustic  quoins,  and  two  other  stories  separated  by  a 
continuous  belt-course  and  surmounted  by  a  large 
Ionic  entablature. 

A  mansard  roof,  covered  with  galvanized  iron, 
with  ornaments  in  zinc,  completes  the  exterior  of  the 

The  main  front  is  remarkable  for  the  fine  propor- 
tions of  its  central  tower,  dedicated  to  Jacques  Cartier  ; 
by  the  purity  of  the  lines  of  the  fore  parts  added  to  this 
tower  dedicated,  one,  to  Champlain,  and  the  other  to 
Maisonneuve  ;  by  the  elegance  of  the  pavilions  at  the 
angles,  and  by  the  ornamentation  in  its  entirety. 

The  niches  in  the  masonry  of  the  front  of  the 
Campanile  are  to  contain  statues  of  Jacques  Cartier, 
the  discoverer  of  Canada ;  of  Champlain,  the  founder 
of  Quebec  ;  of  Maisonneuve,  the  founder  of  Montreal  ; 
of  L,aviolette,  the  founder  of  Three  Rivers  ;  of  Pierre 
Boucher,  Governor  of  Three  Rivers ;  of  Father  Brebeuf, 
Jesuit  ;  of  Father  Viel,  Recollet  ;  of  Mgr.  de  Montmo- 
rency-L,aval  ;  of  M.  Olier,  founder  of  the  Society  of  St. 
Sulpitius.  The  niches  already  filled  contain  the  statues 
of  Wolfe,  Montcalni,Frontenac,  L,evis,  Lord  Elgin,  and 
de  Salaberry,  the  hero  of  Chateauguay. 



On  the  piers  of  each  story,  trophies,  surrounded 
by  oak  leaves,  cartouches,  panoplies  and  floating  drap- 
eries, bear,  carved  in  relief,  the  arms  of  the  Governors 
and  Royal  Lieutenants  :  Montmagny,  d'Ailleboust, 
d'Argenson,  Tracy,  Callieres,  Vaudreuil,  Murray,  Dor- 
chester, PreVost,  Bagot ;  of  the  discoverers  :  Marquette, 
Jolliet,  L,a  Verendrye,  I/a  Salle ;  of  the  intendant 
Talon  ;  of  the  warriors :  Daulac,  Beaujeu,  Hertel, 

The  pediment  of  the  fore-front  dedicated  to  Cham- 
plain  is  surmounted  by  a  fine  group  in  bronze,  by  P. 
Hebert :  Poetry  and  Histoty ;  another  group  in  bronze, 
by  the  same  :  Religion  and  Patria,  crowns  the  pedi- 
ment of  the  fore-front  dedicated  to  Maisonneuve. 

In  front  of  the  main  entrance,  at  the  foot  of  the 
campanile,  is  a  monumental  fountain  dedicated  to  the 
aboriginal  races  of  Canada.  The  portico,  of  the  Tuscan 
order,  is  surmounted  by  a  bronze  group  representing 
an  Indian  family.  Below,  at  the  back  of  the  sheet 
of  water  formed  by  an  elliptical  shaped  basin,  45  feet 
long  and  28  wide,  another  bronze  representing  an 
Indian  with  a  fish-spear  spearing  a  fish  in  a  cascade, 
completes  the  ornamentation  of  this  graceful  out- work. 

The  interior  decorations  are  as  numerous  as  elo- 
quent. In  the  vestibule  appears,  on  the  right,  the 
arms  of  the  Marquess  of  Lome,  and  on  the  left  those  of 
the  Marquess  of  Lansdowne,  both  Governors-General 
of  Canada,  the  former  from  1877  to  1883,  and  the  latter 
from  1883  to  1888. 



Close  by,  on  the  left,  are  the  arms  of  Hon.  Mr. 
Robitaille  and,  as  a  pendant,  on  the  right,  those  of 
Hon.  Mr.  Masson,  both  Lieutenant- Governors  of  the 
Province  of  Quebec,  the  former  from  1879  to  1884  and 
the  latter  from  1884  to  1887. 

The  black  walnut  wainscoting  of  the  vestibule, 
ground  floor  and  first  and  second  stories,  is  ornamented 
with  arabesques,  with  arms  and  inscriptions  carved  and 
gilt  with  remarkable  taste  and  skill.  They  tell  the 
history  of  Canada  in  heraldic  language.  On  the  ground 
floor  are  the  arms  and  names  of  personages  belonging 
to  the  first  period  of  the  historical  annals  of  North 
America  and  Canada  :  Verazzani,  Sebastian  Cabot, 
De  la  Roche,  De  Caen,  Roberval,  Pontgrave1,  Poutrin- 
court,  de  Monts,  de  L£ry,  de  Chastes,  Pontchartrain, 
Chateaufort,  the  Marquise  de  Guercheville,  Lauzon, 
Courcelles,  Hocquart,  Denonville,  Begon,  Duquesne, 
the  Duchesse  d' Aiguillon,  Madame  de  la  Peltrie,  Marie 
Guyart  de  1' Incarnation. 

In  a  cartouche  at  the  foot  of  the  grand  staircase 
of  the  vestibule,  traced  in  gold,  is  a  sun  lighting  the 
world  with  the  motto  Nee  pluribus  impar,  and  the 
inscription  ' '  Louis  XIV. ' '  Opposite  in  another  car- 
touche are  carved  the  arms  and  name  of  Colbert. 

In  the  upper  story,  in  a  similar  position,  are  the 
arms  of  George  III  and  of  his  minister  William  Pitt. 

The  visitor  has  ascended  a  flight  of  stairs  and 
history  has  advanced  a  century. 

With  consummate  art  the  gilt  arabesques  and 
lines  run  along  the  panels  of  the  staircase  ascending  to 



the  first  and  then  to  the  second  story  multiplying  their 
vaired  and  graceful  designs  and  surrounding  the  arms 
of  personages  chiefly  belonging  to  a  more  recent  period  : 
Saint  Vallier,  Pontbriand,  Beauharnois,  L,a  Galis- 
soniere,  L,a  Jonquiere,  Longueuil,  Coulon  de  Villiers, 
Ramezay,  Townshend,  Amherst,  Quesnel,  Vallieres, 
Sewell,  Stuart,  Panet,  Baby,  Taschereau,  Bedard,  de 
L,ery,  Lot  biniere,  Parent,  Nelson,  Lanaudiere,  Boucher- 
ville,  Viger,  Cuvillier,  St.  Ours,  Bourdages,  Plessis, 
Mountain,  Blauchet,  Laforce,  Lartigue,  Bourget, 
Rollette,  Dambourges,  Duchesnay,  De  Gaspe,  etc. 

At  the  back  of  the  top  most  flight  of  the  main 
staircase,  surrounded  by  abundant  palms  encrusted 
with  gold  on  the  wainscoting  shine  forth  the  mono- 
gramme  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  and  the  names  of  some 
of  the  Jesuit  missionaries  whose  blood  moistened  and 
rendered  fruitful  the  thenceforth  Christian  soil  of 
Canada  and  North  America  ;  Jogues,  Lalemant,  Rasle, 
Buteux,  Gamier. 

To  the  right  are  the  names  of  the  first  historians  of 
New  France  :  Sagard,  Lescarbot,  Ducreux,Charlevoix  ; 
to  the  left  those  of  modern  historians  and  historiogra- 
phers :  Garneau,  Ferland,  Christie,  Bouchette. 

The  chamber  of  the  Legislative  Council  and  that 
of  the  Legislative  Assembly  are  of  the  same  dimen- 
sions :  67  feet  long  50  wide  and  33  high. 

Each  of  the  four  angle  pavilions  has  an  entrance 
of  smaller  proportions  with  Ionic  pilaster,  consoles, 
cornices  and  cartouches  on  which  are  carved  the  arms 
of  the  province. 



Work  was  begun  in  1877  and  the  various  public 
departments  were  installed  at  the  end  of  the  year  1880. 

The  architect  of  the  building  was  Mr.  Eugene 
Tache,  I.  S.  O.,  and  the  work  was  carried  out  by  Mr. 
P.  Gauvreati  and  Mr.  J.  B.  Derorae,  Government 

The  foundations  of  the  main  building  were  laid 
in  1 88 1.  The  corner  stone  which  was  laid  on  the  i7th 
June,  1884,  by  His  Honour,  Lieutenant  Governor 
Robitaille,  is  at  the  foot  of  one  of  the  side  pillars  of 
the  main  entrance,  on  the  left  side. 

The  grounds  have  been  very  tastefully  laid  out 
under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Chollet,  the  gardener  of 
Spencer  Wood,  and  during  the  summer  months  they 
are  very  attractive. 

In  the  ground,  adjoining  the  walls  of  the  city, 
specimens  of  various  kinds  of  Canadian  trees  have 
been  planted,  which  in  the  course  of  time,  when  they 
come  to  maturity,  will  prove  both  ornamental  and 


The  present  City  Hall  stands  on  the  grounds  of 
the  old  Jesuit  College.  The  college  was  afterwards 
occupied  as  a  Barracks,  and  for  many  years  it  was 
known  as  the  Jesuits  Barracks.  In  the  month  of 
November  1889,  a  portion  of  the  ground  was  purchased 
for  civic  buildings,  the  old  city  Hall  being  then  on  St. 
lyOuis  St.  The  corner  stone  of  the  new  building  was 
laid  on  the  i3th  of  August,  1895,  all(i  the  opening 

25  385 


ceremony  took  place  on  the  igih  of  September  1896, 
His^  Worship  Mayor  Parent,  presiding.  The  total  cost 
of  the  new  city  Hall  was  about  $150,000. 

The  building  is  of  an  imposing  and  substantial 
character,  and  the  surrounding  grounds  are  well  laid 
out.  There  is  a  fine  chamber  for  the  meetings  of  the 
council,  and  large  reception  rooms  and  spacious  offices 
for  all  the  requirements  of  the  civic  administration. 


The  oldest  prison  of  Quebec  stood  on  the  grounds 
belonging  to  the  family  of  de  Becancour,  near  Fort  St. 
Louis,  on  the  corner  of  St.  Louis  and  des  Carrieres 
streets,  nearly  opposite  the  main  entrance  to  the  court- 
yard of  the  Chateau  Frontenac. 

In  the  latter  years  of  the  French  regime  the  public 
prison  was  situated  in  rear  of  the  Palace  of  the  Inten- 
dant,  near  the  river  St.  Charles,  at  the  place  commonly 
called  "  the  fuel-yard." 

In  1784  vacant  rooms  in  the  Recollets  convent 
served  as  a  temporary  prison.  When  the  convent  was 
burned,  the  prisoners  were  kept  in  buildings  adjoining 
the" Artillery  Barracks,  near  Palace  Hill. 

In  1810  the  building  of  a  prison  was  begun  on  the 
piece  of  ground  between  St.  Stanislas,  Dauphine  and 
Ste.  Angele  streets  :  this  prison  was  inaugurated  in 
1814  and  was  used  until  1867."  It  is  now  Morrin  College. 

The  main  door  on  St.  Stanislas  street  was  removed, 
and  replaced  by  a  new  one.  Above  it  was  the  follow- 
ing inscription  : 



A.  D 

L.  A.  REO.  GEOKGIO  Til 

PBOV.  GUB.  D.  D.  J.  H    CKAIG,  Bi.  EQT. 



The  ceremony  of  laying  the  corner-stone  of  the 
present  prison,  near  Grande  Allee,  took  place  on  the 
4th  September,  1861.  Hon.  Joseph  Cauchon,  then 
Commissioner  of  Public  Works,  officiated  in  the  pre- 
sence of  Mr.  J.  H.  Pope,  mayor  of  Quebec,  of  Hon. 
U.  J.  Tessier,  Legislative  Councillor,  and  Mr.  Hector 
Langevin,  member  of  the  Legislative  Assembly,  by 
whom  speeches  were  made  at  the  banquet  after  the 

Work  was  begun  in  the  same  year  and  resumed 
in  1864,  but  it  was  not  completed  until  1867.  The 
edifice  consists  of  a  main  building  88  feet  by  50,  three 
stories  high,  with  a  basement ;  of  a  wing  at  right 
angles  to  the  latter,  in  which  are  the  cells,  being  two 
stories  high  with  a  basement  108  feet  long  by  47  deep  ; 
of  a  wing  on  the  east  side  of  the  latter,  two  stories  high 
21  feet  by  26  ;  of  a  south  wing,  in  rear  of  the  central 
part  66  feet  by  40  in  which  is  the  prisoners'  chapel. 

The  sheriff  took  possession  of  the  building  on  the 
ist  June,  1867,  in  accordance  with  a  proclamation 
dated  the  i2th  May  previous. 


When  Talon  filled  the  office  of  Intendant,  he  had 
a  brewery  built  at  the  Palais,  which  was  finished  in 



1671.  This  industry,  quite  a  new  one  in  the  country, 
did  not  prove  as  profitable  as  expected.  Thereupon 
the  Intendant  made  it  his  residence,  and  the  Superior 
Council  held  its  sittings  there.  The  council,  when 
first  established,  held  its  sittings  in  a  house  called  the 
"  Palais  "  at  the  corner  of  the  Place  d'Armes  and  St. 
Louis  street,  on  the  very  spot,  in  fact,  where  the  pre- 
sent court  house  stands. 

Talon's  brewery  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  the  night 
of  the  5th  and  6th  January,  1713.  On  its  ruin  was 
erected  the  splendid  building  of  the  Intendant's  Palace, 
of  which  Kalm  and  Charlevoix  speak  in  terms  of 
admiration.  In  this  palace  justice  was  administered 
in  Quebec  during  the  last  years  of  the  French  domina- 
tion. It  was  almost  entirely  demolished  during  the 
siege  of  1759.  At  the  present  day  a  large  brewery 
stands  on  the  ruins  of  the  Intendant's  Palace,  which 
has  restored  to  the  building  its  former  use. 


The  first  building  in  which  the  Senechal's  court 
sat,  was  at  the  foot  of  Mont  Carmel  street,  near  the  north 
east  end  of  the  present  governor's  garden.  The  court 
was  afterwards  transferred  to  a  building  erected  on  the 
site  where  the  court  house  now  stands.  The  ground  now 
occupied  by  the  court  house  and  the  Anglican  Cathe- 
dral was  given  by  Louis  XIV  to  the  Recollets  in  1681, 
for  the  purpose  of  erecting  an  asylum .  The  missionaries 
established  there  a  branch  of  their  monastery  of  Notre 



Dame  des  Anges  and  it  was  called  "  The  convent  of 
the  Castle. ' '  This  convent  stood  a  short  distance  away, 
on  the  north  east  portion  of  the  grounds  now  occupied 
by  the  Anglican  Cathedral. 


This  splendid  building,  on  the  corner  of  St.  Louis 
street  and  the  Place  d'Armes,  was  opened  for  the  pur- 
poses of  the  administration  of  justice,  by  proclamation 
bearing  date  the  nth  November,  1887,  and  inaugur- 
ated on  the  2ist  December  of  the  same  year.  The 
total  superficies  of  the  grounds  is  46,777  feet. 

The  old  Court  House  was  destroyed  by  fire  on  the 
ist  February,  1873.  In  the  interval  the  courts  had 
sat  in  the  old  military  hospital,  in  the  rear  of  St.  Louis 
street,  where  they  continued  to  hold  sessions  for  nearly 
fourteen  years.  The  first  Court  House  had  been  built, 
in  1804,  on  the  site  occupied  by  the  dependencies  of 
the  old  Recollet  convent.  Previous  to  that  date,  from 
the  cession  of  the  country,  the  courts  were  held  in  the 
Jesuits'  College. 

The  new  Court  House  is  fire-proof  ;  its  exterior, 
in  the  style  of  the  renaissance,  recalls  the  old  chateaux 
built  under  Francis  I.  The  main  entrance,  with  the 
heraldic  ornaments,  is  worthy  of  careful  examination. 
The  total  cost  of  the  building  was  $940,759.00.  It  is 
beyond  contradiction  one  of  the  finest  and  most  solid 
buildings  in  Quebec.  Nothing  has  been  spared  to 
make  a  durable  monument  of  it.  The  specifications 



were  drawn  up  by  M.  J.  B.  D£rome,  then  chief  engineer 
of  the  Department  of  Public  Works,  from  general  plans 
drawn  up  by  himself,  and  from  plans  of  the  exterior 
made  by  Mr.  Eugene  Tache. 


I/aval  Normal  School  was  inaugurated  on  the  1 2th 
May,  1857,  in  tne  Old  Castle,  or  "  Haldimand  Castle." 

The  seat  of  Government  at  that  time  was  not  fixed  : 
sometimes  it  was  in  Kingston,  or  Toronto,  at  others, 
in  Montreal  or  Quebec.  From  1860  to  1865,  the  Normal 
School  was  required  for  the  use  of  the  Public  Depart- 
ments. The  classes  were  then  held  in  the  building 
now  occupied  by  the  Jesuits  on  Dauphine  street.  The 
school  returned  to  the  Old  Castle  in  1 866  and  remained 
there  until  1892,  when  the  old  building  was  sold  to  the 
Canadian  Pacific  Railway  Company,  and  demolished, 
giving  place  to  the  Chateau  Frontenac. 

The  Normal  School  was  then  transferred  to  the 
boarding  house  of  Laval  University,  in  the  spring  of 
1892,  and  remained  there  until  1900.  It  now  occupies 
the  property  purchased  from  Mr.  J.  Theodore  Ross  on 
the  St.  Foye  road,  just  outside  the  city  limits.  The 
Government  paid  $9,000  for  the  property  and  has  since 
added  a  wing  for  a  chapel,  and  for  the  use  of  the  pupils. 


We  had  occasion  to  remark  in  the  first  chapter  of 
this  book,  that  Quebec  has  been  able  to  keep  pace  with 



the  spirit  of  the  times  without  finding  it  necessary  to 
obliterate  all  traces  of  her  past.  The  walls  and  the 
gates  are  no  longer  necessary  for  the  purposes  of  defence 
but  they  serve  to  adorn  the  city,  and  in  no  way  impede 
its  traffic.  Another  instance  is  furnished  in  the  Quebec 
Garrison  Club.  In  an  old  engraving  of  Quebec,  published 
in  1820,  a  long,  dingy  looking  structure  is  shown  on 
St.  Louis  Street,  described  as  "  Engineer's  Office." 
It  requires  the  exercise  of  the  imagination  to  realise 
that  this  building  formed  a  part  of  the  attractive  Club 
established  in  1879.  Such,  however,  is  the  case.  At 
the  time  of  the  Dufferin  improvements  it  was  proposed 
to  build  the  Club  in  the  form  of  a  Norman  Chateau, 
and  it  is  a  matter  of  regret  that  the  work  was  not 
carried  out  entirely  in  accordance  with  the  plans  pre- 
pared by  Mr.  E.  E.  Tache,  I.S.O.,  Deputy  Minister 
of  Crown  L,ands.  The  building  would  then  have 
formed  one  of  the  most  pleasing  features  of  the  city. 
The  modified  plan  is  not  without  interest,  but  we  prefer 
to  give  an  engraving  of  the  building  as  it  would  have 
appeared  under  Mr.  Tache 's  plan,  rather  than  of  the 
building  of  to  day. 

The  club  was  originally  intended  for  the  officers 
only,  but  in  the  course  of  time  civilians  were  admitted 
to  membership,  and  it  is  now  the  only  club  in  the  city. 

The  officers  at  the  foundation  in  1879,  were  : 

Patron  : — The  Marquess  of  L,orne,  K.T., Governor 

President:— Lieut. -Col.  Duchesnay,  D.A.G. 



Honorary  Vice -Pre si  dent  .-—Lieut.  -Col.  T.  Bland 
Strange,  R.A. 

Vice-President: — Lieut. -Col.  J.  Bell  Forsyth,  Q. 

Treasurer:— Lt.  Col.  Turnbull,  Q.O.C.H. 

Secretary  : — Capt.  Crawford  Lindsay,  Q.F.B. 

Committee : — Lieut. -Col.  Lamontagne  ;  Lieut. -Col. 
Montizambert,  B.  Batt,  C.A.  ;  Lieut.-Col.  F.  Wood 
Gray,  Q.O.C.H.  ;  Lt.-Col.  J.  B.  Amyot,  Qth  Batt.  ; 
Lieut.-Col.  Baby,  Q.F.B.  ;  Lieut.-Col.  L.  P.  Vohl, 
9th  Batt.  ;  Lieut.-Col.  R.  Alley n,  8th  Batt.  ;  Lieut.- 
Col.  W.  H.  Forest,  D.P.M.  ;  Surgeon  H.  Neilsou  ; 
Capt.  LeSueur,  8th  Batt.. 

The  Quebec  Morning  Chronicle  of  December  26th , 
1 88 1,  gives  this  description  of  the  building,  but  the 
writer  was  not,  probably,  acquainted  with  the  fate  of 
the  "  interesting  records." 

' '  The  early  history  of  the  Royal  Engineers'  office 
'  in  Quebec  is  interwoven  not  a  little  with  our  old 
'  system  previous  to  responsible  Government,  when 
'  the  commanding  officer  of  Royal  Engineers  was  a 
'  most  important  personage  and  second  only  in  author- 
'  ity  to  the  Governor- General  himself  who  was  also 
'  a  military  officer  and  commander-in-chief.  In  those 
'  days  before  the  Crown  Lands  were  vested  in  the 
'  Provincial  Government,  the  C.R.E.  sat  at  the  land 
'  board  in  order  to  retain  reserves  for  the  Crown,  or 
'  for  military  purposes,  and  in  other  ways  to  advise 
'  the  Governor-General  in  such  matters ;  but  unfor- 
'  Innately  all  the  old  and  interesting  records  of  that 
'  period  were  removed  with  the  headquarters  under 



"  Sir  John  Oldfield,  R.E.,  to  Montreal  in    1839  and 
"  destroyed  in  the  great  fire  of  1852." 

"  At  a  very  early  date  after  the  conquest  the  R.E. 
' '  office  was  located  in  a  wing  of  the  Parliament  House, 
"  near  Prescott  Gate,  and  also  in  the  old  Chateau  St. 
' '  Louis  ;  but  upon  the  purchase  of  the  present  building 
"  with  the  laud  attached  at  the  foot  of  Citadel  hill 
"  from  Archibald  Ferguson,  Esq.,  on  the  fifth  of  July, 
"  1819,  removed  thither  and  there  remained  as  the 
"  C.R.E.  quarters  until  the  withdrawal  of  the  troops 
"  a  few  years  ago,  in  accordance  with  the  change  of 
' '  policy  in  England  in  regard  to  the  Colonies,  requiring 
"  Colonel  Hamilton,  R.E.,  the  last  Imperial  Com- 
"  mandant  of  the  garrison  in  1871,  to  hand  over  to  the 
"  care  of  the  Canadian  Militia,  whose  pride  it  ever  will 
"  be  to  preserve  and  perpetuate  the  memories  of  the 
"  army  of  worthies  and  statesmen  who  have  sat  and 
"  worked  within  its  walls." 

All  the  records  of  the -Engineers'  Office  were  not 
destroyed  by  fire,  as  stated  in  this  article.  It  was 
the  custom  of  the  Engineers,  from  the  date  of  their 
first  residence  in  Canada,  to  send  most  of  the  original 
documents  to  the  War  Office,  and  to  retain  copies  in 
their  office  at  Quebec.  These  copies  were  often  made 
and  signed  by  the  makers  of  the  originals.  Through 
the  kind  assistance  of  the  distinguished  patron  of  the 
Garrison  Club,  His  Excellency,  the  Earl  of  Minto,  we 
recently  had  the  privilege  of  examining  hundreds  of 
the  plans  and  records  made  in  the-  Engineers'  Office  in 
Quebec, and  those  that  were  preserved  therein.  Amongst 
these  priceless  records  are  the  reports  of  the  Governors, 



and  of  Engineers  and  Officers,  such  as  Murray,  Car- 
leton,  Haldimand,  Mackellar,  Mann,  Nicols,  Twiss, 
Marr,  By,  Frome,  and  others.  Although  there  is  a 
very  large  collection  of  plans  and  records  relating  to 
every  military  post  in  Canada,  the  unrivalled  collection 
of  plans  relating  to  Quebec  is,  of  course,  the  most 
interesting  to  this  city.  The  list  of  the  plans  and  docu- 
ments which  we  have  seen  and  examined  on  several 
occasions  during  the  past  few  months,  is  far  too  long 
to  give  in  a  work  of  this  kind,  but  we  may  mention  a 
number  of  special  value  :  The  original  plan  of  the 
Battle  of  the  Plains  of  Abraham,  bearing  the  signa- 
ture of  Mackellar ;  the  original  plan  of  the  Battle  of 
St.  Foy,  bearing  the  signature  of  the  same  officer  ; 
the  original  report  of  the  condition  of  the  fortifications 
of  Quebec,  in  the  handwriting  of  Mackellar,  together 
with  the  plan  of  the  city,  which  he  prepared  and  signed, 
for  the  use  of  General  Wolfe  during  the  siege  of  Quebec. 
There  is  also  a  complete  series  of  plans  in  manuscript, 
bearing  the  signatures  of  different  engineers,  showing 
all  the  works  that  were  undertaken  in  Quebec  from  the 
year  1760  to  about  1864,  including  the  sections  and 
elevations  of  the  present  works  :  the  Martello  Towers, 
the  Forts  at  I^evis,  and  plans  and  reports  of  all  the 
Ordnance  properties  in  Quebec  and  elsewhere. 

It  will  be  seen  from  these  notes  that  a  new  interest 
is  given  to  the  Quebec  Garrison  Club,  and  that  through 
the  efforts  of  its  Patron,  students  may  still  consult  the 
work  that  was  done  within  its  walls  in  the  days  that 
are  no  more.  It  was  real  work  that  was  accomplished 



in  those  days,  work  which  enables  one  to  place  much 
of  the  history  of  this  city  on  a  more  enduring  founda- 
tion than  mere  conjecture. 

The  staff  of  the  Club  in  1903  is  as  follows  : — 

Patron  : — His  Excellency,  the  Earl  of  Minto,  Gov- 

Honorary  President : — Lieutenant  -  Colonel  T.  J. 

President : — Lieutenant  -  Colonel  Oscar  Pelletier, 
D.  O.  C. 

Vice-President:— Mr.  A.  H.  Cook,  K.  C. 

Secretary-  Treasurer  : — Captain  Wm.  H.  Petry,  8th 
Regiment  Royal  Rifles. 

Committee  : — Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  F.  Turnbull, 
R.O.,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Benson,  R.C.A.,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  R.  E.  W.  Turner,  V.C.,  D.S.O.,  Commanding 
Q.O.C.H.  ;  Major  F.  M.Gaudet.R.C.A.,  Major  Walter 
J.  Ray,  8th  Regiment  Royal  Rifles,  Captain  J.  Geo. 
Garneau,  R.O.,  Captain  A.  L.  Panet,  A.S.C.,  Hon. 
Chas.  Langelier,  K.C.,  Messrs.  J.  K.  Boswell,  Har- 
court  Smith,  A.  E.  Doucet,  H.  E.  Price  and  Murray 

Library  -  Committee : — Major  Ernest  Wurtele,  i8th 
Regt.  Saguenay,  Capt.  R.  J.  Davidson,  8th  Rgt.  R.  R. 


Many  circumstances  combine  to  give  to  the  Cha- 
teau Frontenac  a  peculiar  charm.  Its  imposing  situation 



appeals  to  every  lover  of  the  beautiful  with  fresh  force 
and  interest  as  the  seasons  come  and  go.  Within  its 
precincts  stood  the  Fort  of  the  Founder  of  la  Nouvelle 
France,  and  the  residence  of  a  long  line  of  illustrious 
governors  under  the  old  regime  and  under  the  new. 

For  more  than  two  centuries  this  site  has  been 
identified  closely  with  the  development  of  Canada,  and 
the  deeds  thereon  enacted  furnish  many  of  the  brightest 
as  well  as  many  of  the  most  sombre  pages  of  our  history. 

The  present  structure  which  is  an  enduring 
monument  to  its  architect,  the  late  Bruce  Price,  serves 
admirably  to  mark  the  progress  which  has  been  made 
in  our  midst  during  the  space  of  three  hundred  years. 

Here  on  this  spot  where  the  pioneers  of  New 
France  fortified  themselves  against  the  attacks  of  the 
ferocious  Iroquois,  stands  a  building  whose  luxury  and 
refinement  are  unsurpassed  even  in  countries  which 
were  old  at  the  time  of  the  birth  of  Canada.  Within 
the  past  few  years  the  interior  decoration  of  the  Chateau 
has  undergone  a  transformation  beneath  the  touch  of 
artist  hands.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hayter  Reed  are  respon- 
sible for  this  change,  and  to-day  the  Chateau  is  without 
a  rival.  Many  descriptions  have  been  written  of  the 
rooms  within  this  building,  but  they  do  not  convey 
an  adequate  idea  of  their  beauty.  A  glance  in  passing 
through  the  corridors  will  leave  a  more  lasting  and 
pleasing  impression  than  can  be  obtained  from  the  best 
written  page.  The  decoration  of  .the  Chateau  is  an 
example  of  what  can  be  accomplished  by  the  intelligent 
exercise  of  artistic  skill. 



On  the  25th  of  August,  1844,  the  corner  stone  of 
this  building  was  laid.  It  is  situated  at  the  top  of 
Mountain  Hill,  in  a  commanding  position.  Monseigneur 
Turgeon,  Bishop  of  Quebec,  devoted  much  of  his  energy 
towards  this  work,  and  succeeded  in  carrying  out  the 
undertaking  at  a  cost  of  $65,800.00,  by  means  of  col- 
lections throughout  the  diocese,  and  the  aid  of  generous 
gifts.  As  its  name  implies,  this  palace  is  the  residence 
of  His  Grace,  the  Archbishop  of  Quebec,  Monseigneur 
Begin,  and  also  of  the  Vicar  General,  Monseigneur 
Marois,  and  the  staff  of  the  Archbishop. 

The  building  contains  a  chapel,  a  sacristy  and  a 
fine  throne  room.  In  the  sacristy  there  are  rich  vest- 
ments of  cloth  of  gold  valued  at  $3,600.  They  are 
probably  the  richest  in  America.  In  the  throne  room 
their  are  paintings  of  all  the  Bishops  of  Quebec,  of 
Pope  Pius  VI,  Gregorgy  XVI,  Leo  XIII,  His  Eminence 
Cardinal  Taschereau,  and  Monseigneur  Marois.  There 
are  also  many  treasures  received  from  Rome. 

The  archives  comprise  the  registers  of  the  arch- 
bishopric from  the  time  of  Mgr  de  Laval  ;  old  title 
deeds  concerning  the  abbeys  of  Meaubec  and  Letree, 
the  Bulls  appointing  the  Bishops  of  Quebec,  and  others  ; 
the  correspondence  with  Rome,  with  the  bishoprics  of 
Canada,  with  the  religious  communities  and  parish 
priests  ;  the  correspondence  of  the  vicars-general  of 
Canada,  of  the  missionaries  scattered  throughout  the 
vast  diocese  of  Quebec  previous  to  its  dismemberment, 



and  several  manuscripts  in  the  Micmac,  Abenakis, 
Algonquin,  Montagnais,  Esquimaux  and  Outaouais 

Old  souvenirs  co'nnected  with  personages  of  former 
days  are  preserved  there,  amongst  others  two  pectoral 
crosses  from  Mgr  de  Laval,  a  gold  watch  of  Mgr  Plessis, 
another  of  Mgr  Signay,  a  golden  pectoral  cross  a 
souvenir  of  H.  E.  Cardinal  Franchi. 


The  Quebec  Seminary  was  opened,  in  1608,  in  a 
house  belonging  to  the  widow  of  Guillaume  Cotiillard , 
at  the  entrance  to  the  garden.  In  1678,  the  corner- 
stone was  laid  of  the  wing  that  faces  the  garden  and 
the  junior  pupils'  play-ground.  It  was  only  one  story 
high,  with  attics.  After  the  first  fire,  in  1701 ,  a  second 
story  was  added.  When  the  building  was  restored 
after  the  conflagration,  in  1866,  that  destroyed  nearly 
one-half  of  this  wing,  a  third  story  was  added. 

After  1701,  the  Seminary  was  enlarged  so  that  at 
about  the  year  1714  the  total  length  of  the  building 
was  350  feet. 

At  present,  the  minor  Seminary  proper,  is  nearly 
700  feet  in  length. 

The  Greater  Seminary,  of  recent  construction,  is 
a  splendid  wing,  and  gives  hospitality  to  a  hundred 
ecclesiastics  or  theological  students,  recruited  in  many 
dioceses.  The  priests  of  the  institution  also  have  their 
rooms  there.  A  fine  staircase  of  iron  and  stone,  which 



seems  all  of  one  piece,  leads  from  the  basement  to  the 
top  of  the  building,  and  is  much  admired.  The  building 
is  fire-proof  and  faces  the  garden  and  the  rampart. 

The  personnel  of  the  Seminary  last  year  consisted 
of  over  700  persons,  as  follows  : — 

Priests 38 

Ecclesiastics 125 

Pupil  boarders 275 

"      outside 272 

' '      half-boarders 1 6 


In  1800,  the  number  barely  reached  no;  in  1870 
it  was  only  430. 


Founded  in  1852  by  the  Seminary  of  Quebec  at 
the  request  of  the  Bishops  of  the  Province.  The  royal 
charter  granted  to  it  by  Her  Majesty  Queen  Victoria, 
was  signed  at  Westminster  on  the  8th  of  December, 
1852.  Under  this  charter  the  Visitor  of  the  University 
is  the  Archbishop  of  Quebec,  and  the  Rector  is  the 
superior  of  the  Seminary.  The  Council  of  the  University 
consists  of  the  Directors  of  the  Seminary  and  of  three 
senior  professors  of  each  faculty. 

There  are  four  faculties  :  Theology,  L,aw,  Medi- 
cine and  Arts.  The  university  degrees  are  those  of 
Doctor,  Licentiate  or  Master,  and  Bachelor. 



By  a  Bull  of  Pius  IX  dated  the  i^th  of  April  1876, 
L,aval  University  received  its  canonical  erection  from 
Rome,  with  extensive  privileges.  Under  this  very 
important  document,  the  University  has  for  its  protector 
at  Rome,  the  Cardinal  Prefect  of  the  Propaganda. 
Supervision  and  discipline,  as  regards  faith  and  morals, 
are  vested  in  a  superior  council,  consisting  of  the 
Bishops  of  the  Province  with  the  Archbishop  of  Quebec 
as  President.  The  Archbishop  is  the  Chancellor  of  the 

The  museums  of  Laval  University  are  very  valu- 
able and  complete  especially  in  the  department  of 
Physics,  which  contains  over  1,000  instruments,  in- 
cluding those  connected  with  the  most  recent  dis- 

The  mineralogical  collection  contains  over  4,000 
specimens  ;  the  geological  2,000.  The  herborium  con- 
tains over  10,000  plants  ;  the  ornithological  collection 
consists  of  over  600  species  collected  in  various  parts 
of  the  world. 

The  entomological  collection  contains  over  14,000 
named  species  of  insects  ;  the  conchological  collection 
over  950  species  of  Canadian  and  foreign  molluscs, 
nearly  all  of  which  are  named. 

The  ethnological  museum,  which  is  very  inter- 
esting, consists  of  three  divisions :  i .  The  Indian 
museum  ;  2.  the  Chinese  and  Japanese  museum,  and  3. 
the  General  museum. 

In  the  picture  gallery  there  are  several  pictures 
by  great  masters,  such  as  Teniers,Van  Dyck,  Lanfranc, 



LeSueur,  Salvator  Rosa,  Joseph  Vernet, ,  Tintoretto, 
Poussin,  Albane,  Puget,  Lebrun. 

The  gallery  proper  contains  137  pictures  but  there 
is  in  the  Hall  of  the  Literary  Course  another  splendid 
collection  that  belonged  to  Mgr  Marois,  V.  G.  Moreover 
the  university  and  seminary  contain  a  good  many  pic- 
tures and  remarkable  engravings,  distributed  through 
the  rooms  and  corridors. 

The  numismatic  museum  contains  over  3,000  coins 
and  medals. 

The  library  has  120,000  volumes;  it  is  open  to 
visitors  on  certain  days  fixed  by  the  regulations. 

The  staff  of  the  University  consists  of  the  fol- 
lowing : 

Directors 15 

Faculty  of  Theology 7 

Faculty  of  Law 1 1 

Faculty  of  Medicine 14 

Faculty  of  Arts 21 

Students  in  Theology 1 24 

' '         at  Law 90 

' '         in  Medicine 109 

' '         in  Pharmacy 6 

"         in  Arts 22 

Pupils  of  the  Seminary  following  the  Arts 

course 76 

17  under  seminaries  and  colleges  are  affiliated  to 
the  University ;  one  only  is  associated  ;  two  senior 
seminaries  are  also  affiliated  to  it. 

26  401 


The  academical  year  consists  of  nine  months, 
divided  into  three  terms  : 


'  Along  the  Sillery  road,  beyond  the  village,  there 
are  several  fine  country  seats,  some  of  which  no  longer 
possess  the  attractions  which  once  distinguished  them. 
Amongst  the  most  picturesque  dwellings  which  are  still 
maintained,  is  Beauvoir  Manor,  the  seat  of  the  late 
Honourable  R.  R.  Dobell.  This  substantial  house, 
situated  within  extensive  grounds  overlooking  the  St. 
Lawrence,  is  an  ideal  country  residence.  The  grounds 
appeal  to  the  lover  of  the  beatiful  in  nature,  and  within 
its  walls  are  collected  many  treasures  from  foreign 
lands  which  prove  equally  delightful  to  the  lover  of  art. 


"  Retirement,  rural  quiet,  friendship,  books." 

"  When  Spencer  Wood  became  the  gubernatorial 
residence,  its  owner  reserved  the  smaller  half,  Spencer 
Grange,  some  forty  acres  divided  off  by  a  high  brick 
wall  and  fence,  terminating  to  the  east  in  a  river 
frontage  of  one  acre.  A  small  latticed  bower  facing 
the  St.  Lawrence  overhanging  the  cliff,  close  to  where 
the  Belle  Borne  rill  nearly  dry  during  the  summer 
months,  rushes  down  the  bank  to  Spencer  Cove,  in 
spring  and  autumn,  a  ribbon  of  fleecy  whiteness.  To 
the  south  it  is  bounded  by  Woodfield  and  reaches  the 
north  at  a  point  opposite  the  road  called  Stuart's  road, 



which  intersects  Hollands'  farm  leading  from  the  St. 
Lewis  to  the  Ste.  Foye  highway.  The  English  landscape 
style  was  adopted  in  laying  out  the  flower  garden  and 
grounds ;  some  majestic  old  trees  were  left  here  and 
there  through  the  lawns  ;  three  clumps  of  maple  and 
red  oak  in  the  centre  of  the  meadows  to  the  west  of  the 
house  grouped  for  effect ;  fences  carefully  hidden  away 
in  the  surrounding  copses ;  hedges,  buildings,  walks 
and  trees  brought  in  here  and  there  to  harmonize  with 
the  eye  and  to  furnish  on  a  few  acres  a  perfect  epitome 
of  a  woodland  scene.  The  whole  place  is  girt  round 
with  a  zone  of  tall  pine,  beech,  maple  and  red  oaks, 
whose  deep  green  foliage,  when  lit  up  by  the  rays  of 
the  setting  or  rising  sun,  assume  tints  of  most  dazzling 
brightness. ' ' 

This  delightful  residence  has,  fpr  many  years,  been 
the  abode  of  Sir  James  Macpherson  L/eMoine,  whose 
numerous  contributions  to  local  history  have  familiar- 
ised the  public  with  much  of  the  past  of  Quebec  which 
would  otherwise  have  been  lost  sight  of.  Spencer 
Grange  has  been  honoured  by  visits  from  members  of 
the  Royal  Family  and  the  most  notable  people  who 
have  from  time  to  time  been  the  guests  of  the 

In  the  summer  months  the  lawns  of  Spencer  Grange 
present  a  charming  scene,  and  there  are  hundreds  of 
tourists  who  recall  with  pleasure  an  agreeable  hour 
spent  under  the  shadows  of  the  maples,  when  they  were 
permitted  to  enjoy  the  hospitality  of  Sir  James  and 
Lady  LeMoine. 




SEPTEMBER,    1903 

The  Fortress  of  Quebec,  under  the  command  of 
Colonel  Wilson,  comprises  the  Citadel,  the  town  lines 
and  fortifications,  and  the  forts  at  Levis.  The  Fortress 
is  garrisoned  by  artillery  and  infantry. 

Dish  id  Staff 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Oscar  C.  Pelletier,  R.  C.  A. , 
D.O.C.,  yth  Military  District. 

Lieutenant- Colonel  J.  S.  Dunbar,  District  Staff 

Colonel  C.  C.  Sewell,  M.D.,  Principal  Medical 

Permanent  Force 

Royal  Canadian  Garrison  Artillery  (In  the  Citadel) 
— Colonel  J.  F.  Wilson,  Commanding  Officer. 

No.  5  Regimental  Depot,  Royal  Canadian  Regi- 
ment (In  Barracks,  d'Auteuil  street) — Major  Fages, 
Commanding  Officer. 

Volunteer  Force 

loth  Regiment  Queen's  Own  Canadian  Hussars — 
Lieutenant-Colonel  R.  E.  W.  Turner,  V.C.,  D.S.O., 
Commanding  Officer. 



First  Quebec  Field  Artillery— Major  E.  Laliberte, 
Commanding  Officer. 

6th  Regiment  Quebec  and  Levis  Garrison  Artillery 
— lieutenant-Colonel  Vien,  Commanding  Officer. 

8th  Regiment  Royal  Rifles — Lieutenant-Colonel 
Ray,  Commanding  Officer. 

9th  Regiment  Voltigeurs — Lieutenant-Colonel  A. 
Evanturel,  Commanding  Officer. 


Principal  Medical  Officer — Colonel  C.  C.  Sewell, 

No.  5  Bearer  Company — Major  G.  H.  Parke,  M.D. 
No.  5  Field  Hospital — Major  Lome  Drum,  M.  D. 


From  the  earliest  times  visitors  have  recorded 
their  impressions  of  the  beautiful  Fall  at  Montmoreucy. 
Peter  Kalm,  under  the  date  of  September,  1749,  gives 
this  description  : 

"  The  waterfall  near  Montmorency  is  one  of  the 
' '  highest  I  ever  saw.  It  is  in  a  river  whose  breadth 
"  is  not  very  considerable,  and  falls  over  the  steep  side 
"  of  a  hill,  consisting  entirely  of  black  lime  slate. 

' '  The  fall  is  now  at  the  bottom  of  a  little  creek 
"  of  the  river.  Both  sides  of  the  creek  consist  merely 
"  of  black  lime  slate,  which  is  much  cracked  and 



tumbled  down.  The  hill  of  lime  slate  under  the 
waterfall  is  quite  perpendicular,  and  one  cannot  look 
at  it  without  astonishment.  The  rain  of  the  pro- 
ceeding day  had  increased  the  water  in  the  river, 
which  gave  the  fall  a  grander  appearance.  The 
breadth  of  the  fall  is  not  above  ten  or  twelve  yards. 
Its  perpendicular  height  I  guessed  to  be  between  one 
hundred  and  ten  and  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet, 
and  on  our  return  to  Quebec,  we  found  our  guess 
to  be  confirmed  by  several  gentlemen,  one  who  had 
actually  measured  the  fall,  and  found  it  to  be  as  we 
conjectured.  The  people  who  live  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood exaggerate  in  their  account  of  it,  actually 
declaring  it  is  300  feet  high.  At  the  bottom  of  the 
fall  there  is  always  a  thick  fog  of  vapours  spreading 
about, the  waters,  being  resolved  into  them  by  its 
violent  fall.  This  fog  occasions  almost  perpetual 
rain  here,  which  is  more  or  less  heavy  in  proportion 
to  its  distance  from  the  fall.  Mr.  Gaulthier  and 
myself,  together  with  the  man  who  showed  us  the 
way,  were  willing  to  come  nearer  to  the  falling 
water,  in  order  to  examine  more  accurately  how  it 
came  down  from  such  a  height,  and  how  the  stone 
behind  the  water  looked.  But  being  about  12  yards 
off  the  fall,  a  sudden  gust  of  wind  blew  a  thick  fog 
upon  us,  which  in  less  than  a  minute  had  wet  us  as 
thoroughly  as  if  we  had  walked  for  half  an  hour  in  a 
heavy  shower.  We  therefore  hurried  away  as  fast 
as  we  could  and  were  glad  to  get  off.  The  noise  of 
the  fall  is  sometimes  heard  at  Quebec,  which  is  two 
French  miles  off  to  the  southward,  and  this  is  a  sign 
of  north  east  wind." 

Ten  years  after  the  visit  of  Peter  Kalm,  General 
Wolfe  took  up  his  abode  in  a  cottage  just  beyond  the 
old  suspension  bridge.  The  house  is  still  standing. 



the  summer  of  1902,  Colonel  Townshend,  of  the 

lentify   the   spot, 

o  his  bed  dv 

he  house  are  very  thick,  and  may  have  been  b; 

jreat  many  years  before  1759. 

Th  '  herewith  is  from  a  photograph 

aken  t"  •  ^e  owner  of  the 

reniains   of    Rep 
grounds  of  "  Montni" 
of  H.  M.  Price,  Esquire,  t! 
of  warlike  times. 

The  grounds  are,  of  old 

guns  v.  road- 

Th  i,  the  sub- 

stance of  which  i  otes,  which  have 

been  kindly  prepared  by  Mr.  Price. 

i.  lyarge  cannon,  belonged  to  French  Adm 
ship  "  lye  Prudent"  captured  and  burned  b 
English  at  Louisbourg,  1758.  See  Vol.  i,  page 

at  Bursta  : 


4.  Cannon  from  wreck  of  Sir  Hovenden  Walker's 
Fleet  in  1711.     Found  at  Egg  Islands  in  1900  by  Mr. 
Comeau,  of  Godbout  River. 

5.  Small  cannon  same  as  No.  10,  from  L,ouisbourg. 

6.  Cannon  from  wreck  of  French  Frigate  "  L,'  Ele- 
phant,"  lost  at  Cap   Brule,   opposite   Crane   Island, 

7.  Cannon  found  about  1896  in  bed  of  St.  Charles 
River  where  Bridge  of  boats  was  in  1759.     Evidently 

The  guns  are  placed  as  numbered  above,  the  last 
gun,  No.  7,  is  the  one  nearest  Mr.  Price's  house. 

During  the  months  of  July,  August  and  September, 
when  the  grounds  of  "  The  Cottage  "  have  donned 
their  brightest  garb,  there  are  few  places  more  desirable 
than  this  picturesque  spot. 

The  field  adjoining  Mr.  Price's  house  is  leased  by 
the  Quebec  Cricket  Club,  and  matches  are  generally 
arranged  for  each  Saturday  during  the  Cricket  season. 

At  some  distance  in  the  rear  of  ' '  The  Cottage  ' ' 
are  the  "  Natural  Steps  "  which  most  visitors  desire  to 

Since  the  advent  of  the  Quebec  Electric  Railway, 
Montmorency  has  become  a  popular  resort.  "  Kent 
Lodge  "  formerly  the  residence  of  H.R.H.  the  Duke 
of  Kent,  offers  every  accommodation  to  the  public, 
and  music,  and  various  kinds  of  entertainment  are 
provided.  Within  these  grounds  may  also  be  seen  the 
fur  bearing  animals,  Buffalo,  Bears,  and  other  species, 
owned  by  Holt,  Renfrew  &  Co. ,  Furriers  of  Quebec. 



The  elevator  which  is  close  to  the  track  of  the  electric 
railway,  is  a  great  boon  to  the  numerous  visitors  to 
Montmorency.  Within  a  few  miles  from  Quebec,  on  the 
line  of  road  to  Montmorency,  is  the  village  of  Beauport. 
During  the  siege  of  Quebec,  in  1759,  the  French  camp 
extended  from  the  River  St.  Charles  to  Montmorency 
Falls,  and  the  old  house,  which  is  still  pointed  out  near 
Beauport  Church,"was  occupied  by  Montcalm  as  his 





MANY  newspapers  have  been  published  in  Quebec 
since  the  establishment  of  the  first  printing 
press,  but  few  of  them  deserve  any  special  mention, 
as  the  majority  had  a  very  brief  career.  The  Quebec 
Gazette  was  the  earliest  newspaper.  Its  first  issue 
appeared  on  the  2ist  of  June,  1764,  and  its  last  number 
bore  the  date  of  October  3oth,  1874,  an  existence  of 
over  one  hundred  and  ten  years. 

The  Quebec  Mercury,  which  is  one  of  the  leading 
papers  of  to-day,  as  well  as  the  oldest  in  existence, 
was  founded  on  the  5th  of  January,  1805,  and  will 
soon  celebrate  its  one  hundredth  anniversary.  Mr.  E. 
T.  D.  Chambers,  the  proprietor  of  Chambers'  Guide, 
is  the  present  editor. 



The  Canadien  was  established,  in  1806,  to  combat 
the  influence  of  the  Metcury.  After  three  years  its  career 
was  interrupted,  for  reasons  given  in  another  chapter. 
It  resumed  publication  in  1831,  and  continued  in  Quebec 
until  1891,  when  the  office  was  removed  to  Montreal. 

In  the  year  1842,  Le  Journal  de  Quebec  was  founded 
by  Messrs  Joseph  Cauchon  and  Augustin  C6te,  and 
ceased  publication  on  the  ist  of  October,  1889.  Fora 
time  the  paper  was  prosperous,  but  during  its  later 
years  it  was  published  at  a  sacrifice  to  Mr.  Cote. 

The  Morning  Chronicle  was  first  issued  in  the  year 
1847.  Although  there  have  been  many  changes  in  its 
management,  it  has  always  been  considered  as  one  of 
the  best  English  papers.  Its  present  editor  is  Mr.  J. 
J.  Proctor. 

The  Courrier  du  Canada  was  founded  in  1857  and 
continued  until  the  year  1901.  Its  first  editors  were 
Sir  Hector  I^angevin,  C.B.,  and  Dr.  J.  C.  Tache.  The 
Hon.  T.  Chapais  was  the  editor  at  the  time  it  ceased 

L'EvSnement  was  founded  in  1867,  by  Mr.  Hector 
Fabre,  and  for  a  time  it  was  regarded  as  the  Figaro  of 
Quebec.  It  is  still  the  very  active  organ  of  the  conser- 
vative party.  Its  proprietors  are  the  Honourable  Messrs 
I/andry  and  Pelletier.  The  editor  is  Mr.  Dumont. 

The  Daily  Telegraph  was  established  in  the  month 
of  May,  1874,  by  the  late  James  Carrel.  His  son, 
Mr.  Frank  Carrel,  proprietor  of  Carrel's  Guide  to 
Quebec,  has  greatly  improved  the  circulation  and 
appearance  of  the  paper.  In  addition  to  the  daily 



issue  there  is  a  weekly  edition  called  the  Family 
Budget.  This  is  a  popular  family  paper.  Mr.  Jordan 
is  the  editor. 

Le  Soleil,  one  of  the  most  popular  papers,  owes  its 
existence  to  Mr.  Ernest  Pacaud.  In  1896  Le  Soleil 
replaced  L1  Electeur,  which  has  been  founded  in  1880. 
Le  Soleil  is  a  progressive  paper,  and  the  organ  of  the 
Liberal  party. 

La  Vhite  was  established  by  its  present  owner, 
Mr.  Tardivel  in  1881,  and  it  appears  to  be  based  upon 
a  solid  foundation. 

L  Enseignement  Primaire  dates  from  1880.  It  is 
a  monthly  review  and  the  recognized  organ  of  the 
Catholic  Teachers  of  the  Province.  Under  the  direction 
of  Professor  J.  C.  Magnan,  of  Laval  Normal  School, 
the  review  has  made  great  progress. 

La  Nouvelle- France,  a  monthly  review,  was  founded 
in  January  1902.  It  is  edited  by  writers  at  home  and 

The  Director  is  the  Rev.  Abbe  Lindsay,  and  the 
Secretary,  M.  Dumontier. 

North  American  Notes  and  Queries,  was  founded 
by  Raoul  Renault  in  June,  1900.  It  ceased  publication 
after  the  issue  of  the  ninth  number,  in  March,  1901. 

Amongst  the  other  publications  issued  in  Quebec 
at  present,  we  may  mention  La  Semaine  Commercial, 
L1  Echo  de  Quebec,  Le  Bulletin  du  Travail,  La  Semaine 
Religieuse  de  Quebec,  Le  Bulletin  du  Parler  Fran$ais, 
Le  Bulletin  des  Recherches  Historiqites,  Les  Fleurs  de  la 
Charite,  La  Reviie  Eucharistique . 



From  1764  to  1792,  four  newspapers  were  founded 
in  Quebec,  but  from  1792  to  1840,  there  were  thirty- 
six  ;  thirteen  in  French  and  ten  in 'English,  and  three 
in  both  languages.  From  1844  to  1867,  the  increase 
was  remarkable.  There  were  forty-eight  in  French, 
thirty- three  in  English,  and  two  in  both  languages. 
Since  1867  the  increase  has  still  been  greater ;  no  less 
than  one  hundred  and  twenty  having  been  published 
in  French,  twenty-six  in  English,  and  two  in  both 

During  the  period  of  one  hundred  and  thirty-six 
years,  two  hundred  and  sixty  newspapers  and  period- 
icals and  reviews  have  been  established,  of  all  sizes 
and  of  every  political  shade  ;  but  only  fourteen  now 
remain,  if  we  exclude  the  weekly  issues  of  the  daily 
papers.  Several  publications  were  prosperous  for  a 
time  and  made  their  mark  in  politics  or  in  letters. 
Amongt  others  we  may  mention  La  JFantasque,  Le 
Nouvelliste,  L  Abeille  du  Seminaire,  Le  Matin,  L  Elec- 
teur,  Le  Canada  Frangais,  Le  Courrier  du  Livre.  Pre- 
vious to  the  union  of  the  Provinces  there  is  very  little 
literary  or  historical  work  to  record  in  Quebec.  We 
may  mention  the  valuable  letters  of  Dr.  J.  Mountain, 
various  contributions  of  Chief  Justice  Sewell  and 
Bourne,  the  work  of  the  Quebec  Historical  Society, 
which  is  referred  to  at  length  elsewhere,  the  writings 
of  Dr.  Fisher,  the  volume  of  verse  published  by  Bibaud, 
and  fugitive  pieces  from  the  pen  of  Morin,  Chauveau, 
B6dard,  Garneau,  Angers,  Chauveau  and  Soulard. 

In    1834,    "  Hawkins'    Picture   of    Quebec   with 



Historical  Recollections  ' ' ,  was  issued  from  the  press 
of  Neilson  and  Cowan.  The  material  was  gathered 
by  Mr.  Hawkins,  and  the  matter  arranged  by  Dr. 
Fisher,  a  very  graceful  writer.  This  work  is  the  most 
important  of  the  early  historical  works  in  English 
relating  to  Quebec,  published  in  the  city. 

Unfortunately,  Mr.  Hawkins  was  not  very  careful 
about  his  facts,  and  as  his  pages  have  been  copied 
extensively,  many  curious  errors  have  been  widely 
circulated.  An  instance  may  be  cited,  which  shows 
that  one  very  interesting  chapter  which  is  given  as 
being  closely  connected  with  Quebec,  has  not  the 
remotest  connection  with  the  city  ;  namely,  the  portion 
of  the  book  relating  to  the  Suffolk  Seal,  and  to  the 
Suffolk  family.  On  page  119  there  is  an  engraving 
of  a  mutilated  seal  with  a  L,atin  inscription.  The  seal, 
we  are  informed,  belonged  to  William  de  la  Pole,  Earl 
of  Suffolk  and  Lord  of  Hambury  and  of  Quebec,  in 
the  reign  of  Henry  V. 

Quebec  at  that  time  "  was  a  place  of  sufficient 
importance  to  give  one  of  his  titles  to  a  distinguished 
statesman  and  warrior,  so  early  as  the  seventh  year 
of  the  reign  of  Henry  V.  of  England,  the  hero  of 
Agincourt. . .  .and  proves  that  Quebec  was  a  Town, 
Castle,  Barony  or  Domain,  which  the  powerful 
Earl  of  Suffolk  either  held  in  his  own  right,  or  as 
Governor  &c." 

After  correspondence  with  His  Grace  the  Duke 
of  Norfolk,  the  Countess  of  Suffolk,  and  the  Herald's 
College,  we  are  informed  by  the  Norroy  King  of 


Arms,  on  the  authority  of  the  Rolls  of  Normandy, 
that  ' '  William  de  la  Pole  was  created  Lord  of  Hambye 
"  and  Briqaebec,  in  Normandy,  12  March,  1417  ". 

Mr.  Hawkins  concludes  his  lengthy  remarks  on 
the  family  of  the  Karl  of  Suffolk  by  saying  "  there 
are  strong  grounds  for  believing  that  the  name  Quebec, 
per  se,  is  in  fact  a  Norman  word.  That  some  Indian 
name  which  ressembled  it  in  sound  was  heard  by 
Champlain,  and  considered  to  be  that  of  the  place 
where  he  settled  ;  that  this  Indian  word  was  most 
probably  the  latter  division  of  their  name  for  the 
River  St.  Charles,  Cabir-Coubat ;  and  that  from  this 
word  it  probably  acquired  its  present  appelation  ' ' . 

This  is  only  one  instance  of  the  pitfalls  which 
beset  the  student  in  endeavouring  to  ascertain  the 
truth,  but  it  supports  the  statement  made  by  the  late 
Lord  Acton,  Professor  of  History  in  Cambridge  Uni- 
versity, ' '  that  the  student  is  constantly  misled  by  the 
classics  of  history,  and  cannot  accept  without  reserve 
and  secondary  authority  ' ' . 

In  pursuing  our  enquiries  regarding  the  Suffolk 
seal,  we  endeavoured  to  ascertain  at  what  date  the 
name  Quebec  was  given  to  a  place  in  Durham  County, 
which  although  small,  boasts  of  a  Post  Office.  Lord 
Durham,  the  grandson  of  a  former  Governor  of  Quebec, 
has  kindly  sent  a  letter  from  the  Vicar  of  Lanchester 
in  Durham,  from  which  we  extract  the  following. 
' '  There  was  a  small  farm  of  55  acres  known  as  Quebec, 
"  which  on  the  division  of  Hamsteels  Common  in 
"  1775  or  1776,  was  awarded  to  Mr.  Anthony  Wil- 



"  kinson,  one  of  the  Streaton  family.  It  continued  in 
•'  the  family  until  it  was  sold  to  a  Mr.  Wiggen  in 
"  1845.  It  never  belonged  to  the  L,ambton's,  but 
"  adjoined  a  farm  of  theirs  known  as  "  Greenland  ". 
"  Probably  the  name  Quebec  was  given  after  the 
"  victory  of  Wolfe,  when  public  feeling  was  running 
"  high." 

Since  1840  writers  have  been  more  numerous,  and 
from  this  date  we  may  trace  the  commencement  of  a 
distinctive  Canadian  literature.  Amongst  the  French 
we  may  mention  Etienne  Parent,  E.  I/Ecuyer,  Huot, 
Chauveau,  Morin  and  Plamondon,  who  have  written 
good  prose  on  various  subjects.  In  1845,  the  first 
volume  of  Garneau's  History  of  Canada  was  published. 
This  work  was  so  far  in  advance  of  anything  that  had 
been  previously  written  that  it  may  be  considered  as 
marking  an  epoch  in  Canadian  literature.  The  pub- 
lication of  the  second,  third  and  fourth  volume,  only 
added  to  the  reputation  of  the  author,  whose  works 
have  ever  since  been  regarded  as  classics. 

After  Garneau  came  Octave  Cremazie,  the  poet, 
whose  verse  has  a  universal  reputation.  With  the 
publication  of  Les  Soirees  Canadiennes  and  Le  Foyer 
Canadien,  in  i86i,and  1863,  arose  a  host  of  litterateurs 
who  only  needed  a  favourable  opportunity  to  make 
themselves  known. 

In  1 86 1,  the  Abbe  Ferland  published  the  first 
volume  of  an  excellent  work,  entitled  Cours  d"  Histoire 
du  Canada, 

27  417 


At  the  time  of  Confederation,  great  progress  had 
been  made  in  literature  in  the  city.  A  glance  at  the 
bibliographical  list  for  the  thirty-five  years  preceeding 
1867  shows  that  in  the  field  of  letters  every  branch  was 
ably  represented.  Of  the  living  writers  we  do  not 
propose  to  speak,  their  name  is  legion  ;  and  the  list  of 
their  works  would  properly  find  a  place  only  in  a  biblio- 
graphy. Of  the  Quebec  authors  living  to-day,  seven- 
teen are  members  of  the  Royal  Society,  and  we  give 
their  names  simply  on  that  account.  There  are  many 
able  writers,  however,  who  are  not  members  of  the 
Society,  each  section  of  which  is  limited  to  twenty-five 
members  for  the  whole  of  Canada.  The  members  are  : 
Monseigneur  Begin,  Monseigneur  L,aflamme,  Sir  James 
LeMoine,  Judge  Routhier,  Chevalier  Baillairge,  Abb6 
Casgrain,  Abbe  Gosselin,  L.  P.  L,emay,  N.  L,egendre, 
Paul  de  Cazes,  Dr.  George  Stewart,  J.  E.  Roy,  Hon. 
T.  Chapais,  Ernest  Gagnon,  Rev.  F.  G.  Scott,  Mgr. 
Iy.  A.  Paquet  and  Dr.  N.  E.  Dionne. 

Since  1760  a  number  of  Literary  and  Historical 
Societies,  clubs,  organizations  composed  of  citizens  of 
all  nationalities,  have  existed  in  Quebec.  A  brief 
description  of  some  of  the  literary  and  historical  socie- 
ties may  be  given. 

The  first  public  library  was  opened  in  1779.  At 
that  time  probably  all  the  books  in  Canada  could  be 
stored  in  a  moderately  large  room.  In  1793  the  second 
story  of  the  Quebec  Insurance  Company  was  utilized 
as  a  library.  The  Parliamentary  Library  in  Quebec 
dates  from  the  first  Parliament  in  1792.  It  was  a  very 



small  collection,  and  indeed,  at  this  time  the  system  of 
government  was  novel,  and  the  needs  of  the  people 
were  not  great.  The  members  of  the  Legislature,  as  a 
body,  were  not  a  highly  cultured  class  ;  the  few  who 
had  a  taste  for  literature  were  content  with  the  odd 
volumes  which  reached  our  shores.  Amongst  the 
books  that  we  know  were  in  Quebec  at  this  time,  were 
the  works  of  Voltaire,  The  Arabian  Nights,  and  the 
Mille  et  un  jours. 

There  was  no  regular  librarian  of  the  Legislature 
at  this  time.  The  Clerk  of  the  House  had  charge  of 
the  books  for  the  first  forty  years.  In  1817  there  were 
1000  books  in  the  library,  and  in  1832  the  number  is 
given  as  4921.  In  1833  Btienne  Parent,  the  French 
translator  and  law  clerk,  was  appointed  librarian  with 
a  salary  of  two  hundred  pounds.  He  resigned  in  1885, 
and  his  successor,  Jasper  Brewer,  found  5,500  volumes 
in  the  library  when  he  commenced  his  duties.  In  1841 
the  library  contained  7,000  volumes. 

At  the  Union  of  the  Provinces  in  1841,  the  poli- 
tical leaders  agreed  to  place  the  library  of  United 
Canada  under  the  charge  of  two  officials,  who  since 
1836  had  adled  as  librarians  of  Upper  Canada,  namely, 
Dr.  Winder,  librarian,  and  Alpheus  Todd,  assistant 

After  the  Union,  the  Parliament  sat  alternately  in 
the  four  principal  cities  of  Canada,  Quebec,  Montreal, 
Toronto,  Kingston.  As  there  was  only  one  library, 
and  it  could  not  be  divided,  the  books  were  transferred 
every  four  years  to  the  temporary  capital.  In  1849 



the  library  in  Montreal,  after  having  been  four  years 
in  Kingston,  contained  8,232  books,  and  there  were 
4,000  volumes  in  Quebec  which  had  not  been  removed. 

On  the  25th  of  April,  1849,  a  fire  broke  out  in  the 
Parliament  building  during  a  riot  in  connection  with 
the  Indemnity  Bill,  a  measure  in  favour  of  those  who 
had  been  exiled  in  1839.  The  library  valued  at  twenty- 
iive  thousand  pounds  was  almost  destroyed.  The 
Government  at  once  commenced  to  repair  the  loss  by 
purchasing  books  from  abroad.  Five  years  later, 
17,000  well  chosen  volumes  were  collected,  and  Quebec 
possessed  the  best  library  in  Canada.  When  the  Par- 
liament" Buildings  and  their  contents  were  threatened 
by  fire,  the  soldiers  and  the  pupils  of  the  Seminary 
succeeded  in  saving  9,313  volumes.  New  books  were 
purchased,  and  in  1834,  30,000  books  were  found  in  the 
library.  In  1865  most  of  the  books  were  transferred  to 
Ottawa.  The  official  library  contained  65,000  volumes 
at  this  time.  It  then  became  necessary  to  purchase  a 
new  Library  for  Quebec.  Between  1867  and  1883,  thirty 
thousand  volumes  were  collected.  In  the  spring  of 
1883  the  Parliament  House  was  destroyed  by  fire,  and  25,000  volumes.  The  library  at  present  con- 
tains 63,000  volumes. 

The  first  literary  association  formed  in  Quebec, 
probably  dates  from  the  year  1809.  To  encourage 
English  and  French  literature,  the  society  offered  two 
medals  for  an  ode  on  the  anniversary  of  the  birth  of 
the  King. 

The  lyiterary  and   Historical  Society  of  Quebec 



was  founded  in  1824.  It  is  the  senior  Institution  of 
the  kind,  and  has  at  present  seventy-nine  members. 
In  its  early  days  it  accomplished  a  great  deal  of  per- 
manent work,  and  it  possesses  a  fine  library.  Mr.  F. 
C.  Wurtele  is  the  librarian,  and  one  of  its  most  active 
members.  Under  the  auspices  of  the  Society  eleven 
volumes  of  transactions,  and  five  volumes  of  Memoirs 
have  been  published,  which  are  highly  valued  by 
students  of  history. 

The  Canadian  Scientific  Society,  established  in 
1840,  was  the  forerunner  of  the  Institut  Canadien, 
founded  in  1847.  Its  meetings  were  held  in  a  room  in 
the  old  Parliament  Buildings  until  1850.  From  1850 
until  1863,  its  quarters  were  in  the  house  of  Mr.  Simard 
on  the  corner  of  Buade  and  Port  Dauphin  Streets. 
After  1863  the  Institute  removed  to  rooms  in  the 
Building  of  the  Caisse  <T Economic,  and  later  it  occu- 
pied a  building  on  Fabrique  Street,  which  has  since 
disappeared.  Its  present  quarters  are  in  the  City  Hall. 
The  Institute  and  the  Literary  and  Historical  Society 
have  rendered  great  service  to  the  history  of  Canada. 
We  find  in  the  publications  of  the  societies  a  faithful 
echo  of  the  past —  a  past  which  we  recall  with  pride. 

A  Natural  History  Society  was  formed  in  Quebec, 
but  as  it  was  not  well  supported,  it  soon  closed  its  doors. 
Lord  Durham  founded  an  Agricultural  Society  in  1789, 
with  a  branch  in  Montreal.  The  Cercle  Catholique 
was  founded  in  1876.  During  the  first  years  of  its 
existence  it  played  a  prominent  part.  One  of  the  most 
recent  societies,  is  the  Societe  du  Parler  Francais,  the 



object  of  which  is  to  preserve  the  purity  of  the  French 
language.  The  Canadian  Press  Association  founded 
in  1882,  has  been  the  means  of  making  French  Canada 
known  abroad.  The  Medical  Society,  amongst  the 
good  work  to  its  credit,  was  the  first  to  organize  a 
French  Medical  Congress  in  North  America. 


The  late  Honourable  Felix-Gabriel  Marchand, 
Prime  Minister  of  Quebec,  who  died  on  the  25th  of 
September,  1900,  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  figures 
in  the  political  history  of  this  Province  since  confe- 
deration. Other  men  have  risen  to  prominence  in 
political  life  whose  brilliant  oratory,  whose  personal 
magnetism,  or  whose  undoubted  scholarship  kept  them 
steadily  before  the  public  gaze.  They  were  men  of 
the  day.  They  served  their  time,  many  of  them  faith- 
fully, but  the  record  of  their  achievement  is  seldom 
now  recalled.  The  memory  of  Felix  Gabriel  Marchand, 
however,  will  not  pass  away,  although  he  had  not,  in 
any  specially  marked  degree,  those  qualifications  which 
distinguished  some  of  his  confreres. 

For  the  secret  of  his  influence  upon  his  fellow 
men  during  his  life  time,  and  for  those  characteristics 
which  have  left  their  impress  upon  the  people  of  this 
Province,  we  must  look  beneath  the  surface.  It  is 
not  as  a  statesman,  nor  yet  as  a  leader,  nor  even  as  a 
scholar,  that  we  recall  his  memory,  although  he  had  a 
claim  to  each  distinction  ;  it  is  rather  as  Felix  Gabriel 
Marchand,  the  man. 



His  Eminence,  the  late  Cardinal  Newman,  once 
said,  that  if  we  were  to  search  the  English  language 
for  the  most  appropriate  terms  to  express  the  highest 
tribute  to  a  man,  we  could  find  none  which  would 
compose  a  grander  epitaph  than  is  formed  by  these 
three  simple  words  "  An  honest  heart,"  and  these 
three  words  sum  up,  as  no  other  words  could  do,  the 
character  of  the  late  Premier. 

Three  days  before  his  death  he  wrote  to  his  con- 
stituents, who  for  over  thirty  years  had  chosen  him  as 
their  representative  in  the  Legislature  : — 

"  Soyez  stirs,  mes  chers  et  fideles  amis,  que  si 
j'ai  manque  en  quelque  chose  dans  1' accomplissement 
de  mon  devoir,  cela  n'a  pas  dependu  de  ma  volonte. 
J'ai  tou jours  desire  servir  mon  pays  dans  toute  la  me- 
sure  de  mes  forces. ' ' 

The  key  note  of  his  life  was  an  unswerving  devo- 
tion to  duty,  whether  as  a  citizen,  a  soldier,  or  a  states- 
man, and  the  world  is  better  because  he  lived.  He 
gave  to  his  country  a  whole  hearted  service,  and 
throughout  his  long  career  his  honour  remained  in- 
violate. He  was  seen  more  clearly  in  death  than  in 
life.  In  life  he  was  esteemed,  in  death  he  was  revered. 

The  Archbishop  of  Montreal,  in  the  course  of  the 
funeral  sermon,  said  : — 

"  Vous  permettez,  messieurs,  a  ma  franchise  d'e- 
veque,  de  dire  ici  que,  relativement  a  certaines  mesures 
pour  lesquelles  il  a  combattu,  j'aurais  differe  de  senti- 
ment avec  lui,  mais  cela  n'empeche  pas  que  ses  inten- 
tions aient  ete  droites,  qu'il  ait  eu  la  conviction  de  ne 



travailler  que  pour  le  bien,  qu'il  n'ait  eu  recours  qu'a 
des  moyens  honorables,  qu'il  ait  aitne  sincerement  son 
pays,  qu'il  ait  eu  le  desir  ardent  de  son  progres  intel- 
lectuel  et  materiel.  Sur  tous  ces  points,  il  n'y  a  qu'une 
voix  pour  lui  rendre  hommage  ;  je  le  repete  :  il  a  £te 
le  citoyen  integre  qui  n'a  pas  failli  a  1'honneur." 

The  ideal  of  lofty,  inflexible  character,  and  true 
manliness  which  the  simple  story  of  his  life  presents, 
is  the  reflex  of  one — 

" who  bore  without  abuse, 

"  The  grand  old  name  of  gentleman." 


No.  1 


Seeing  the  information  laid  by  us,  Francois  Daine,  this 
day  on  the  petition  of  Sieur  Nicolas  Jacquin  Philibert,  plaintiff 
and  complainant. 

The  King's  procurator  being  associated  herein,  against  the 
Sieur  de  Repentigny,  an  officer  of  the  troops  of  the  Marine 
detachment  in  garrison  in  this  town,  defendant,  accused,  and 
the  conclusion  of  the  representative  of  the  King's  Procurator  in 
the  Prevoste,  dated  this  day  :  We  order  that  the  said  Sieur  de 
Repentigny  be  arrested  and  taken  to  the  royal  prison  in  this 
said  town  to  be  heard  and  interrogated  on  the  fac"ls  resulting 
from  the  charges  contained  in  the  said  information  and  others 
on  which  the  said  representative  may  wish  to  have  him  heard  ; 
if  not  and  after  search  has  been  made  for  his  person,  he  shall 
be  summoned  to  appear  within  a  delay  of  fifteen  days  with 
another  summons  by  a  single  public  cry,  giving  a  delay  of  eight 
days;  his  property  shall  be  seized  and  inventoried  and  a  guardian 
appointed  thereto,  which  shall  be  done  notwithstanding  any 
opposition  or  appeal  whatsoever  and  without  prejudice  thereto. 

Done  at  Quebec,  the  2ist  of  January,  1748. 

(Signed)  DAINE. 


No.  2 

22ND  JANUARY,  1748. 
To  Monsieur  the  Intendant, 

The  Comptroller  of  the  Marine  has  the  honour  to  represent 
to  you  that  for  many  years  the  Sieur  Philibert,  merchant,  of 
this  town,  had  the  contract  for  supplying  bread  to  the  troops 
and  for  the  other  requirements  of  the  service  ;  that  in  the  course 
of  such  contract  several  amounts  were  paid  on  account  to  the 
said  Philibert  by  the  Treasurer  of  the  Marine  which  may.  amount 
to  a  much  greater  amount  than  that  represented  by  the  goods 
supplied  by  him  and  for  which  he  has  not  yet  accounted  to  the 
said  Treasurer  ;  that,  moreover,  the  said  Philibert  received  from 
the  King's  stores  during  the  past  month  150  barrels  of  flour  to 
be  made  into  bread  for  the  subsistence  of  the  troops  and  that  he 
is  further  indebted  to  the  King's  domain  according  to  his  note 
of  the  2nd  September  last,  in  a  sum  of  two  thousand  six  hundred 
and  forty-four  livres  ten  sols  for  entrance  duties.  And  whereas 
the  said  Philibert  died  last  night,  it  is  the  duty  of  the  said 
Comptroller  to  take  every  precaution  for  the  preservation  of  His 
Majesty's  moneys. 

Considering  the  above  you  are  requested  to  be  pleased  to 
order  that  seals  be  affixed  on  all  the  moveables  and  effects  in 
the  house  of  the  said  Philibert  in  order  that  the  proper  orders 
may  be  given  after  his  widow  shall  have  settled  accounts  with 
the  Treasurer  of  the  Marine  respecting  the  supplies  furnished 
by  the  deceased  and  the  sums  to  him  paid  as  well  as  the  150 
barrels  of  flour. 


Gilles  Hocquart,  Intendant  of  New  France. 

Seeing  the  petition  submitted  to  us,  wre  have  appointed 
and  do  appoint  Sieur  Daine,  Lieutenant  General  in  the  Prevoste 
to  affix  seals  upon  the  effects  of  Sieur  Philibert  as  requested — 
sub-delegating  him  for  the  purpose — and  he  shall  be  accom- 
pained  by  the  clerk  of  Prevoste. 

Ordered,  etc.,  Quebec,  22nd  January,  1748. 



No.  3 

In  the  year  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  forty  eight, 
on  the  twenty  second  January  at  ten  of  the  clock  in  the  morning, 
we,  Francois  Daine,  King's  Councillor,  Lieutenant  Governor  in 
civic  and  criminal  matters  at  the  seat  of  the  Prevoste  of  Quebec, 
sub-delegate  of  Monsieur  the  Intendant  in  this  matter,  in  virtue 
of  his  commission  dated  this  day, witness  at  the  foot  of  a  petition 
of  the  Comptroller  of  the  Marine  in  this  country,  proceeded, 
accompanied  by  the  clerk  of  the  Prevoste  and  with  the  Commis- 
sion of  the  said  Monsieur  the  Intendant,  to  the  house  situate  on 
Mountain  street  belonging  to  the  late  Sieur  Nicolas  Jacquin 
Philibert  where  he  died  yesterday,  at  about  the  hour  of  ten  in 
the  evening,  for  the  purpose  of  affixing  seals  upon  all  the  move- 
ables  and  effects  in  the  said  house,  where  we  took  the  oath  of 
Demoiselle  Marie  Anne  Guerin,  wife  of  the  said  late  Sieur  Phili- 
bert, whom  we  found  ill  in  bed  as  well  as  of  Jean  Baptiste  Pinault, 
Jacques  Clement  Lesueur,  Mathurin  Buron  and  Pierre  and  Louis 
Robert,  negro  servants  of  the  said  house,  that  they  had  not 
taken  any  of  the  moveables  and  effects  belonging  to  the  succes- 
sion of  the  said  late  Sieur  Philibert,  nor  had  any  knowledge  of 
any  being  taken  by  anybody  whomsoever,  either  directly  or 
indirectly,  of  which  oath  we  gave  acte,  and  afterwards  proceeded 
to  affix  seals  as  follows: 

Firstly:  We  affixed  a  slip  of  paper,  upon  the  two  ends 
whereof  is  impressed  the  seal  of  our  arms,  upon  the  door  of  the 
store  wjiich  is  on  the  ground  floor  of  the  house;  we  affixed  none 
on  the  windows  as  the  latter  have  iron  gratings; 

We  affixed  a  slip  of  paper  as  aforesaid  upon  the  opening  of 
the  lock  of  the  vault  of  the  said  house; 

Idem. ,  upon  the  door  of  the  biscuit  store,  having  no  other 
entrance,  but  the  door  on  the  second  story; 

Idem. ,  upon  the  door  of  the  flour  store  on  the  same  story, 
having  no  other  entrance  than  the  said  door; 

On  the  door  and  lock  of  a  large  room  attached  to  the  house 
looking  upon  the  back  of  the  same  on  the  first  story  in  which 
room  are  the  papers,  money  and  linen  of  the  said  late  Sieur 

Idem.,  on  the  entrance  door  of  the  cellar  of  the  said  house 
having  its  entrance  in  the  dining  room  of  the  same; 

Idem. ,  on  the  opening  of  the  lock  of  a  closet  in  the  dining 
room  of  the  said  house,  as  one  enters,  on  the  side  of  the  cellar  ; 

A  slip  of  paper  as  aforesaid  on  another  closet  beside  that 
above  mentioned; 


These  are  all  the  seals  that  had  to  be  affixed  in  the  said 
house.  After  this  we  proceeded  to  take  a  list  of  the  effects  in 
the  said  house,  as  follows,  to  wit:  In  the  kitchen  of  the  said 
house : 

Twelve  earthenware  plates, 

Six  small  China  dishes,  idem, 

Seven  pewter  plates, 

Six  China  plates, 

Three  China  dishes,  idem, 

One  large  pewter  dish, 

Two  medium          do 

One  set  of  China  casters, 

Two          do          salt  cellars, 

One  large  China  soup  dish, 

One  earthenware  dish, 

One  pewter  porringer, 

Five  pewter  spoons, 

Three  copper  stew-pans, 

One  small  do  pie  dish, 

One  copper  sauce  pan, 

One  fish  kettle  with  cover,  idem, 

Four  frying  pans, 

One  iron  pot, 

One  brass  kettle, 

One  copper  do 

Three  iron    do 

One  iron  pepper  mill, 

Another  copper  kettle, 

Three  brickets  with  iron^hoops, 

One  table  with  folding  leaf, 

Two  steel  axes, 

One  iron  soup  ladle, 

One  iron  shovel, 

One  pair  of  andirons. 

In  the  dining  room  : 

One  iron  stove  with  pipe, 

One  wooden  cup  board, 

Eight  straw  seat  chairs, 

Two  curtains  of  green  serge, 

A  short  curtain  on  the  door  of  this  room, 

One  wooden  sideboard. 

In  the  bed-room  of  the  late  Sieur  Philibert  were  : 

A  bed  made  of  pine  wood  with  curtains,  feather-bed,  pail- 
lasse, mattress,  bolster,  blanket,  trimmed  with  green  serge; 

An  arm  chair  covered  with  green  plush, 



A  glass  mirror  with  gilt  frame,  nine  pieces  of  blue  and 
white  China,  two  curtains  of  green  serge  with  poles,  two  dam- 
aged andirons, 

One  birch  wood  table  with  turned  legs,  eight  wooden 
chairs  with  turned  legs  and  covered  with  heavy  green  plush, 

A  picture  of  St.  Peter, 

A  crucifix  on  velvet  with  gilt  border, 

Two  large  glass  tumblers. 

Four  small  glass  carafes, 

Six  porcelain  cups  and  saucers  and  a  porcelain  tea  pot 
with  cover. 

A  large  China  jug, 

A  silver  watch  with  do  case. 

We  afterwards  proceeded  to  the  bakery  of  the  said  house 
where  we  found  only  the  implements  necessary  for  the  same  all 
of  which  were  sealed,  as  well  as  all  the  effects  found  in  the  said 
house,  which  we  left  in  the  care  of  the  said  Demoiselle  Marie 
Anne  Guerin,  widow  of  the  late  Sieur  Philibert,  who  voluntarily 
undertook  to  be  the  guardian  thereof,  promising  to  produce  the 
same  whenever  called  upon  to  do  so.  Of  all  which  we  have 
drawn  up  a  proces-verbal  on  the  day  and  in  the  year  aforesaid 
and  the  said  Pinault,  Lesueur,  Buron  as  well  as  Pierre  and  Louis 
Robert,  negroes,  have  declared  that  they  are  unable  to  sign 
their  names  as  being  thereunto  required  according  to  the  ordin- 


In  the  year  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  forty  eight, 
the  twenty  third  January  at  five  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  we, 
Francois  Daine,  hereunto  sub-delegate  of  Monsieur  the  Intend- 
ant,  proceeded,  accompanied  by  the  clerk  of  the  Prevoste  in 
obedience  to  the  order  given  us  this  day,  written  at  the  foot  of  a 
petition  and  preceded  by  Demoiselle  Marie  Anne  Guerin,  widow 
of  the  late  Sieur  Philibert  to  the  house,  sixteen  Mountain  street, 
belonging  to  the  succession  of  the  said  late  Sieur  Philibert,  for 
the  purpose  of  verifying  the  seals  affixed  by  us,  at  the  request 
of  the  Comptroller  of  the  Marine  in  this  country  on  the  goods 
and  effects  left  by  the  said  late  Sieur  Philibert,  as  appears  by 
our  proces-verbal  of  yesterday,  where  being  and  in  the  presence 
of  Sieur  Louis  Robin,  King's  writer  and  of  the  widow  Philibert, 
constituted  guardian  of  the  effects  so  sealed  as  well  as  of  the 



other  effects  in  the  house,  we,  the  Lieutenant  General  aforesaid, 
found  the  seals  affixed  in  the  house  according  to  our  proces- 
verbal,  unbroken  and  handed  over  the  same  to  Maitre  Panet, 
Royal  Notary  in  the  Prevoste  of  this  town,  with  the  consent  of 
Maitre  Foucault,  Comptroller  and  Commissioner  of  the  Marine, 
to  be  by  him  removed  as  the  inventory  of  the  effects  so  sealed 
is  proceeded  with.  Whereof,  we  have  drawn  up  the  present 
proces-verbal  on  the  day  and  in  the  year  aforesaid. 

And  the  said  widow  Philibert,  as  well  as  the  said  L.  Robin 
and  Maitre  Panet  have  signed  with  us. 



No.  4 

23RD  JANUARY,  1748. 

To  Monsieur  the  Lieutenant-General  for  civil  and  criminal  mat- 
ters of  the  Prevote  of  Quebec  and  Commissioner  herein. 

Marie  Anne  Guerin,  widow  of  Sieur  Nicolas  Jacquin  Phili- 
bert, in  his  lifetime  merchant  of  this  town  humbly  prays  :  That 
seeing  the  proces-verbal  of  the  affixing  of  seals  on  the  petition 
of  the  Comptroller  of  the  Marine,  you  will  be  pleased  to  fix  a 
day  for  proceeding  to  remove  the  same,  the  said  Sieur  Comp- 
troller being  present  or  duly  summoned,  in  order  that  an  inven- 
tory may  afterwards  be  made  of  the  furnitures,  moneys,  letters 
and  papers  under  the  said  seals,  in  the  presence  of  Monsieur  the 
Comptroller  of  the  Marine  or  of  any  other  person  whom  Monsieur 
the  Intendant  may  be  pleased  to  appoint  and  you  will  do  us 


Seeing  the  present  petition  we  order  that  we  shall  proceed 
this  day  at  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  with  the  clerk  of  the 
commission  to  the  house  in  which  the  Sieur  Philibert,  merchant 
of  this  town,  died,  for  the  purpose  of  removing  the  seals  by  us 
affixed  on  the  moveables  and  effects  belonging  to  the  community 
of  property  between  him  and  Marie  Anne  Guerin  his  wife,  after 
having  verified  the  same  in  the  presence  of  Monsieur  Foucault, 



Comptroller  of  the  Marine,  hereto  duly  summoned  and  in  his 
default  of  the  person  he  may  appoint,  the  seals  having  been 
verified  and  handed  over  to  Maitre  Panet,  Royal  notary,  that  he 
may  proceed  to  make  the  inventory  of  the  effects  found  under 
the  said  seals  in  the  presence  of  the  said  Comptroller  or  other 
person  appointed  by  him. 
We  order,  etc. 

Done  at  Quebec,  the  23rd  January,  1748. 


No.  5 

On  this  day  the  twenty  third  February,  one  thousand  seven 
hundred  and  forty-eight,  in  the  afternoon  in  the  office  of  the 
Prevote  of  this  town  and  of  the  clerk  thereof,  came  and  appeared : 
Joseph  Demeule  and  Andre  Bouchaud,  traders  along  the  shores, 
who  declared  to  us  as  follows,  to  wit :  the  said  Demeule  that  he 
trades  at  la  Valtrie  near  Montreal  and  has  a  store  at  that  place 
for  carrying  on  his  trade  on  the  neighbouring  shores  ;  and  the 
said  Bouchaud  that  he  likewise  trades  at  Berthier  near  Montreal 
where  he  also  has  his  store  and  that  they  were  summoned  on 
behalf  of  the  late  sieur  Philibert  to  depose  the  truth  on  the  inquiry 
made  on  his  petition  against  the  Sieur  de  Repentigny,  an  officer 
in  the  troops  of  the  Marine  detachment ;  that  Dame  widow 
Philibert  had  summoned  them  to  remain  in  this  town  until  re- 
examined  and  confrontation  on  their  depositions  which  would 
cause  them  considerable  damage  owing  to  their  having  aban- 
doned their  stores  at  the  places  aforesaid  ;  to  obviate  which  the 
the  said  Sieurs  Demeule  and  Bouchaud,  bind  themselves  to  be 
present  in  this  town  on  the  eighteenth  day  of  the  month  of 
March  next  to  answer  any  summons  that  may  be  made  upon 
them,  hereby  electing  domicile  in  this  town  in  the  house  of 
Sieur  Bouchaud,  the  elder,  situate  in  Sous  le  Fort  street,  pro- 
testing as  regards  all  their  expenses  for  travelling,  remaining  in 
and  returning  to  this  said  towTi  and  other  places  and  of  all  things 
which  the  said  summons  may  cause  to  them  and  of  all  things 
respecting  which  they  may  protest  in  such  cases. 

Whereof  they  have  required  acte,  to  them  granted  to  serve 
as  the  same  reasonably  may  and  have  signed. 

(Signed)  DEMEULE, 



No.  6 

On  this  day,  the  twenty-fourth  of  January,  one  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  forty-eight  in  the  afternoon,  in  the  office  of 
the  Prevoste,  before  us,  the  clerk  thereof,  came  and  appeared 
Maitre  Jean  Claude  Panet,  royal  notary  in  this  provoste,  on 
behalf  and  as  attorney  of  Mademoiselle  Marie  Anne  Guerin, 
widow  of  Nicolas  Jacquin  Philibert,  in  his  lifetime  merchant  of 
this  town  under  the  deed  passed  before  Maitre  Dulaurent  and 
his  colleague  this  day  ;  who,  on  the  said  behalf,  declared  to  us 
that  he  will  start  from  this  town  to-morrow  to  proceed  by  relays 
to  that  of  Montreal  for  the  purpose  of  following  up,  on  behalf 
of  the  said  dame  Philibert,  the  execution  of  the  warrant  of  arrest 
issued  against  the  Sieur  de  Repentigny,  an  officer  in  the  troops 
of  the  Marine  detachment,  and  to  prosecute  the  inventory  of  all 
his  moveable  effects  ;  to  that  end  protesting  on  behalf  of  the  said 
widow  for  all  his  travelling  expenses  for  his  stay  in  the  town  of 
Montreal  and  other  places  and  in  returning  to  this  town  of 
Quebec  and  for  all  costs,  damages  and  interest  suffered  and  to 
be  suffered  and  everything  which  she  has  the  right  to  protest  in 
such  cases  ;  of  which  appearance,  declaration  and  protests  the 
said  Maitre  Panet,  on  the  said  behalf,  has  demanded  acte,  the 
same  being  granted  him  and  both  signed. 


No.  7 

Performing  the  duties  of  King's  Procurator  from  the  said 
twenty  first  January,  on  which  day  it  was  ordered  that  the  said 
Repentigny  be  arrested  and  taken  to  the  royal  prison  there  to 
be  interrogated  as  to  the  facts  resulting  from  the  said  charge 
and  information  and  others  respecting  which  the  said  King's 
Procurator  may  wish  to  have  him  heard  ;  — the  warrant  of  arrest 
issued  by  us  on  the  said  twenty  first  day  of  January  against  the 
said  Sieur  de  Repentigny  ;  the  return  of  the  seach  for  the  said 
accused  by  the  bailiffs  Valet  and  Cantin  on  the  twenty  first  of 
the  said  month  ;  —  the  summons  with  a  delay  of  fifteen  days 
given  to  the  said  Sieur  de  Repentigny  on  the  twenty  second  of 
the  same  month  to  appear  on  seventh  February  following;  the 
petition  presented  by  the  said  Marie  Anne  Guerin,  widow  of  the 
said  Sieur  Philibert,  the  prosecutrix  and  civil  party  ;  our  ordin- 


ance  that  communication  be  given  to  the  King's  Procurator,  of 
the  said  twenty  second  day  of  the  same  month  ;  the  requisition 
of  the  said  King's  Procurator  of  the  same  day;  our  ordinance  at  * 
the  foot  thereof  by  which  we  permitted  the  body  of  the  said  late  | 
Philibert  to  be  opened  by  the  said  Briant  in  the  presence  of  the  { 
said  Sieur  Beaudoin,  to  assertain  the  wound  he  had  received  / 
from  the  said  Sieur  de  Repentigny  ;  the  report  drawn  up  by  the  ; 
said  Sieurs  Briant  and  Beaudoin  on  the  said  twenty  second  day;  ;. 
another  summons  with  a  delay  of  eight  days,  given  to  the  said  ' 
Sieur  de  Repentigny  on  the  eighth  of  the  said  month  of  Feb- 
ruary, to  appear  on  the  seventeenth  of  the  same  month;  the 
requisition  of  the  said  King's  Procurator  of  the  twentieth  of  the 
said  month  of  February  for  the  re-examination  of  the  witnesses 
heard  on  the  said  information  and  that  their  re-examination  will 
be  equivalent  to  confrontation  with  the  said  Sieur  de  Repentigny. 
Our  judgment  of  the  twenty  fourth  of  the  said  month  of  Feb- 
ruary whereby  it  is  ordered  that  the  witnesses  heard  on  the  said 
information  shall  be  re-examined  on  their  requisition  and  the 
re-examination  shall  be  equivalent  to  confrontation  with  the 
said  Sieur  de  Repentigny,  the  accused  ;  our  ordinance  of  the 
twentieth  of  the  said  month  of  February  for  summoning  the 
said  witnesses;  the  writ  of  summons  to  them  given  on  the  twen- 
tieth of  the  same  month  ;  the  re-examination  of  the  said  wit- 
nesses dated  the  twenty  first  of  the  said  month;  the  petition 
presented  by  the  said  Marie  Anne  Guerin,  widow  of  the  said 
Philibert,  that  the  said  Sieur  de  Repentigny  be  duly  declared 
attainted  and  convicted  of  having  murdered  the  said  Philibert 
and  other  cases  mentioned  in  the  said  suit,  for  reparation  where 
of  he  be  condemned  to  thirty  thousand  livres  for  damages  with 
civil  interest  in  favour  of  the  said  widow  Philibert  and  the  costs 
of  suit,  saving  the  right  of  the  King's  Procurator  to  conclude  as 
he  may  deem  advisable  and  we  grant  her  acte  for  having  pro- 
duced the  exhibits  of  the  suit  in  support  of  the  facts  alleged  in 
the  said  petition;  our  ordinance  at  the  foot  of  the  petition  that 
it  be  served  upon  the  said  Sieur  de  Repentigny  at  his  last 



No.  8 

Considering  the  criminal  prosecution  instituted  and  pro- 
ceeded with  by  us,  Francois  Daine,  King's  Counsel,  Lieutenant- 
General  for  civil  and  criminal  jurisdiction  at  the  seat  of  the 
PreVote  of  Quebec,  originally  on  the  petition  of  Nicolas  Jacquin 
Philibert,  merchant  of  this  town,  plaintiff  and  prosecutor  and 
since  his  death  on  the  petition  of  Marie  Anne  Guerin,  widow  of 
the  said  Philibert,  plaintiff  and  prosecutrix  the  King's  Procurator 
acting  therein  against  the  Sieur  de  Repentigny,  an  officer  of  the 
troops  of  the  Marine  detachment  in  this  country,  defendant, 
accused  of  having  killed  the  said  Sieur  Philibert : — the  petition 


of  complaint  presented  to  us  by  the  said  Philibert  on  the  2oth— * 
January  last,  replied  to  by  us  on  the  same  day,  by  which  he  asks  j 
permission  to  lay  a  complaint  and  our  ordinance  of  the  same 

y ' 

day,  the  twentieth  January,  granting  permission  to  lay  an  infor- 
mation as  to  the  facts  therein  contained  and  to  be  examined  by 
the  said  Beaudoin,  surgeon ; — A  petition  presented  to  us  on  the 
said  day  for  le'ave  to  receive  the  oath  of  the  said  Sieur  Beaudoin, 
replied  to  on  the  same  day  : — the  certificate  of  the  taking  of  the 
oath  on  the  said  twentieth  January,  the  report  of  the  said  Sieur 
Beaudoin  of  the  same  date  ; — our  ordinance  of  the  said  twentieth 
day  of  the  month  of  January  to  summon  the  witnesses  to  be 
heard  on  the  said  information, — the  summons  to  one  Bouchard, 
Jils,  Demeule,  cooper,  Pierre  Voyer,  Joseph  Delorme,  Dumont 
and  the  wife  of  the  said  Dumont,  by  writ  of  the  said  twentieth  day 
of  January  issued  on  the  petition  of  the  said  Philibert  against 
the  Sieur  de  Repentigny  containing  the  examination  of  six 
witnesses  ; — our  ordinance  communicated  to  the  said  King's 
Procurator,  duly  received  ; — the  discontinuance  of  the  said 
King's  Procurator  of  the  same  date  inasmuch  as  he  cannot  take 
cognizance  of  the  matter  owing  to  relationship  within  the  pre- 
scribed degrees,  afterwards  an  ordinance  of  the  twenty-first  of 
the  same  month  appointing  Maitre  Dulaurent,  notary,  in  the 
said  Prevote,  in  the  place  and  stead  of  the  said  King's  Pro- 
curator;— Another  discontinuance  on  behalf  of  Maitre  Dulaurent, 
notary,  of  the  said  twenty-first  of  the  same  month,  our  ordin- 
ance at  the  foot  thereof  of  the  same  date  by  which  we  appointed 
M.  Barolet,  notary,  in  the  place  and  stead  of  the  said  M.  Dulau- 
rent to  perform  the  duty  of  King's  Procurator  ; — Conclusion  of 
the  said  Maitre  Barolet  dated  the  first  of  this  month,  the  said 
petition  served  upon  the  said  de  Repentigny  at  his  last  domicile 



in  the  house  of  one  la  Palme ; — Conclusions  of  the  said  Maitre 
Barolet,  acting  as  King's  Procurator,  dated  the  5th  of  the  said 
month.  And,  having  on  the  whole  deliberated  and  having 
obtained  the  opinion  of  Maitre  Gilbert  Boucaut  de  Godefus, 
Provost  judge  of  the  Seigniory  of  Beaupre  and  of  Maitre  Charles 
Turpin,  practitioner  in  this  Prevote,  taken  as  assessor  with  us ; 
We  have  declared  the  coutumacy  of  the  said  de  Repentigny,  the 
accused,  to  be  fully  proved  ;  and,  adjudicating  upon  his  designs, 
declaring  him  duly  attainted  and  convicted  of  having  killed  the 
said  Philibert ;  in  reparation  whereof,  condemning  the  said 
Repentigny,  in  view  of  his  quality  of  gentleman,  to  have  his 
head  cut  off  on  a  scaffold  to  be  erected  for  the  purpose  on  the 
public  square  of  the  Lower  Town  of  Quebec,  condemning  him 
moreover  to  pay  8000  livres  for  damages  with  interest  to  Marie 
Anne  Guerin,  widow  of  the  said  Philibert  and  to  the  costs  of 
the  suits  ;  We  have  declared  the  remainder  of  his  property  con- 
fiscated to  whomsoever  it  may  appertain,  after  the  sum  of  105 
livres  shall  have  first  been  taken  therefrom,  in  case  confiscation 
affect  His  Majesty's  property  ;  And  the  present  sentence  shall 
be  executed  in  effigy  on  a  picture  to  be  placed  on  a  post  fixed  for 
the  purpose  on  the  public  square. 

Done  at  Quebec  the  2oth  March,  1748. 

And  the  said  Sieur  Millon  and  the  said  Maitres  Boucaut 
and  Turpin  have  signed  with  us  in  the  presence  of  Maitre  Millon- 
carde,  Major. 





On  behalf  of  the  King,  I  demand  the  execution  of  the 
above  Judgment. 

Done  at  Quebec  the  2oth  March,  1748. 

Signed,  C.  BAROLET, 


The  above  judgment  was  executed  on  the  said  2oth  day  of 
March,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  forty-eight. 

Signed,  N.  BOISSEAU. 


No.  9 

1 7th  AUGUST,  1748. 

Last  winter  an  unfortunate  affair  happened  here 

to  Sieur  de  Repentigny,  the  elder,  who,  having  had  a  quarrel 
with  the  Sieur  Philibert,  wounded  him  by  a  sword  thrust  where 
of  that  merchant  died.  That  officer  seemed  to  us  more  unfort- 
unate than  guilty  and  we  trust  than  you  will  so  decide  after 
reading  the  information  we  shall  send  you  when  we  ask  you  to 
obtain  his  pardon  from  His  Majesty. 

We  have  the  honour,  etc.,  etc., 


Quebec,  i7th  August,  1748. 

No,  10 

ist  SEPTEMBER,  1748. 


Asks  for  letters  of  pardon  in  connection  with  the  death  of  one 
Philibert,  merchant  of  Quebec. 


The  misfortune  that  happened  to  me  to  give  a  sword  thrust 
in  the  just  defence  of  my  honour  and  even  of  my  life,  to  the 
Sieur  Philibert,  merchant  of  Quebec,  compels  me  to  have 
recourse  to  your  Grace's  kindness  and  most  respectfully  beg  that 
you  will  be  pleased  to  obtain  for  me  letters  of  pardon  for  that 
murder.  In  the  annexed  petition  I  set  forth  the  unfortunate 
circumstances  that  compelled  me,  on  the  first  impulse,  to  pro- 
ceed to  that  extremity.  I  hope  that,  in  the  investigation  that 
was  made,  the  witnesses  have  related  the  facts  as  they  occurred, 
your  Grace  will  find  me  more  unfortunate  than  guilty,  I  never- 



theless  deeply  regret  having  contributed  to  the  death  of  a 
citizen.  I  have  been  condemned  in  the  Prevoste  to  have  my 
head  cut  off  and  to  a  fine  of  eight  thousand  livres  besides  two 
thousand  livres  for  costs.  I  venture  to  hope,  my  Lord,  that 
your  Grace  will  be  pleased  to  obtain  for  me  the  remission  of  a 
fine  which  completely  prevents  me  from  remaining  in  the  service 
where  I  will  endeavour  more  and  more  to  make  myself  worthy 
of  your  kindness.  I  flatter  myself,  my  Lord,  that  your  Grace 
will  be  pleased  that  I  should  have  the  honour  of  submitting  my 
report  on  a  campaign  I  carried  on  this  summer  at  the  head  of  a 
party  which  my  brother,  who  accompanied  me  as  second  in 
command,  had  brought  here  ;  and  whereof  M.  de  Sabrevois,  the 
Commandant  of  this  fort,  gave  me  the  command.  In  obedience 
to  his  orders  I  started  on  the  24  July  with  25  Frenchmen,  about 
one  hundred  Savages  from  the  upper  country  and  others  settled 
here,  to  strike  a  blow  on  the  shores  of  Carlogne,  distant  40 
leagues  from  this  fort.  On  the  2gth  of  the  same  month  about  5 
o'clock  in  the  morning  we  arrived  at  a  spot  three  quarters  of  a 
league  from  the  fort  and  at  the  large  village  of  Carlogne  where 
the  scouts  came  upon  three  men  whom  they  attacked.  One  of 
the  three  was  killed,  another  was  made  prisoner  and  the  third 
escaped.  Thereupon  the  savages,  alanned  at  the  proximity  of 
the  enemy  and  following  their  constant  custom  to  be  content 
with  one  scalp  rather  than  run  the  risk  of  a  second  attack, 
were  very  well  satisfied  with  what  they  had  done  and  thought 
only  of  returning  home.  Such  a  design  disturbed  me  very 
much  and  I  set  to  work  at  once  to  induce  them  to  change  their 
mind.  To  that  end  I  gave  them  a  collar  to  show  that  Monsieur 
the  Marquis  de  la  Galissonniere  would  have  a  bad  opinion  of  the 
repentance  they  would  feel  for  their  faults,  whereof  they  would 
be  accused  were  they  to  relax  their  efforts  at  sight  of  the 
enemy;  that  they  could  not  take  such  a  step  without  obliging 
me  to  bring  them  to  account  myself.  And  I  urged  them  by 
that  collar  to  second  me  in  the  resolution  I  had  taken  to  keep 
the  dead  body  and  await  those  who  might  come  to  remove  it. 
After  much  deliberation,  the  chiefs  sent  me  word  that  they 
accepted  the  collar  and  we  at  once  placed  ourselves  about  two 
arpents  from  the  body  where  the  enemy  appeared  only  at  three 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon  to  the  number  of  a  hundred  and  ten 
men.  We  attacked  them  as  soon  as  they  came  near  us  and  after 
a  short  resistance  on  their  part,  we  compelled  them  to  retreat 
from  the  battlefield  leaving  21  dead.  The  proximity  of  their 
fort  and  of  their  village  did  not  prevent  our  pursuing  them  and 
we  made  13  prisoners  notwithstanding  the  advantage  of  a  very 
thick  wood  which  greatly  favoured  their  retreat.  We  learned 



from  the  captives  that  a  great  many  of  their  people  had  escaped 
wounded.  A  Canadian  and  six  of  our  Savages  were  wounded 
and  one  Outooua  killed. 

I  venture  to  hope,  Monseigneur,  that  your  Grace  will  be 
pleased  to  take  my  conduct  during  that  campaign  into  consid- 

I  remain  with  respect,  etc.,  e}c., 

Fort  St.  Fre*de"ric,  ist  September,  1748. 

No.  11 

You  have  been  informed,  monsieur,  of  the  unfortunate 
affair  that  has  happened  to  Monsieur  de  Repentigny  and  of  the 
judgment  against  him.  Permit  me  to  unite  with  those  who 
crave  pardon  for  him.  It  costs  him  too  much  in  every  way  for 
his  example  to  have  dangerous  consequences 

t  L.  M.,  Bishop  of  Quebec. 

No.  12 


The  Council  having  seen  : 

The  letters  of  grace,  pardon  and  remission  obtained  by 
Pierre  Legardeur,  esquire,  Sieur  de  Repentigny,  lieutenant  of 
a  company  of  the  marine  troops  maintained  for  His  Majesty's 
service  in  this  country,  the  said  letters  dated  in  the  month  of 
April  last,  signed  "Louis"  and  on  the  back  "  By  the  King, 
Phelippeaux,"  and  on  the  side  "  Visa-Daguesseau, "  and  sealed 
with  the  great  seal  in  green  wax  with  red  and  green  ribbons, 
in  connection  with  the  homicide  by  him  committed  on  the  per- 
son of  Nicolas  Jaquin  Philibert,  merchant  of  this  town  ; 

The  informations  and  other  criminal  proceedings  in  connec- 
tion therewith  by  the  Lieutenant-general  for  civil  and  criminal 



matters  of  the  PreVost£  of  this  town,  on  the  petition  both  of  the 
said  Philibert  in  his  life-time  and  of  Marie  Anne  Guerin,  his 
widow,  the  representative  of  the  King's  Procurator-General  in 
the  said  PreVoste",  being  associated  with  him  ; 

The  entry  of  the  voluntary  imprisonment  of  the  said  Sieur 
de  Repentigny  in  the  prison  of  this  town,  of  the  twenty-eighth 
September  last ; 

The  judgment  of  the  Council  of  the  twenty-ninth  of  the 
said  month  on  the  presentation  and  reading  of  the  said  letters 
in  the  Council  Chamber,  in  open  sitting,  in  the  presence  of  the 
of  the  said  Sieur  de  Repentigny  who  was  bareheaded  and  on  his 
knees,  and  after  making  oath  to  speak  the  truth,  he  stated 
that  he  had  given  instructions  to  obtain  them,  that  they  con- 
tain the  truth  and  that  he  wishes  to  make  use  thereof  ;  by  which 
judgment  the  Council  ordered  that  the  said  letters  and  informa- 
tions be  communicated  to  the  King's  Procurator-General,  and 
copies  thereof  be  given  to  the  civil  party  to  enable  the  same  to 
show  cause  within  the  delay  fixed  by  the  ordinance ;  the  said 
Sieur  de  Repentigny  to  be  heard  and  interrogated  by  Maitre 
Jacques  Lafontaine,  Councillor,  appointed  by  the  Council  as 
Commissioner  in  the  case  to  report  on  the  facts  resulting  from 
the  said  letters  and  information,  so  that,  after  the  examination 
is  held  and  also  communicated  to  the  said  King's  Procurator- 
general,  such  order  may  be  given  as  may  be  deemed  proper  ; 

His  examination  on  the  same  day,  the  twenty-ninth  of  the 
same  month  of  September,  by  the  said  Maitre  Lafontaine,  the 
Reporting  Commissioner,  his  answers,  confession  and  denials  ; 

The  notice  served  on  the  same  day  on  the  petition  of  the 
said  Sieur  de  Repentigny,  upon  the  said  widow  Philibert,  of  his 
said  entry  in  the  prison  register,  of  the  said  Letters  of  Pardon 
and  of  the  said  judgment  with  summons  to  show  cause,  if  any 
she  has,  against  the  same  within  the  delay  fixed  by  the  ordinance; 

The  return  of  service  of  a  notice  effected  on  the  thirtieth 
of  the  said  month  of  September  on  the  petition  of  the  said  widow 
Philibert  upon  the  said  Sieur  de  Repentigny  by  the  bailiff  Thi- 
bault  and  signed  by  her  and  by  the  said  bailiff,  by  which  notice 
she  declared  that  she  had  no  cause  to  show  against  the  ratifica- 
tion of  the  said  letters  served  upon  her,  as  she  had  been  paid 
the  civil  damages  and  interest  awarded  her  by  the  court,  that 
moreover,  she  left  the  matter  in  the  hands  of  the  court  as  regards 
what  is  set  forth  in  the  said  Letters  notwithstanding  the  delays 
allowed  her  by  the  ordinance  ; 

The  conclusions  of  the  King's  Procurator  General  of  the 
first  of  this  month. 



Having  heard  and  examined  the  said  Sieur  de  Repentigny 
on  the  matters  referring  to  him  and  contained  in  the  said  letters, 
the  tenor  whereof  is  as  follows  : 

LOUIS,  by  the  Grace  of  God,  King  of  France  and  of  Navarre,  to 
all  present  and  to  come:  Greeting. 

We  have  received  the  humble  petition  of  Sieur  de  Repen- 
tigny, lieutenant  of  the  troops  maintained  for  Our  service  in 
Canada,  professing  the  Roman  Catholic  Apostolic  religion,  set- 
ting forth  :  That  on  the  twentieth  January,  1748,  having  a  billet 
quartering  him,  in  his  said  capacity,  on  one  Nicolas  Jacquin 
Philibert,  merchant  of  Quebec,  the  latter  wrent  to  a  woman 
named  Lapalme,  with  whom  the  petitioner  there  lodged  to 
induce  her  to  continue  to  give  hrm  lodging,  but  that,  being  un- 
able to  agree  with  the  woman  as  to  the  price,  the  said  Philibert 
said  he  would  have  the  billet  changed . 

That  the  petitioner,  who  was  then  within  hearing  of  this 
conversation,  addressed  himself  to  Philibert  and  in  a  tone  cal- 
culated to  give  him  to  understand  that  he  would  not  be  inconv- 
enienced by  the  lodging  he  had  to  give  him,  he  told  him  that  it 
was  silly  on  his  part  to  try  and  effec"l  the  change.  That  Phili- 
bert, instead  of  taking  this  speech  as  a  notice  that  the  petitioner 
intended  to  give  him  in  order  to  appease  the  anxiety  such  lodg- 
ing seemed  to  cause  him,  allowed  himself  to  be  carried  away  by 
his  naturally  violent  anger  and  not  content  with  insulting  the 
petitioner  in  a  gross  and  vile  manner,  he  struck  him  with  a  stick; 
that  the  petitioner  on  being  so  struck  had,  under  the  first 
impulse  which  he  could  not  control,  drawn  his  sword  and  struck 
the  said  Philibert  who  died  some  time  afterwards,  to  the  great 
regret  of  the  petitioner  ; 

That  although  this  misfortune  happened  without  preme- 
ditated design  and  at  a  moment  when  the  petitioner  was  no 
longer  at  liberty  to  stand  without  defending  himself,  the  judges 
in  Quebec  had  instituted  proceedings  in  consequence  whereof 
he  deemed  it  advisable  to  absent  himself  and  would  not  venture 
to  present  himself  without  first  obtaining  Our  Letters  of  Grace, 
pardon  and  remission  which  he  humbly  begs  us  to  be  pleased  to 
grant  him ; 

Wherefore,  preferring  mercy  to  the  rigour  of  the  Law, 
with  the  advice  of  Our  Council  and  of  Our  special  grace,  full 
power  and  Royal  authority  we  have  granted  and  by  these  pres- 
ents signed  with  Our  hand,  We  do  grant  the  Sieur  de  Reptn- 
tigny  grace,  pardon  and  remission  of  the  acts  and  charges  as 
hereinabove  set  forth  together  with  all  penalties,  fines,  corporal, 
civil  and  criminal  punishments  he  may  have  incurred  towards 



us  and  towards  justice  in  consequence  of  the  same,  We  set  aside 
all  decrees,  all  sentences  of  cbutumacy  for  default,  sentences, 
judgments  and  orders  that  may  have  been  pronounced  against 
the  petitioner. 

We  restore  him  his  good  name  and  fame  as  well  as  his 
property  not  otherwise  confiscated,  after  satisfaction  to  the  civil 
party  if  this  be  not  already  done  and  if  any  be  due. 

We  impose  silence  upon  our  Procurators  General  and  their 
representatives,  present  and  future  and  upon  all  others. 

We  also  command  our  beloved  and  faithful  members  of  Our 
Superior  Council  established  in  Quebec  within  whose  jurisdiction 
the  facts  aforesaid  have  occurred,  to  ratify  these  presents,  Our 
Letters  of  grace,  pardon  and  remission  and  to  cause  the  peti- 
tioner to  fully,  peacefully  and  perpetually  enjoy  what  is  set 
forth  therein,  ceasing  and  causing  all  troubles  and  hindrances 
thereto  to  cease.  On  condition  that  he  shall  present  himself 
for  the  confirmation  of  these  presents  within  six  months,  on 
pain  of  nullity. 

For  such  is  Our  pleasure. 

And  in  order  that  the  same  may  endure  for  ever,  We  have 
caused  Our  seal  to  be  affixed  to  these  presents. 

Given  at  Versailles,  in  the  month  of  April  in  the  year  of 
Grace  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  forty  nine  and  of  Our 
Reign  the  thirty  fourth. 

Signed:  "  Louis,"  and  on  the  back:  "By  the  King  Phelip- 
peaux,"  Visa-Dagtiesseau  to  be  remitted  to  Darpentigny , "  and 
sealed  with  the  great  seal  in  green  wax  with  red  and  green  silk 

Having  heard  the  report  of  Maitre  Jacques  Lafontaine, 
Councillor,  and  upon  the  whole  deliberated,  the  Council  has 
ratified  the  said  Letters  of  Remission  that  the  said  Sieur  de 
Repentigny  may  enjoy  the  effects  and  contents  thereof  accord- 
ing to  their  form  and  tenor. 


No.  13 

QUEBEC,  nth  October,  1749. 

I  have  the  honour  to  report  that  the  letters  of  pardon 
granted  by  the  King  to  the  Sieur  de  Repentigny  have  been 
ratified  in  the  Superior  Council  and  that  officer  has  acdordingly 
resumed  his  rank  in  the  service. 



The  widow  and  children  of  Philibert  have  just  represented 
to  me  that  if  the  said  Sieur  de  Repentigny  remains  in  this 
colonie  they  would  have  the  unpleasantness  of  seeing  the  author 
of  the  death  of  the  said  Philibert ;  this  would  be  more  disagree- 
able that  the  widow  and  children  still  feel  the  full  weight  of 
sorrow  for  so  great  a  loss. 

Moreover  it  is  to  be  feared  that  the  resentment  on  both 
sides  may  give  rise  to  some  regrettable  occurrence. 

I  think  therefore,  Monseigneur,  that  it  would  be  advisable 
to  send  the  said  Sieur  de  Repentigny  to  the  Islands  and  to 
request  you  to  give  him  some  employment  at  St.  Domingo  or 
Martinique.  That  officer  possesses  very  good  qualities  and  in 
the  event  of  its  being  impossible  to  give  him  a  place  in  the 
islands,  he  would  be  well  qualified  for  service  at  Louisbourg  in 
the  capacity  of  Captain.  Pending  the  receipt  of  your  orders  he 
will  serve  in  the  Montreal  garrison. 

I  remain  with  most  profound  respect,  etc.,  etc. 


NO.  14 

Before  the  undersigned  Royal  notary  in  the  Prevoste'  of  Quebec, 
residing  there  and  the  witnesses  heinafter  mentioned,  came 
and  appeared  : 

Demoiselle  Marie  Renee  Roussel,  widow  of  Mr.  Louis 
Chambalon,  in  his  lifetime  Royal  notary  in  the  said  Prevot£ 
and  Magdeleine  Roussel,  all  residing  in  this  town,  who  of  their 
own  free  will  have  by  these  presents  acknowledged  to  have  sold, 
assigned,  ceded,  made  over,  transferred  and  abandoned  hence- 
forth and  for  ever,  each  with  warranty  on  her  own  behalf 
against  all  disturbance,  debts,  hypothecs  and  other  encumbrances 
generally  whatsoever,  to  Sieur  Nicolas  Jacquin  dit  Philibert, 
merchant  and  Burgess,  residing  in  this  town,  present  and 
accepting,  the  purchaser,  for  himself,  his  heirs  an  assigns  in 
future,  to  wit,  a  lot  of  land  situate  and  being  in  this  upper  town 
in  Buade  street,  containing  eighty  feet  in  front  on  the  said  street 
and  sixty-three  feet  in  depth  and  more  if  there  be,  bounded  on 
one  side  by  a  road  or  lane  leading  from  the  Chateau  St.  Louis 
to  the  Lower  Town  and  on  the  other  side  on  the  West  by  the 
land  and  lot  of  Sieur  Baune,  in  front  by  the  said  Buade  street 



and  in  rear  by  the  land  and  lot  of  the  Representatives  of 
Monsieur  Dauteuil  with  the  two  story  stone  house  built  thereon 
as  the  whole  now  is  and  stands  closed  and  fenced  in  with  upright 
stakes,  without  the  said  Demoiselles,  the  vendors,  reserving  or 
retaining  anything,  the  said  purchaser,  declaring  that  he  knows 
the  said  lot  and  the  house  built  thereon  through  having  visited 
and  examined  the  same.  The  said  property  belongs  to  the  said 
Demoiselles;  the  vendors,  through  having  been  adjudged  to 
them  by  decree  at  the  seat  of  the  Prevost^  in  this  town,  dated 
the  thirtieth  of  April,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  twenty 
as  a  property  forming  part  of  the  succession  of  the  late  Sieur 
Thimothe  Roussel,  in  his  lifetime  Master  Surgeon  of  this  town 
and  of  the  late  Demoiselle  Magdeleine  Dumortier  Deleur,  his 
wrife,  the  father  and  mother  of  the  Demoiselles,  the  vendors  ;  to 
which  said  Sieur  Roussel  the  said  lot  belonged  to  wit  :  forty-six 
feet  in  front  on  the  said  street  and  thirty-six  feet  in  depth 
through  a  concession  to  him  granted  by  the  fabrique  of  this 
parish  and  by  contract  passed  before  the  late  Maitre  Becquet  in 
his  lifetime  Royal  notary  in  the  said  Prevoste  dated  the  third  of 
September  one  thousand  six  hundred  and  seventy-three  ;  thirty- 
four  other  feet  in  front  by  a  like  depth  of  thirty-six  feet  through 
a  gift  to  him  made  by  Monsieur  Chambly  by  deed  before  Mathieu 
Bonneau  in  his  lifetime  Royal  notary  in  the  Island  of  Martinique, 
dated  the  tenth  of  February  one  thousand  six  hundred  and 
ninety-three  registered  at  the  seat  of  the  Prevoste"  in  this  town 
on  the  twelfth  of  October  of  the  said  year  after  the  expiration  of 
the  delay  of  ten  months  granted  by  the  said  Sieur  Chambly  for 
such  registration  mentioned  in  the  said  deed  owing  to  the  distance 
of  the  said  place  ;  the  said  quantity  of  land  belonged  to  the  said 
Sieur  Chambly  through  the  concession  to  him  granted  by  the 
fabrique  of  this  parish  by  contract  before  the  said  late  Maitre 
Becquet,  dated  third  of'September  one  thousand  six  hundred 
and  sixty-three,  the  said  two  concessions  being  dependencies  of 
thef'ibrique  and  the  remainder  of  the  said  lot  which  is  a  depend- 
ency of  the  King's  Domain  having  been  conceded  to  the  late 
Sieur  Roussel  by  Monsieur  the  Comte  de  Frontenac,  in  his  life- 
time Governor  and  Lieutenant-general  of  the  King  in  this 
country,  as  is  established  by  the  procfa  verbal  of  Jean  Le  Rouge 
in  his  lifetime  sworn  land-surveyor  in  this  country,  dated  the 
sixteenth  day  of  June  in  the  year  one  thousand  six  hundred 
and  seventy-seven,  which  states  that  by  order  of  Monseigneur 
the  Comte  de  Frontenac  he  measured  a  lot  for  the  benefit  of 
Thimothe  Roussel,  Master  Surgeon,  containing  eighty  feet  in 
front  on  the  side  of  the  Place  d'Armei  and  twenty-eight  feet 
in  depth  on  the  side  of  the  hill  and  thirty-two  feet  in  depth  on 



the  side  of  the  unconceded  lot,  which  said  titles  of  concession 
and  proces-vrrbal ,  together  with  the  said  gift  and  decree  of  adju- 
dication, besides  the  copy  of  a  contract  constituting  a  rent  of 
the  sum  of  thirty  livres,  one  fourth  deducted,  consented  by  the 
said  late  Sieur  Roussel  in  favour  of  the  said  fabrique  with  the 
acquittance  for  the  said  Rent  and  the  principal  thereof  passed 
before  Maitre  Boisseau,  Royal  notary  in  the  said  Prevoste,  dated 
the  twenty-eight  August,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  thirty- 
one,  have  been  presently  delivered  by  the  said  Demoiselles,  the 
vendors,  into  the  hands  of  the  said  purchaser  who  has  received 
them  and  relieves  the  said  Demoiselles  and  all  others  from  them. 

This  sale,  assignment  and  transfer  is  so  made  on  condition 
that  the  said  purchaser  shall  pay  in  future  every  year  from  the 
first  October  next  two  sols  as  cens  for  which  a  portion  of  the  said 
lot  is  liable  towards  the  said  fabrique  of  this  town  with  forty  sols 
of  ground  rent  also  annual,  perpetual  and  unredeemable  in  favour 
of  the  same  fabrique,  besides  the  cens  for  which  the  other  portion 
of  the  said  lot  is  liable  to  the  King's  Domain,  the  amount  of 
which  cens  the  said  Demoiselles,  the  vendors,  on  being  thereunto 
required,  could  not  state  as  to  the  present  free  and  clear  never- 
theless of  all  arrears  of  the  said  cens  el  rentes  for  the  past  to  the 
said  first  day  of  October  next,  on  which  day  the  payment  of  the 
said  cens  et  rentes  is  to  be  effected  every  year.  Also  for  the  price 
and  sum  of  eight  thousand  livres,  which  said  sum  of  eight  thous- 
and livres,  the  said  purchaser  promises  and  binds  himself  to  pay 
to  the  said  Demoiselles,  the  vendors,  or  order,  six  years  from 
now  at  the  latest  and  until  then  to  pay  the  rent  and  interest  every 
year  at  five  per  cent.  Nevertheless  in  the  event  of  the  said 
purchaser  paying  any  sums  on  account  and  in  reduction  of  the 
aforesaid  sum  during  the  said  six  years,  then  and  in  such  case 
the  interest  on  the  sums  paid  by  him  shall  be  deducted  propor- 
tionately to  the  payments  made  by  him  on  account  of  the  prin- 
cipal, on  which  said  principal  of  eight  thousand  livres  the  said 
Demoiselles  Genevidve  and  Magdeleine  Roussel  have  stated  and 
declared  that  they  are  interested  to  the  extent  of  three-fourths, 
namely,  the  sum  of  six  thousand  livres,  owing  to  the  sale  of  one 
fourth  of  the  said  lot  and  house  to  them  by  the  late  Sieur  Jean 
Baptiste  Demeule  and  Demoiselle  Marie  Louise  Roussel,  their 
brotheir-in-law  and  sister  by  contract  before  Maitre  Hiche, 
Royal  notary  in  the  said  Prevoste'  dated  the . 

The  copy  of  which  deed  the  said  Demoiselles  Genevieve 
and  Magdeleine  Roussel  promise  to  hand  over  immediately  to 
the  said  purchaser,  and,  in  consequence  thereof,  the  said  pur- 
chaser promises  and  binds  himself  to  pay  to  the  said  Demoi- 
selles Genevieve  and  Magdeleine  Roussel,  and  to  each  of  them 



the  sum  of  three  thousand  livres  for  their  share  of  the  price  of 
the  aforesaid  sale  and  interest  until  the  expiration  of  the  term 
allowed,  and  to  the  said  Demoiselle  Marie  Rene'e  Roussel,  the 
other  two  thousand  livres,  being  the  one-fourth  and  the  share 
she  claims  to  have  in  the  aforesaid  lot  with  interest  as  aforesaid. 
And  for  the  purposes  of  all  the  above,  the  said  Sieur  Philibert, 
the  purchaser,  has  hypothecated  all  his  property  generally 
whatsoever  present  and  future,  and  in  particular  the  said  lot  and 
house  presently  sold  without  the  general  and  special  obligations 
derogating  one  from  the  other.  Accordingly  the  said  Demoiselles, 
the  vendors,  have  assigned  and  transferred  and  do  assign  and 
transfer  all  rights  of  ownership  and  all  other  rights  whatsoever 
which  they  may  have  or  claim  to  have  in  and  to  the  property 
now  by  them  sold  and  whereof  they  did  seize  and  divert  them- 
selves in  favour  of  the  said  purchaser,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  to 
enjoy  and  dispose  of  the  same  as  his  own  property,  in  virtue  of 
these  presents,  willing  and  consenting  that  he  be  placed  in  full 
possession  and  seizein  thereof  by  whomsoever  and  as  the  same 
may  appertain,  constituting  as  attorney,  etc.,  for  thus,  etc., 
promising  and  binding,  etc.,  renouncing,  etc. 

Done  and  passed  at  Quebec  in  the  office  of  the  said  notary 
on  the  seventh  June,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  thirty 
four  in  the  afternoon,  in  the  presence  of  Sieurs  Louis  Burgevin 
and  Alexis  Brunet,  witnesses  residing  in  Quebec  aforesaid,  who, 
with  the  said  Demoiselles,  the  vendors,  the  said  purchaser  and 
the  undersigned  notary,  have  signed  these  presents  first  duly 
read  according  to  the  ordinance. 





No.  15 

Before  the  aforesaid  and  undersigned  notary  came  and 
appeared,  Demoiselle  Louise  Roussel,  widow  of  Sieur  Jacques 
Page\  who  in  her  own  name  and  as  common  as  to  property  with 
the  said  late  Sieur  Page\  acknowledged  to  have  received  from 
the  said  Sieur  Nicolas  Philibert,  the  Sieur  Charles  Turpin,  prac- 
titioner in  this  town  the  sum  of  five  thousand  one  hundred  and 



sixty  livres,  to  wit :  four  thousand  six  hundred  and  fifteen  livres, 
seventeen  sols  and  four  deniers  in  acquittances  and  five  hundred 
and  forty  livres,  two  sols,  eight  deniers  in  money,  which  said  two 
sums  together  make  up  the  first  aforesaid  sum  of  five  thousand 
one  hundred  and  sixty  livres,  besides  that  of  forty-one  livres,  one 
sol,  six  deniers  for  interest  due  from  the  fifth  March,  1745,  to 
this  date  ;  also  that  of  one  hundred  and  sixty-seven  livres, 
seventeen  sols,  six  deniers,  for  costs  to  which  he  has  been  con- 
demned by  judgment  of  the  Council  dated  the  twenty-ninth  of 
August  last  and  executory  on  the  ninth  of  this  month.  The 
whole  on  account  of  the  rights  which  the  said  widow  may  claim 
to  have  in  the  sale  mentioned  in  the.  above  deed,  the  said  Sieur 
Philibert  making  all  reservations  as  regards  the  sum  of  269  livres 
mentioned  in  a  note  of  the,  3oth  of  October,  1 741 ,  initialled  by 
Monsieur  the  Lieutenant-general  of  the  Prevoste  of  this  town  on 
the  5th  of  April  last  and  being  one  of  the  items  of  the  account 
served  by  the  widow  Lambert  on  the  eight  of  June,  1741,  together 
with  interest  and  the  costs  to  which  he  was  condemned  by  the 
aforesaid  judgment  for  re-payment  of  the  said  sum  of  269  /ivres 
together  with  the  interest  and  costs.  The  said  Sieur  Philibert 
reserves  the  right  to  proceed  against  whomsoever  and  as  it  may 
appertain.  The  said  Sieur  Philibert  also  acknowledges  having 
received  from  the  said  widow  Page*  the  documents  in  the  proceed- 

For  thus,  etc.,  Promising,  etc,,  etc.,  etc. 

Done  and  passed  at  Quebec  aforesaid  in  the  office  of  the 
said  notary  in  the  forenoon  of  the  twelfth  of  September,  1746, 
in  the  presence  of  the  Sieurs  Nicolas  Bellevue  and  Alexis  Brunet, 
witnesses  residing  in  Quebec  aforesaid  who  with  the  said  Widow 
Page,  the  said  Sieur  Turpin  and  the  undersigned  notary  have 
signed  these  presents  first  duly  read. 



PHILIBERT.— From  20th  January  1757,— Buade  Street. 

The  widow  Philibert  who  showed  us  a  deed  of  sale  in  her 
favour  by  the  widow  and  heirs  Lambert  by  contract  before 
Pinquet,  notary,  the  7th  June  1734,  in  virtue  whereof  she  pos- 
sesses in  the  censive  of  His  Majesty  a  lot  and  house  situate  in  de 



Buade  street,  80  feet  in  front  by  32  in  depth  and  whereas  she 
has  been  unable  to  find  the  original  title  to  ascertain  the  cens 
et  rentes,  we  have  fixed  them  at  five  sola  six  denier*  per  annum. 


In  September,  1901,  the  Dominion  Government  purchased 
from  the  Community*  of  the  Ursulines  the  ground  commonly 
called  ' '  The  Race  Course ' ' ,  and  transferred  it  to  the  Corporation 
of  the  City  of  Quebec  for  the  purposes  of  a  public  park. 

Under  the  administration  of  the  Honourable  S.  N.  Parent, 
the  Mayor,  plans  were  prepared  for  beautifying  the  western 
part  of  the  city,  and  in  the  course  of  time  this  hitherto  vacant 
piece  of  land  will  be  converted  into  a  picturesque  resort. 

For  many  years  the  Race  Course  has  been  regarded  by  the 
tourist,  and  even  by  many  of  the  inhabitants,  as  forming  not  only 
part  of  the  property  once  owned  by  Abraham  Martin,  after  whom 
the  Plains,  or  Heights,  were  named,  but  also  as  the  site  of  the 
famous  contest  between  Wolfe  and  Montcalm. 

This  ground,  however,  was  never  in  the  possession  of 
Abraham  Martin,  and  it  had  no  connection  with  the  British 
victory  in  1759,  or  with  the  British  defeat  in  1760. 

The  land  comprised  within  the  area  of  the  new  park  was 
ceded  by  the  French  crown  in  five  divisions  to  the  following 
inhabitants  of  Quebec. — The  Sieurde  Maur,  Denis  Duquet,  Guil. 
Gaultier,  Antoine  Brassard,  and  Pierre  and  Gervais  Normand. 
The  first  concession  was  dated  November  I4th,  1647,  and  the 
last  on  the  8th  of  May,  1651  ;  and  the  whole  property  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  Ursulines  a  few  years  after.  The  date  of  the  last 
transfer  was  November  2oth,  1678.  The  whole  of  the  property 
thus  transferred  by  the  original  owners  to  the  community  of  the 
Ursulines,  has  remained  in  their  possession  until  it  was  sold  to 
the  Dominion  Government  in  1901. 

With  the  expansion  of  the  city  westward,  the  enclosure 
was  used  as  a  military  parade  ground,  and  many  brilliant  reviews 
were  held  there,  the  last  being  in  the  presence  of  His  Royal 
Highness  the  Duke  of  Cornwall  and  York,  in  September,  1901. 

During  the  first  half  century  of  British  rule  the  military 
displays  were  held  nearer  to  the  city,  as  may  be  seen  by  the 
plans  made  at  the  time. 



Much  misconception  has  existed  within  comparatively 
modern  times  as  to  the  site  of  the  Battle  of  the  Plains  of  Abraham  ; 
and  for  many  years  past  the  Race  Course,  now  converted  into  a 
Park,  has  been  pointed  out  as  the  exact  place. 

The  error  arose  through  the  statement  made  by  a  writer 
about  sixty  years  ago,  who  placed  the  battle  upon  this  ground, 
and  his  ipse  dixit  has  been  accepted  and  copied  over  and  over 
again  by  writers  ever  since,  until  the  statement  has  been  accepted 
as  a  fact. 

To  an  ordinary  observer  the  Race  Course  would  no  doubt 
be  hailed  as  an  ideal  battle  field.  Wolfe,  however,  was  not  an 
ordinary  observer,  and  he  chose  the  place,  as  he  told  his  Briga- 
diers shortly  before  the  battle,  where  he  thought  he  could  best 
succeed.  He  could  scarcely  hope  to  have  been  successful  if  he 
had  chosen  the  ground  of  the  Race  Course. 

The  place  chosen  by  Wolfe,  as  we  find  by  the  plans  made 
by  his  Officers,  and  by  the  documents  which  they  prepared  for 
the  express  purpose  of  showing  the  site  of  the  Battle,  was  nearer 
the  city.  This  ground  afforded  Wolfe  the  advantage  of  a  rising 
ground  on  his  right,  and  the  protection  of  several  houses  on  his 
left.  Wolfe's  line  of  battle  extended  almost  from  the  cliff  near 
the  river  St.  Lawrence  to  the  St.  Foy  Road,  in  a  line  with  de 
Salaberry  Street ;  and  Montcalm's  army  met  in  a  parallel  line 
separated  by  only  a  distance  of  40  yards.  The  exact  position  of 
both  armies  is  shown  on  the  plan  accompanying  this  work, 
and  a  more  detailed  description  is  to  be  found  in  ' '  The  Siege  of 
Qnebec  and  the  Battle  of  the  Plains  of  Abraham  ". 


The  history  of  the  Plains  or  Heights  of  Abraham  commences 
in  the  days  of  the  Founder  of  Quebec,  1635,  one  hundred  and 
fourteen  years  before  the  decisive  battle  in  which  both  Wolfe 
and  Montcalm  found  a  soldier's  grave.  In  the  archives  of  the 
Ursuline  Convent  may  still  be  seen  the  deed  of  concession  by 
which  the  land,  now  so  widely  known,  was  ceded  to  Abraham 
Martin.  This  document  is  dated  the  4th  of  December,  1635,  and 
it  is  of  special  interest  because  it  contains  a  reference  to  the 


illness  of  Champlain,  who  died  twenty-one  days  after  its  comple- 
tion. Thirteen  years  later,  on  the  loth  of  October,  1648,  Abraham 
Martin  acquired  the  adjoining  property,  making  a  total  of  thirty- 
two  acres.  These  two  parcels  of  land  were  bounded  on  the  north 
by  Cote  Ste.  Genevieve,  on  the  south  by  a  line  parallel  with  St. 
Louis  road,  two  hundred  yards  north,  on  the  east  by  Ste.  Gene- 
vieve street,  and  on  the  west  by  Claire  Fontaine  street,  officially 
described  as  the  Fontaine  d' Abraham. 

This  ground  appears  to  have  been  used  for  pasturage  in 
Martin's  time,  and  as  very  little  of  the  land  in  tlje  immediate 
vicinity  wyas  under  cultivation,  Abraham's  cattle  wandered  at 
pleasure  over  the  adjoining  fields,  and  thus  the  name  of  The 
Plains  or  Heights  of  Abraham  was  given  to  a  far  larger  tract  of 
land  than  that  confined  by  the  boundaries  of  the  concession. 

A  reference  to  the  plan  of  the  battle  shows  that  on  the  I3th 
of  September,  1759,  the  right  wnng  of  Montcalm's  army  occupied 
a  part  of  the  original  ground  owned  by  Martin,  and  thus  this 
land  was  closely  associated  with  the  commencement  and  termi- 
nation of  the  French  Regime.  In  the  course  of  time  this  property 
was  sold  for  building  purposes,  and  for  many  years  it  has  been 
thickly  studded  with  dwellings. 

Abraham  Martin  was  a  Pilot,  and  in  the  early  days  of  the 
Colony  was  a  man  of  importance ,  but  in  his  later  years  he  appears 
to  have  forfeited  much  of  the  good  opinion  of  his  fellow-citizens. 
He  was  the  father  of  a  large  family,  and  all  his  children  were 
highly  respected,  and  some  of  them  rose  to  eminence.  For 
many  years  after  the  close  of  the  campaign  of  1759,  the  Plains 
of  Abraham  were  the  scene  of  grand  military  displays.  The 
first  of  importance  took  place  on  the  2gth  of  August,  1787,  in 
the  presence  of  His  Royal  Highness,  Prince  William  Henry,  and 
the  Governor.  An  excellent  description  of  this  sham  battle  is 
found  in  a  manuscript  plan  of  the  time,  now  in  Washington  : — 

"  OX   THE   PLAINS   OF   ABRAHAM" — (1787) 

Brigadier  General  Hope. 

Brigade  Major  Skene. 

Grenadiers,  Major  Ancram  34th  Regt. 

Light  Infantry  Major  Duff,  26th  Regt 

Commanding  Lt.  Col.  Hastings  34th  Regt. 

Royal  Artillery  Major  Goll. 

ist  Brigade. — 5th  Regt.  Major  Smith. 

4th  Regt.  Major  Campbell. 

Commanding  Major  Campbell. 



Reserve.— 34th  Regiment  Major  Ross. 

2nd  Brigade. — 3ist  Regt.  Major  Cotton. 

2th  Regt.  Captain  Burrows. 
Commanding  Major  Cotton. 

Various  movements  of  the  troops  are  shown  on  the  plan. 
In  one  position  the  5th,  29th,  34th,  3ist  and  26th  Regiments  are 
formed  in  a  line  facing  north  along  the  Grand  Alice,  between 
the  Drill  Hall  and  Claire  Fontaine  Street,  near  which,  on  the 
south  side  of  the  street,  is  shown  the  gallows.  Another  position 
shows  the  troops  on  the  St.  Foy  road  near  Scott  street  and  a 
third  position  places  the  men  on  the  St.  Foy  road  near  the 
monument,  with  a  movement  towards  Sillery.  On  the  St.  Foy 
road  a  farm  house  was  supposed  to  be  fortified.  The  Cove  Fields, 
the  Gaol  hill,  the  Race  Course  and  nearly  all  the  ground  was 
included  in  the  movements,  but  the  principal  operations  were 
on  the  St.  Foy  road,  nearer  to  the  city. 

With  the  expansion  of  the  city  the  space  available  for 
military  operations  was  gradually  restricted,  until  the  Race 
Course,  commonly  called  the  Plains  or  heights  of  Abraham,  was 
the  only  place  left  suitable  for  a  parade  ground. 


The  Cove  Fields,  the  property  of  the  Federal  Government, 
are  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  rear  of  the  houses  on  the  Grand 
All^e,  on  the  south  by  the  River  St.  Lawrence,  on  the  east  by 
the  walls  of  the  city,  and  on  the  west  by  the  Martello  Tower, 
No.  2.  On  the  old  plans  of  Quebec,  a  large  portion  of  these 
fields  is  enclosed  under  the  name  of  "  The  King's  Field,"  and 
near  the  handsome  stone  building  known  as  the  "  Drill  Hall," 
there  was  a  windmill,  and  beyond  this,  westward,  the  town 

On  the  rising  ground  in  the  vicinity  of  the  targets  may  be 
seen  the  ruins  of  old  fortifications.  These  ruins  are  erroneously 
described  by  local  historians,  and  on  map  Baedeker's  (1900)  as 
the  remains  of  ' '  French  Fort. ' ' 

These  works  are  of  British  origin,  and  were  commenced 
on  the  gth  of  October,  1/79,  under  an  order  signed  by  General 
Haldimand,  and  the  original  plans  and  the  progress  plans  of  the 
work,  may  be  seen  by  the  student  in  the  splendid  collection  of 
plans  which  has  been  rendered  available  His  Excellency,  the 
Earl  of  Minto. 



From  time  to  time,  portions  of  the  fields  have  been  occupied 
by  the  Government  for  factories,  such  as  the  Cartridge  factory  ; 
and  recently  a  large  area  has  been  acquired  by  Sir  Charles  Ross 
for  a  small  arms  factory.  This  building  obstructs  the  magnifi- 
cent view  which  was  obtained  in  a  westerly  direction,  and  it 
also  considerably  limits  the  recreation  ground. 

For  many  years  the  links  of  the  Quebec  Golf  Chib  have 
been  on  the  Cove  Fields,  and  at  one  time  there  were  none  better 
in  Canada.  The  erection  of  so  many  buildings,  however,  has 
considerably  interfered  with  the  location  of  the  holes,  and  con- 
sequently the  round  has  been  shortened.  The  Royal  Victoria 
Curling  Club  is  at  present  erecting  a  building  adjoining  the 
Skating  Rink,  and  quarters  are  to  be  alloted  to  the  Golf  Club  in 
this  club  house.  The  Cove  Fields  appeal  equally  to  the  citizens 
of  Quebec  whether  of  French  or  English  origin,  and  it  is  a 
matter  of  regret  that  intelligent  interest  was  not  devoted  to  the 
preservation  of  this  unrivalled  recreation  ground  at  an  opportune 


On  the  1 3th  of  October,   1835,  an  advertisement  appeared., 
in  the''Quebec  Gazette,  and  in  the  Mercury,  inviting  all  persons  of 
English  origin  who  were  interested  in  the  formation  of  a  St. 
George's  Society,  to  attend  a  meeting  to  be  held  at  the  Albion 
Hotel  on  the  i6th  of  October. 

This  meeting  was  numerously  attended,  and  a  Committee 
was  chosen  by  ballot,  composed  of  the  following  gentlemen. 
Messrs.  C.  F.  Alywin,  LeMessurier,  H.  H.  Kerr,  W.  Kemble, 
John  Bonner,  J.  C.  Fisher  and  J.  Dyde. 

The  meeting  was  adjourned  until  the  I3th  of  November, 
but  on  that  day  the  Rules  and  Regulations  were  not  completed, 
and  therefore  the  meeting  was  further  adjourned  until  the  2oth 
of  November.  The  articles  were  agreed  to  at  this  meeting,  and 
from  that  date  St.  George's  Society  has  continued  its  good  work. 

Mr.  H.  T.  Machin,  the  President  of  the  St.  George's  Society 
in  1902,  in  the  course  of  his  remarks  at  the  Dinner  of  a  sister 
society,  ably  set  forth  the  aims  of  the  founders  of  St.  George's 
Society  and  the  work  accomplished  by  its  members  ;  we  there- 
fore make  an  extract  from  his  speech  on  that  occasion. 

' '  Our  national  Friendly  Societies  owe  their  origin  to  the 
disposition  of  Scotchmen,  Irishmen  and  Englishmen  in  foreign 
Countries  and  in  Colonies  of  the  Empire,  to  help  such  of  their 
fellow  countrymen  and  countrywomen  as  owing  to  misfortune 
or  sickness  are  in  need  of  aid. 


' '  On  this  continent  these  Societies  existed  in  the  old  colo- 
nies prior  to  the  American  Revolution,  and  they  are  numerous 
and  prosperous  in  Canada  and  the  United  States  at  the  present 
time.  The  St.  George's  Society  of  Quebec  is,  I  believe,  of  the 
same  age  as  the  St.  Andrew's  Society,  having  been  established 
in  1835,  and  among  its  first  members  will  be  found  the  names 
of  many  whose  descendants  are  occupying  leading  positions  in 
Quebec  to-day. 

The  objects  of  the  Society,  at  the  time  of  its  formation,  were 
stated  to  be  to  aid  English  and  Welsh  immigrants  and  their 
descendants  w7hen  in  need  ;  to  comfort  and  relieve  the  sick,  aged 
and  infirm;  to  assist  orphans  and  destitute  children,  and  generally 
to  do  all  that  a  Benevolent  Society  ought  of  right  to  do. 

It  was  also  declared  to  be  the  duty  of  its  members  to  cherish 
amongst  themselves  and  their  descendants,  veneration  for,  and 
attachment  to,  the  Institutions  of  the  Mother  country.  I  think, 
Mr.  President,  that  the  records  of  the  St.  George's  Society  of 
Quebec  will  show  that  its  members  have  carried  out  the  objects 
for  which  the  Society  was  formed  and  that,  while  the  principal 
part  of  its  revenues  and  the  efforts  of  its  members  have  been 
devoted  to  the  relief  of  those  of  English  or  Welsh  descent,  a 
liberal  portion  of  its  income  has  been  distributed  among  charit- 
able institutions  that  are  attached  to  no  particular  nationality. 

I  think  that  I  may  also  say  that  the  members  of  the  St. 
George's  Society  of  Quebec  while  proud  of  their  race  and  devoted 
to  the  upholding  of  English  institutions  in  this  country,  and  to 
the  maintenance  of  its  connection  with  the  Empire,  are  not  in 
favour  of  perpetuating  national  divisions  amongst  our  popula- 
tion :  divisions  which  are  gradually  being  obliterated  by  the  inter- 
marriages between  those  of  English,  Scotch,  Irish  and  French 
descent — but  are  desirous  of  hastening  the  time  when  all  the 
people  of  Canada,  irrespective  of  origin,  will  be  imbued  with  a 
common  Canadian  patriotism  worthy  of  our  great  and  beautiful 
country — a  patriotism  that  is  necessary  to  develop  strengthen 
and  advance  us  as  a  people,  and  make  this  Dominion  of  Canada 
the  most  powerful  and  valuable  unit  of  the  British  Empire 
beyond  the  seas." 

According  to  the  last  report,  there  were  280  members  on 
the  books  of  the  Society. 

The  Hon.  Treasurer  of  the  St.  George's  Society  is  Mr.  E. 
J.  Hale. 



On  the  ist  January,  1870,  a  meeting  was  held  in  Jeffery 
Hale's  Sunday  School,  to  consider  what  steps  were  necessary  for 
the  organization  of  a  Young  Mens'  Christian  Association  for  the 
city  of  Quebec.  The  Rev.  David  Marsh  presided,  and  Mr.  W. 
Ahearn  acted  as  chairman.  At  an  adjourned  meeting  held  on 
the  25th  of  January,  the  late  Henry  Fry  was  elected  President  of 
the  Association,  the  late  D.  Wilkie,  ist  Vice-President,  C.  P. 
Champion,  2nd  Vice-President,  W.  Ahearn,  Secretary,  and  J.  C. 
Thompson,  Treasurer,  and  the  Committee  was  formed  of  the 
following  gentlemen  :  James  Hamilton ,  Geo.  Lamb,  W.  A. 
Marsh,  H.  W.  Powis,  D.  McPhie,  W.  Brodie,  S.  H.  Robertson. 

The  first  meetings  were  held  in  the  Jeffery  Hale  School 
Room,  but  in  March,  1870,  rooms  were  leased  in  a  building  for- 
merly occupied  by  Belanger  &  Co.  Three  years  later  more 
extensive  accommodation  was  required,  and  rooms  were  leased 
over  McLeod's  Drug  Store,  in  Fabrique  Street,  which  served  for 
the  needs  of  association  until  1880.  In  1879,  steps  were  taken 
to  raise  a  fund  for  the  erection  of  the  main  part  of  the  present 
substantial  building,  which  was  opened  on  the  2oth  of  April, 

In  the  year  1894  steps  were  taken  to  secure  the  funds  neces- 
sary for  the  building  of  a  gymnasium.  In  the  course  of  two 
years  a  sufficient  sum  had  been  secured  to  commence  the  work, 
and  in  1897  the  contracts  were  given  out. 

The  building  is  well  arranged,  and  is  provided  with  a  class 
room,  a  library,  reading-room,  and  reception  rooms. 

In  the  season  the  gymnasium  is  much  frequented. 

There  is  provision  made  for  all  kinds  of  physical  exercise, 
and  the  members  of  the  permanent  force  both  Artillery  and 
Infantry,  are  admitted  to  membership  at  a  reduced  rate.  There 
is  also  an  excellent  swimming  bath.  A  regular  course  of  instruc- 
tion in  commercial  subjects  is  provided  in  the  winter  season. 

The  following  gentlemen  have  filled  the  office  of  President  : 
Henry  Fry,  1870-8  ;  John  C.  Thompson,  1878-89  ;  Robert  Stanley, 
1890  ;  W.  C.  Scott  ;  1891-94  ;  W.  A.  Marsh,  1895-99  ',  G.  W. 
Parmelee,  1899-0  ;  W.  W.  Wiggs,  1900-1  ;  I,.  C.  Webster,  1901  ; 
John  Thompson,  1903. 

The  Secretary  of  the  Association  is  W.  H.  Distin. 


Note  by  MR.  BARTHE,  Secretary  of  the  Auditorium  Co. 

Such  is  the  legal  name  of  a  local  company  incorporated  in 
April  1902  with  a  capital  stock  of  |  to  provide  the  city 
with  a  first  class  theatre.  The  City  authorities  made  for  that 
purpose  a  free  gift  of  a  vacant  lot  situate  close  to  St.  John's  Gate, 
which  had  been  conceded  to  them  by  the  Dominion  Govern- 

The  Auditorium  buildings,  the  inauguration  of  which  took 
place  on  the  thirty-first  of  August  1903,  comprise  :  i.  A  capa- 
cious theatre  Hall,  90  feet  long,  75  feet  wide  and  45  feet  high, 
besides  the  stage  space,  which  is  35  feet  deep,  70  feet  wide  and 
70  feet  high,  along  side  of  which  are  the  artists'  dressing  rooms 
in  a  four  story  wing  ;  2.  A  four  story  building  fronting  on  St. 
John  Street,  85  x  50  feet,  the  ground  and  second  floors  to  be  used 
as  a  fashionable  Cafe  and  Restaurant  with  grille  rooms,  ladies 
and  gentlemen's  drawing  and  cafe"  rooms,  the  upper  stories 
designed  to  be  rented  as  lodge  or  club-rooms,  for  a  conservatory 
of  music,  and  other  like  purposes  ;  3.  An  arched  promenade 
connecting  the  cafe  with  the  Theatre. 

The  street  facade  is  designed  in  a  curve,  so  as  to  be  visible 
from  the  western  end  of  St.  John  street,  and  its  elaborate  French 
Renaissance  style  makes  it  an  ornament  for  the  city.  The  grille- 
room  on  the  first  floor  is  finished  in  the  style  of  the  old  English 
inns,  with  beam  ceiling,  high  wainscoting  and  fire  places. 

The  approach  to  the  theatre  is  through  and  arched  pro- 
menade after  the  order  of  an  arcade,  with  booths  for  the  sale  of 
flowers,  confectionery  &c.,  and  a  terrace  on  the  side  which  is 
used  in  conjunction  with  the  Cafe  during  the  summer  months, 
modelled  after  the  outdoor  cafes'  of  Paris.  At  the  end  of  the 
promenade  is  a  large  lobby,  where  tickets  are  sold  for  the  per- 
formances, with  entrances  to  the  carriage  porch  and  galleries. 

The  entrance  to  the  theatre  proper  is  a  large  foyer,  16  by 
34  feet,  with  wide  stairways  to  the  balcony  and  smoking  rooms, 
and  entrances  to  the  Auditorium,  ladies  parlors  and  cloak  rooms, 

The  seating  capacity  of  the  Auditorium  is  1800,  with 
standing  room  for  200.  The  hall,  with  its  sweeping  balconies, 
boxes  and  galleries,  is  finished  in  French  Renaissance  style, 
with  roomy  aisles  and  wide  seats. 

Few  theatre  buildings  are  more  immure  against  fire  than 
the  Quebec  Auditorium,  which  is  completely  isolated  on  all  sides, 


and  provided  with  ample  fire  escapes  making  the  number  of 
exits  twenty-three  in  all.  The  boiler  room  is  an  outside  fire 
proof  vault,  the  whole  building  being  heated  by  steam  and 
lighted  by  electricity  ;  and  a  special  4  inch  supply  pipe  runs 
from  the  street  to  the  back  of  the  stage  board,  providing  ample 
sprinkling  in  case  of  fire.  The  galleries  on  one  side  have  a  direc~l 
landing  on  the  fortification  wall,  which  may  be  used  in  the 
summer  months  as  a  promenade  between  the  acts  :  a  feature 
which  is  probably  unique  in  the  history  of  theatres. 


The  Quebec  Fire  Brigade  was  inaugurated  on  the  i6th  of 
September,  1866,  with  Mr.  James  Ferguson  as  chief,  Mr.  Le"on 
Lemieux,  as  deputy  and  about  fifteen  men.  Six  or  seven  years 
afterwards  Mr.  Felix  St.  Michel  succeeded  Mr.  Ferguson  as 
chief,  and  Mr.  Le"on  Lemieux  became  deputy.  In  1875  Mr. 
Le"on  Lemieux  replaced  Chief  St.  Michel  and  Mr.  Matthew 
Coleman  was  named  deputy.  On  the  i6th  February,  1877,  Mr. 
Philippe  Dorval  was  appointed  chief,  and  Mr.  Matthew  Coleman, 

On  the  1 2th  of  February,  1896,  Deputy-chief  Coleman  died, 
and  a  few  weeks  afterwards  was  replaced  by  Mr.  John  Walsh 
and  Mr.  Edward  Martinette.  The  brigade  consists  at  present 
of  a  chief,  two  deputies,  8  captains  and  52  firemen.  A  new  station 
has  recently  been  established  at  St.  Amable  Street,  Montcalm 
Ward,  with  10  men  and  7  horses.  There  are  at  present. 

Nine  stations 
36  horses 

3  steam  engines 
10  hose-reels 

2  large  fire  escape  adders  (75  feet  long) 

4  ladder-waggons 
i  chemical  engine 

3  vehicles  for  the  chief  and  his  two  deputies. 


(Note  by  MAJOR  WOOD) 

As  fire  ships  and  radeaux-a-feu  played  a  conspicuous  part 
in  the  siege  of  Quebec  in  1 759  it  is  interesting  to  note  the  regular 
way  of  preparing  them  in  those  days.  What  is  still  more  per- 
tinent to  the  present  work  is  to  notice  that  Vaudreuil's  fire 
ships  and  rafts  were  many  times  more  expensive  than  the  proper 
ones,  and  yet  they  were  just  as  many  times  less  effective.  A  fire 
ship  cost,  roughly,  about  five  dollars  per  ton  to  prepare.  Five- 
inch  timbers  were  hollowed  into  troughs  and  laid  in  two  tracks 
a  couple  of  feet  apart  round  the  deck  ;  these  were  connected  by 
cross  troughs,  and  all  communicated  with  each  other  and  with 
the  stopped  port-holes,  which  were  designed  to  blow  open  and 
let  out  the  fire  when  it  had  gained  headway,  and  also  with  the 
pitch-barrels  which  spread  the  fire  into  the  masts  and  rigging. 
The  deck  and  troughs  were  all  well  laid  with  melted  rosin. 
Funnels  were  arranged  to  create  a  strong  updraught  from  bet- 
ween decks  towards  the  rigging.  A  communicating  trough  to 
a  sally-port  in  the  ship's  side,  laid  with  quick  match,  enabled 
the  crew  to  fire  the  ship  all  over  in  a  minute  or  two.  The  spread 
and  fierceness  of  the  fire  was  much  helped  by  the  priming  com- 
position, each  barrel  of  which  contained  one  hundred  pounds  of 
gunpowder,  fifty  pounds  of  saltpetre,  forty  pounds  of  sulphur, 
six  pounds  of  rosin  and  three  pints  of  oil,  a  truly  infernal 
mixture  ! 


It  is  somewhat  remarkable  that  writers  on  the  Seven  Years' 
War,  and  more  particularly  on  the  Campaign  of  1 759,  have  failed 
to  do  justice  to  that  great  silent  arm  of  the  Service,  the  Navy,  or 
to  recognize  the  brilliant  services  of  Wolfe's  second  Brigadier, 
George  Townshend.  And  yet  without  the  hearty  and  effective 
co-operation  of  the  navy,  the  execution  of  all  Wolfe's  carefully 
laid  plans  for  the  reduction  of  Quebec  would  have  been  impos- 
sible, and  without  the  assistance  of  Townshend,  his  vidtory 
would  have  been  incomplete.  It  is  true  that  it  is  only  within 
the  last  few  months  that  the  papers  upon  which  his  fame  must 
ultimately  rest,  have  been  brought  to  light ;  but  they  might  have 
been  discovered  long  ago  by  persistent  research.  Historians, 
however,  have  been  content  to  cast  a  stone  at  him,  without 
apparently  caring  whether  there  was  any  truth  in  their  remarks 


or  not.  Townshend  was  a  remarkable  character,  and  while 
abuse  was  directed  against  him  from  all  quarters,  he  remained 
silent,  and  would  not  even  give  those  who  were  willing  to  defend 
him,  the  weapons  with  which  to  do  so.  His  friends  constantly 
injured  his  memory,  while  the  production  of  his  own  writings, 
and  official  documents,  would,  in  every  case  have  furnished  a 
complete  refutation  of  the  numerous  charges  which  were  made 
against  him.  It  is  singular  also  that  even  till  this  day,  it  is 
his  own  people  who  have  injured  him  the  most.  In  the  year 
1901,  Colonel  Townshend,  a  descendant  of  the  family,  published 
"  The  Military  Life  of  George,  First  Marquess  Townshend," 
and  although  he  could  have  had  access  to  all  the  papers  that 
would  have  placed  his  ancestor  in  a  true  light,  he  failed  to 
make  use  of  them,  and  went  out  of  the  way  to  drag  in  secondary 
.evidence  to  establish  claims  for  the  Marquess,  which  he  himself 
had  expressly  denied. 

To  Wolfe  alone  must  be  given  the  merit  of  the  plan  by 
which  Quebec  was  taken  ;  but  to  George  Townshend  belongs 
the  honour  of  setting  the  seal  to  that  victory  which  Wolfe's 
brilliant  tactics  had  made  possible. 

Townshend  had  the  misfortune  in  life  to  suffer  from  the 

misdirected  efforts  of  his  friends,   who  for  political   purposes 

claimed  for  him  the  honour  of  the  victory  of  Quebec.     Town- 

shend's  own  official  letters,  which  have  now  been  brought  to 

light,  prove  beyond  question  that  he  never  even  claimed  his 

proper  share  in  that  victory.     His  remarkable  career  after  the 

Siege  of  Quebec,  and  his  deep  interest  in  Canadian  affairs,  are 

all  matters  of  which  historians  have  told  us  nothing.     These 

papers  are  shortly  to  be  published,  and  they  will  show  to  us  the 

Brigadier  in  a  character  which  we  little  suspect,  and  one  which  is 

entirely  at  variance  with  anything  which  we  now  possess  of  him. 

Lord  Chesterfield  appears  to  have  held  Townshend  in  high 

esteem.     Writing  a  few  years  before  his  death  he  says  : — "  It 

has  been  observed  long  ago  that  to  be  reproached  and  defamed 

is  a  tax  that  every  man  must  pay,  for  being  eminent  ;  eminence 

of  whatever  kind  naturally  produces  envy  ;  and  envy  without 

any  opposition  of  interest,  without  any  prospect  of  advantage, 

except  the  gratification  of  its  own  malignity,  is  always  busy 

in  the  prosecution   of   its   object.     But  the  same  merit  that 

excites  envy  to  defamation,  naturally  renders  it  difficult,  by 

securing  the  testimony  of  truth  in  its  favour,  envy  therefore  of 

necessity  must  have  recourse  to  falsehood  ,  and  before  she  can 

impute  faults  must  make  them 

"  The  expediency  of  Government,  like  that  of  medicine, 
"  arises  from  the  imperfection  of  human  nature,  and  it  may  as 


'  reasonably  be  expected  that  medicine  should  be  pleasant,  as 

'  that  government  should  be  administered  without  offence 

'  No  chief  governor  ever  appeared  to  have  the  welfare  of  this 
'  country  more  at  heart  by  the  general  tenor  of  his  conduct,  nor 
'  can  any  administration  be  remembered  in  which  so  many  acts 
'  passed  for  the  support  of  the  constitution,  the  defence  of  the 
'  country,  and  the  security  of  the  public  money  from  waste  and 
'  dissipation." 

Speaking  of  Quebec,  he  says  :  "  To  be  called  in  a  moment 
to  the  command  of  troops  in  such  a  situation,  to  stand  in  the  place 
and  perform  the  duty  of  two  such  persons  as  Wolfe  and  Monckton 
who  had  within  a  very  short  time  been  stricken  upon  the  field, 
was  a  severe  test  both  of  courage  and  ability,  to  which,  however 
Lord  Townshend  shewed  himself  equal." 


(Notes  by  MB.  M.  F.  WALSH,  oj  Ottawa,  and  MR.  T.  J.  WALSH, 
of  Quebec.} 

This  Institute  was  founded  on  the  28th  of  December,  1852, 
by  the  Reverend  Father  James  Nelligan,  for  the  benefit  of  the 
members  of  St.  Patrick's  Congregation.  The  first  President 
was  the  late  Honourable  Mr.  Sharpies,  father  of  the  Honourable 
John  Sharpies,  M.  L.  C.  The  Council  was  composed  of  the 
following  gentlemen  : — 

President,  Mr.  John  Sharpies, 

ist  Vice- President,  "  Michael  Connolly. 

2nd  Vice-President,  "  John  Doran. 

Treasurer,  "  J.  P.  O'Meara. 

Recording-Secretary,  "  Charles  J.  Golfer. 

Assistant  Recording-Secretary,  "  Mr.  J.  C.  Nolan. 

Corresponding-Secrecary,  "  Matthew  Ryan. 

Assist.  Corresponding-Secy.,  "  Moore  A.  Higgins. 

Council  : — William  Quinn,  William  Mackay,  John  O'Leary, 
Lawrence  Stafford,  Michael  Mernagh,  James  Mackay,  Phillip 
Whitty,  Thomas  J.  Murphy,  Maurice  O'Leary,  James  Foley. 



Of  the  sixty-nine  founders  only  six  are  now  living,  viz 
Messrs.  Arthur  H.  Murphy, 

James  A.  Green, 

Matthew  W.  Clark, 

James  Connolly, 

Jeremiah  C.  Nolan; 

John  Giblin. 

None  of  the  above  gentlemen  are  now  residents  of  the  city. 
The  numbers  given  indicate  the  names  as  they  appear  on  the 
Treasurer's  book. 

The  institute  was  opened  by  a  lecture  from  the  late  Rev. 
Father  Kerrigan,  a  man  of  brilliant  talents.  Amongst  other 
notable  ledlurers  the  following  will  give  an  idea  of  the  scope  and 
aims  of  the  Institute. 

Rev.  Henry  Giles,  who  was  a  Unitarian  Minister.  His 
fame  as  a  lecturer  was  world-wide. 

Mr.  Ives.  This  gentlemen  was  at  one  time  Protestant 
Bishop  of  North  or  South  Carolina,  and  author  of  the  celebrated 
work,  •' The  Trials  of  a  Mind,"  in  which  he  gives  his  reasons 
for  his  change  of  Faith,  by  stepping  down  from  being  a  Bishop 
with  its  big  salary,  to  become  a  layman  and  a  school  master. 

Thomas  d'Arcy  McGee.  Of  this  gentlemen  his  name,  being 
of  later  date,  is  quite  sufficient  ;  suffice  it  to  say  that  unlike  the 
others  he  appeared  several  times  before  the  Institute  as  a  lecturer. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Cahill,  gave  a  series  of  six  lectures. 

The  Institute  gave  its  first  Soiree  on  the  iyth  March,  1857, 
in  their  Hall,  in  rear  of  St.  PatrickChurch.  The  Soiree  was 
suggested  and  organized  by  the  Rev,  Father  Golfer,  yet  living. 
The  programme  is  still  in  existence. 

The  25th  anniversary  was  celebrated  by  a  grand  concert. 
Strictly  speaking  the  Institute  was  not  an  Irish  Society.  While 
all  its  members  were  Irish  and  Catholic,  of  course,  it  was  insti- 
tuted for  the  purpose  of  advancing  in  a  social  and  literary  point 
of  view,  the  interests  of  Catholics  speaking  the  English  language. 

In  the  year  1876,  the  Institute  bought  the  present  hall, 
Tara  Hall,  paying  therefor  the  sum  of  five  thousand  five  hund- 
red dollars.  There  was  some  little  trouble  in  perfecting  the 
titles  to  the  property  for  the  reason"  that  the  late  Jefferey  Hale, 
who  owned  the  house  at  one  time,  stipulated  in  the  deed  of  gift 
to  a  Protestant  sect,  that  the  hall  should  never  be  loaned  or 
leased  for  anything  Catholic  —  not  even  for  a  Catholic  charity. 
At  the  time  the  Institute  bought  the  Hall,  it  was  then  being 
used  as  a  theatre,  and  owned  by  Mr.  Thomas  H.  Grant. 


Thirty  five  years  after  the  foundation  of  the  Institute  to  a 
day,  namely  28th  December  1887,  the  Hall  was  totally  destroyed 
by  fire.  The  Institute  rebuilt  on  the  same  ground. 

In  the  life  of  the  ever  to  be  lamented  Lord  Edward  Fitz- 
gerald, who  died  in  Ireland's  cause  in  1798,  (the  author  is  Moore 
the  Poet),  we  find  that  the  deceased  nobleman  was  a  visitor  in 
Quebec  and  spent  a  St.  Patrick's  Day  there  in  1789.  Lord 
Edward  was  then  an  Officer  in  the  British  army,  and  his  regi- 
ment was  in  that  year  stationed  in  New  Brunswick,  as  on  the 
2nd  September,  1788,  he  writes  from  Frederick's  Town  (sic)  to 
his  ' '  dearest,  dearest  mother, ' '  telling  her  of  a  trip  he  and  some 
friends  intended  making  in  canoes  some  two  hundred  and  fifty 
miles  up  the  river  St.  John  to  Grand  Falls,  which  he  says  ' '  are 
by  all  accounts  beautiful. ' '  Again,  on  aist  November,  in  a  letter, 
he  says  that  he  means  to  go  to  Quebec  "  in  snowshoes." 
On  the  I4th  March,  1789,  he  writes  to  his  "  dearest  mother " 
that  he  had  arrived  in  Quebec  on  the  previous  day.  His  party 
consisted  of  a  brother  officer,  his  own  servant  and  ' '  two  wood- 
men." They  were  thirty  days  on  the  march,  "twenty-six  of 
which  were  in  the  woods,  and  never  saw  a  soul  but  our  own 
party. ' '  Mentioning  his  arival  in  Quebec,  he  says  : 

"  When  we  got  here,  you  may  guess  what  figures  we  were: 
we  had  not  shaved  or  washed  during  the  journey;  our  blanket 
coats  and  trousers  all  worn  out  and  pieced;  in  short  we  went  to 
two  or  three  houses  and  they  would  not  let  us  in.  There  was 
one  old  lady,  exactly  the  hbtesse,  in  Gil  Bias,  die  me  fait  la  mesure 
dupiedjusqu'd  la  tfce,  and  told  me  there  was  one  room,  without 
a  stove  or  bed,  next  a  billiard  room,  which  I  might  have  if  I 
pleased;  and  when  I  told  her  we  were  gentlemen,  she  very 
quietly  said:  "  I  dare  say  you  are,  "and  off  she  went.  However, 
at  last  we  got  lodgings  in  an  ale-house,  and  you  may  guess,  eat 
well  and  slept  well,  and  went  next  day,  well  dressed,  with  one 
of  Lord  Dorchester's  aides-de-camp,  to  triumph  over  the  old 
lady  ;  in  short,  exactly  the  story  in  Gil  Bias  On  the  1 2th  April 
he  was  still  in  Quebec,  as  on  that  date  he  writes  to  his  step-father, 
Mr.  Ogilvie,  (over  whom,  by  the  way,  he  shows  great  affection), 
saying  that  he  did  not  expect  to  get  away  for  some  time,  but 
would  fill  up  the  interval  visiting  the  outposts.  A  letter  from 
Mr.  Hamilton  Moore,  to  the  Duke  of  Richmond,  dated  Quebec, 
22nd  May,  1789,  mentions  Lord  Edward's  arrival  after  a  journey 
of  175  miles  by  the  route  he  had  taken,  instead  of  the  375  miles, 
involved  in  the  route  usually  taken,  via  the  rivers  St.  John, 
Madawaska  and  Katnouraska.  On  the  4th  May,  he  writes  to 
his  "dearest  mother"  from  Montreal  where  he  had  then  been 


for  a  week,  intending  to  "set  off  in  a  few  hours  for  his  long 
journey"  down  the  Mississipi.  In  this  letter  he  writes  :'  "  I  have 
nothing  new  to  tell  you,  for  at  Quebec,  and  here  I  have  done 
nothing  but  feast,  and  I  am  horribly  tired  of  it.  ...  The  Can- 
adians are  a  good  people, — very  like  the  French, — and  of  course 
I  like  them.  There  was  one  family  at  Quebec  very  pleasant  and 
very  good  to  me, — a  mother  and  two  pretty  daughters.  Don't 
be  afraid, — I  was  not  in  love.  We  were  very  sorry  to  part." 

Now  there  are  a  couple  interesting  points — one  particularly 
interesting — that  possibly  some  old  records  or  family  traditions 
may  solve  :  Who  was  the  ' '  old  lady  ' '  who  opined  that  Lord 
Edward  and  his  friend  might  possibly  be  gentlemen  ?  And,  more 
important  still,  who  were  the  "  mother  and  two  pretty  daugh- 
ters ' '  of  whom  Lord  Edward  writes  in  such  kindly  terms  ?  ' ' 

St.  Patrick's  Day  is  fittingly  honoured  in  Quebec  every 
year,  and  a  concert  or  dramatic  representation  usually  takes 
place  in  the  evening,  preceded  by  a  speech  from  a  leading  Irish 
orator.  At  the  gathering,  in  1901,  a  memorable  address  was 
delivered  by  the  Honourable  Charles  Fitzpatrick,  LL.  D.,  the 
present  Minister  of  Justice. 


In  the  short  sketch  of  St.  Andrew's  Church  it  will  be  seen 
that  from  the  earliest  days  of  British  rule  in  Canada  services 
were  provided  for  the  natives  of  Scotland  who  had  settled  in 
Quebec.  The  work  of  relieving  Scottish  emigrants,  or  those  in 
distress,  was  therefore  undertaken  by  the  members  of  the  con- 
gregation, as  occasion  required.  As  early  as  the  year  1836  there 
appears  to  have  been  some  definite  organization  in  this  respecl; 
under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Cook  and  Dr.  Douglas,  and  the  char- 
itable work  was  carried  on  for  a  long  time  by  a  Society  known 
as  St.  Andrew's  Society  of  Quebec. 

After  man)'  years  the  Society  sought  incorporation  under 
an  Act  which  was  assented  to  on  the  ist  of  February,  1870.  The 
preamble  of  this  Act  reads  as  follows  : — 

Whereas  the  president  and  members  of  the  association, 
which  hath  for  many  years  existed  in  Quebec  under  the  name 
of  the  St.  Andrew's  Society  of  Quebec,  have,  by  their  petition 
to  the  Legislature,  represented  that  the  said  association  has  been 
formed  for  the  benevolent  purpose  of  affording  pecuniary,  me- 
dical, and  other  relief,  to  such  natives  of  Scotland  and  their 
descendants,  as  may  from  sickness  or  other  causes  have  fallen 



into  distress,  and  of  aiding,  directing  and  relieving  the  neces- 
sities of  "Scottish  immigrants  on  their  arrival  in  Canada,  and 
hath  prayed  for  the  better  attainment  of  the  objects  of  the  said 
association,  it  may  be  invested  with  corporated  powers  ;  and  by 
reason  of  the  good  effected  by  the  said  association,  it  is  expedient 
to  grant  the  prayer  of  the  said  petition, 

Therefore,  Her  Majesty,  by  and  with  the  advice  and  con- 
sent of  the  Legislature  of  Quebec,  enacts  as  follows  : — 

John  Cook  Thomson,  D.  McPherson,  John  Laird,  P.  Mc- 
Naughton,  A.  Nicoll,  A.  Robertson,  jr.,  J.  W.  Cook,  J.  Fraser, 
C.  Wilkie,  T.  G.  Hunter,  J.  Cook,  D.  D.,  W.  B.  Clark.  W.  Brodie, 
W.  D.  Campbell,  James  Dean,  J.  Gilmour,  J.  Gibb,  W.  Hossack, 
G.  Irvine,  L.  T.  McPherson,  J.  McNaughton,  D.  McGie,  P. 
Paterson,  J.  G.  Ross,  J.  Ross,  McLean  Stuart,  R.  Shaw.  R.  Cas- 
sels,  A.  Stuart,  H.  S.  Scott,  M.  Stevenson,  J.  Thomson,  D.  Wilkie, 
W.  Walker,  D.  A.  Ross,  and  such  other  persons  as  are  now  mem- 
bers of  the  said  association,  or  shall  hereafter  become  members 
of  the  same,  shall  be,  and  are  hereby  constituted  a  body  politic 
and  corporate,  by  the  name  of  the  ' '  St.  Andrew's  Society  of 


Reference  is  made  on  page  194  of  this  work,  to  the  con- 
templated demolition  of  Morrin  College,  in  which  the  Literary 
and  Historical  Society  has  quarters. 

Arrangements  have  been  made,  however,  by  which  the 
College  will  undergo  considerable  alteration,  and  more  space  is 
to  be  allotted  to  the  Society.  Through  the  generosity  of  Dr. 
James  Douglas,  a  sum  of  $500  is  to  be  paid  annually  to  the 
Society  for  the  purchase  of  new  books,  and  this  amount  is  to  be 
augmented  by  a  liberal  grant  on  the  part  of  the  governors  of 
Morrin  College.  With  this  substantial  assistance  the  Society 
will  be  able  to  resume  the  publication  of  valuable  documents, 
and  with  an  increase  of  membership  it  should  be  in  a  position 
to  regain  its  former  reputation. 




BUADE — In  remembrance  of  Louis  de  Buade,  Count  de  Palluau 
et  de  Frontenac,  Governor  of  New  France  in  1672. 

BURTON — Sir  F.  N.  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Canada,  in  1808. 

CARIU,ON — The  famous  battle  in  which  Montcalm  greatly  dis- 
tinguished himself. 

CARI,ETON — Sir  Guy  Carleton,  Governor  of  Canada  in  1768. 

CARON — The  Hon.  R.  E.  Caron,  Lieutenant-Go vernor  of  the 
Province  of  Quebec  in  1873. 

CHAMPI,AIN — Samuel  Champlain,  Founder  of  Quebec  in  1608. 

CHARLEVOIX— A  Jesuit,  Historian  of  New  France. 

CHENIER— Instigator  of  the  rebellion  in  St.  Eustache. 

CHRISTIE— Robert  Christie,  a  Canadian  historian. 

CLAIRE  FONTAINE — Named  after  the  spring  on  Abraham  Mar- 
tin's property. 

CoivUNS — A  land  surveyor  of  Quebec  towards  the  end  of  the 
i8th  century. 

CONROY — Mgr  Conroy,  Bishop  of  Ardagh  in  Ireland,  apostolic 
delegate  to  Canada. 

COOK— Named  after  Dr.  Cook,  of  St.  Andrew's  Curch. 

CoTE  D' ABRAHAM — Named  after  Abraham  Martin,  a  Pilot,  and 
one  of  the  first  inhabitants  of  Quebec. 

DAMBOURGES — A  French  Canadian  Colonel  who  contributed  to 
the  defeat  of  Arnold  in  1775. 

D'AIGUII^ON— The  Duchesse  d'Aiguillon,  Foundress  of  the 
Hotel  Dieu. 

D'ARGENSON — Pierre  Voyer,  Vicomte  d'Argenson,  governor  of 
New  France  in  1658. 

DE  JUMONVH,I,E— A  French  officer  assassinated  under  Wash- 

D'ARTIGNY — A  French  bibliophile  and  savant  who  died  in  1847. 

D'AuTEUiiv — A  Quebec  family,  of  note,  formerly  very  numerous. 

DE  COURCELI.ES— Governor  of  New  France,  in  1665. 



DAUI.AC— Adam  Daulac  (or  Bollard)  des  Ormeaux,  the  hero  of 

the  Long  Sault,  May  2ist,  1660. 
DOI^ARD — Same  as  above. 
DE  SALABERRY — The  hero  of  Chateauguay. 
DE  TRACY — Lieutenant  of  the  King  in  New  France. 
DE  VlijjERS — A  brother  of  Jumonville. 
D'lBERVUiE — Third  son  of  M.  de  Longueuil,  a  most  valorous 

DONNACONA— Chief  of  the  Indian  village  of  Stadacona,  in  the 

time  of  Jacques  Cartier. 

DORCHESTER — A  Governor-General  of  Canada.   (See  Carleton). 
DUQUESNE— Governor  of  New  France,  in  1752. 
D'YouviLLE — The  foundress  of  the  Grey  Nuns  in  Montreal. 
Du  FORT — The  road  that  formerly  led  to  the  Chateau  of  St. 

Du  PALAIS  (Palace)— The  street  ending  at  the  palace  of  the 

Du  PARI/HR — The  street  adjacent  to  the  parlour  of  the  Ursuline 


Du  TRESOR — The  Treasurer  of  the  Marine  lived  in  the  vicinity. 
DUFFERIN— Governor  General  of  Canada  in  1872. 
BIGGIN — Governor  General  of  Canada  in  1846. 
FERI.AND — A  priest  and  historian  of  Canada. 
FRONTENAC — Governor  of  New  France.     (See  Buade  St. ) 
GARNEAU — A  historian  of  Canada. 
GRANDE  Ai^EE — A  street  that  dates  from  the  time  of  Mont- 

magny,  the  second  Governor  of  New  France. 
GOSFORD — Governor  General  in  1835. 
GUY  ART — The  family  name  of  Mother  Mary  of  the  Incarnation, 

the  foundress  of  the  Ursuline  Convent. 

HAIJHMAND — Sir  F.  Haldimand,  Governor  of  Canada  in  1777. 
HAMEL — Abraham  Hamel,  merchant. 
HEBERT— Louis  Hebert,  the  first  inhabitant. 
HENDERSON — William  Henderson  the  owner  of  the  adjoining 


JACQUES  CARTIER — The  discoverer  of  Canada. 
JOLIETTE — Louis  Jolliet,  the  explorer. 
LALEMANT — A  Jesuit  martyr. 



LANGEUER — Hon.  Mr.  F.  Langelier,  a  former  mayor  of  Quebec. 
LANGEVIN — Sir  Hector  Langevin,  a  former  mayor,  and  minister 

of  the  Crown. 

LANSDOWNE — Governor-General  of  Canada  in  1885. 
LA  SAI,I,E — An  explorer  and  discoverer. 
LETELLIER— Lieutenant-governor  of  the  Province. 
LEVIS— The  Marquis  de  LeVis. 
MARCHAND — A  Prime  Minister  of  the  Province. 
McMAHON— The  first  pastor  of  St.  Patrick's  Church. 
MONTCALM — The  French  general. 
MONTMAGNY — Governor  of  New  France  in  1636. 
MORIN — Hon.  A.  N.  Morin,  a  judge. 
PLESSIS— Mgr.  Plessis,  Bishop  of  Quebec. 
PREVOST— Governor-General  of  Canada  in  1811. 
PRINCE  EDWARD — Edward,  Duke  of  Kent,  father  of  Her  Majesty 

Queen  Victoria. 
RACINE — Mgr.  Racine,  Bishop  of  Sherbrooke,  once  pastor  of  the 

church  of  St.  Jean-Baptiste. 
RAMEAU — E.  Rameau  de  St.  Pere,  a  French  writer,  friendly  to 

the  Canadians  and  Acadians. 
SAINT-CYRILLE — Named  in  honour  of    Monseigneur   Marois, 

Vicar  General  of  Quebec. 
SAUI/T-AU-MATELOT — A  sailor  is  reported  to  have  jumped  from 

the  cliff  at  this  spot. 
SOUS-LE-CAP — A  lane,  under  the  cliff  parallel  to  St.  Paul  and 

Sault-au-Matelot  streets. 
Sous-LE- FORT— Under  the  old  Fort  St.  Louis  which  stood  over 

this  spot. 

SIGNAY — The  archbishop  of  that  name. 
ST.  VAUER— The  second  bishop  of  Quebec. 
VAUBAN — The  celebrated  French  Engineer. 
VICTORIA— Her  Majesty  Queen  Victoria. 
Voi/TiGEURS — The  gth  Battalion  of  Militia  bears  that  name. 
WOLFE— Named  after  the  English  General. 

There  is  also  a  certain  group  of  names  of  streets  whose 
origin  it  is  unnecessary  to  recall,  such  as  :  Arago,  Bayard, 
Colomb,  Colbert,  Talon,  Vaudreuil,  Franklin,  J6r6me,  Napoleon, 
Nelson,  O'Connell,  Richelieu,  etc. 


Many  streets  bear  the  names  of  the  places  or  institutions 
near  which  they  pass,  such  as  :  (Des  Jardins),  Garden,  (Des 
Carri£res)  Quarries,  (de  1'Eglise),  Church,  (De  la  Montagne), 
Mountain  Hill,  etc. 



ABERDEEN,  Earl  of,  245 

Abitation  de  Quebec,  103 

Abraham  Martin,  6 

Act  of  1774,  177  ;  of  1791,    177 

AFTER  THE  STORM,  Chapter 
on,  211 

Alexis,  Grand  Duke,  248 

Alnott,  Rev.  F.,  303 

Americans,  action  of  the,  182 

Angers,  Hon.  A.  R.,  228 

Anthon,  Miss,  271 

Apostolic  Vicariates  estab- 
lished, 202 

Asylum  of  the  good  Shepherd, 
sketch  of,  370 

Asylum  of  the  Holy  Angels,  372 

Asylum  of  St.  Michael  the 
Archangel,  373 

Asylum  of  the  Sisters  of  Cha- 
rity, 372 

Archbishop's  Palace,  the,  397  ; 
rich  vestments  in  sacristy 
°f  >  397  ;  souvenirs  of  Mgr  de 
Laval,  398 

Arnold, Gen.,  forces  under,  174 

Aubry,  J.  F.,  261 

Auclair,  J.,  259 

Auditorium,  the,  Ap.  XXXII 

Aylmer,  Lord,  203 

BAGOT,  Sir  Chas.,  219 
Baillairge,  Le  Chevalier,  289 
Baillargeon,  M.,  256 
Baldwin,  Robert,  217 

Balfour,  Rev.  A.  J.,  309 

Baptist  Church,  343  ;  officers 
of,  345 

Barre,  Lefebvre  de  la,  Gov.,  24 

Basilica,  the,  252 

Bastion  St.  Louis,  121 

Battle  of  the  Plains,  site  'of, 
Ap.  XXVI 

Battle  of  the  Plains,  the,  90 

Battle  of  Ste.  Foy,  the,  96 

Beaucour,  de  la  Roche,  74 

Eeauharnois,  Marquis  de,  Gov- 
ernor, 49  ;  good  work  of,  53  ; 
on  the  fortifications,  120 

Beauport  church,  79  ;  409 

Beauvoir  Manor,  402 

Beckett,  T.,296 

Bddard,  Pierre,  178  ;  imprison- 
ment and  release  of,  183 

Be"gin,  Mgr.,  Archbishop  of 
Quebec,  266 

Be'gon,  Michel,  Intendant,  49  ; 

Be"langer,  T.  H.,  262 

Belin,  Nicolas,  120 

Bell,  Mathew,  293 

Belleau,  Sir  N.  F.,  228 

Bernieres,  H.  de,  256 

Bienville,  LeMoine  de,  35 

Bigg,  Rev.  R.  H.,  312 

Bigot,  Frs.  Intendant,  62  ; 
career  of  63 ;  power  of,  64  ; 
peculations  of  65 

Bishop's  Palace,  building  of,  39 



Boisdon.  J.,  innkeeper,  12 
Books,  the  first  printed  in  Que- 

bec, 200 

Bonaparte,  Prince,  248 
Borgia,     M.,    181  ;    house   of, 

occupied  by  the  British,  89 
Bostonnais,  the,  173 
Bouffard,  Abbe",  263 
Bosse\  Judge,  229. 
Bougainville,  Gen.,  follows  the 

British    ships,    88  ;    attacks 

British  army,  92 
Boullard,  M.  242 
Bourinot,  Sir  John,  quoted,  224 
Blanchet,  M.  182 
Brewery,   bought  for   Intend- 

ant's  Palace,    24  ;  situation 

of,  24 

Briand,  Mgr.,  186 
Brigadiers,  the,  address  letter 

to  Wolfe,  87 

British  army,on  the  heights,  89 
British  Fleet,  the,  in  St.  Law- 

rence, 74 

Brown,  William,  200 
Burial  Ground,  Protestant,  320 

,  Joseph,   66  ;    accom- 

plice of  Bigot,  67 
Calonne,  Father,  198 
Callieres,  Hector,  36 
Cameron,    Capt,   325;    High- 

landers, 331 
Canadians,   characteristics  of, 

52  ;  loyalty  of,  68 
Canadian    Press    Association, 

the,  422. 
Canadian    Scientific    Society, 


Canadien,  the  181 
Cape  Rouge,  ships  at,  88 
Capitulation,  the,  94 
Carignan  Regiment,  arrival  of, 

21  ;  officers  of  settle  in  Que- 

bec, 27 

Carleton,  Sir  Guy,  129  ;  admin- 
istration of,  171 

Caron,  the  Hon.  R.  E.,  228 

Carrel,  F.,  412. 

Cartier,  Sir  G.  E.,  career  of, 
223  ;  217 

Cataraqui,  229 

Cathedral,  the,  described  by 
Kalm,  59 

Cathedral  of  the  Holy  Trinity, 

on,  XIII,  251 

Cazeau,  Abbe",  260 

Census,  the,  from  1666,  to 
1716,44  ;  from  1665-1901,  239 

Cercle  Catholique,  the,  421 

Citadel  at  Cape  Diamond;  133  ; 
cost  of,  141 

City  Council,  under  French 
regime,  17 

City  Hall,  385 

Clarke,  Sir  A.,  179 

Cockburn,  L,ieut.-Col.,  200 

Cochet,  Baron  du,  104 

Colbert,  his  scheme  of  defence, 

Colborne,  Sir  John,  218 

Coldstream  Guards,  217 

Colony,  prosperity  of,  7 

Confederation,  Act  of,  227 

Conference,  Inter-Provincial, 

Cook,  Dr.,  194     > 

Councillors,  names  of  in  1663, 19 

Coxtrrier  du  Canada,  412 

Courcelle,  see  DeCourcelle, 

Court  House,  the,  389 

Cove  Fields,  Ap.  XXVIII     )C 

Chain  Gate,  142 

Chalmers'  Church,  337  ;  Offi- 
cers of,  340 

Chambers,  E.  T.  D.,  411 

Champigny,  Bochard  de, 
Intendant,  25  ;  106 



Champlain,  Samuel,  birth  of, 
5  ;  Visits  Canada,  5  ;  found- 
ation of  Quebec,  by,  5  ;  builds 
a  fort  on  Cape  Diamond,  6  ; 
Capitulates  to  Kertk,  7  ;  as 
a  navigator,  7  ;  Death  of,  7  ; 
Condition  of  Quebec,  at  time 
of,  8  ;  first  Palisade  of,  101  ; 
chapel  of,  1 1  ;  Monument, 


Chapel  of  the  Saints,  271 

Chapleau,  Sir  J.  A.,  228; 
Ministry  of,  230 

Charette,  Marquis  de,  248 

Charest,  M. ,  80 

Charest,  Z.,  261 

Charitable  Institutions,  Pro- 
testant, 315 

Charlevoix,  Father,  his  des- 
cription of  Quebec  in  1720, 
27  :  40  ;  his  opinion  pf  the 
inhabitants,  43 

Chateau  (Bigot),  164 

Chateau  Frontenac,  395 

Chateau  St.  Louis,  residence 
of  governor,  24 ;  described 
by  Kalm,  58  ;  ruinous  con- 
dition of,  32  ;  meeting  of 
citizens  at,  re  fortifications, 
121  ;  Ball  at,  206  ;  240 

Chauveau  Ministry,  the,  230  ; 
judge,  245 

Chesnaye,  Aubert  de  la,  15 

Chesterfield,  Lord,  quoted,  Ap. 

Chien  d'Or,  documents  re,  Ap. 
Ill  to  XXIV 

QUEBEC,  Chapter  XIV,  291. 

Craig,  Sir  James,  Governor, 
182  ;  administration  of,  183 

Cre"mazie,  J.,  371 

Cricket  Club,  the,  408 

Crowther,  Bishop,  307 

D'Am,EBOUST,   governor,   12 
Daily  Telegraph,  the,  412 
Dalhousie,  Lord,  203  ;  work  of, 

203  ;  Gate,  142 
D' Amours,  M.,  29 
D'Argenson,    Pierre    Voyer  ; 

governor,    13  ;  character  of, 


Darling,  Major-Gen. ,  203 

Dartigues,  I.  257 

D'Avaugour,  Baron  du  Bois, 
governor,  15  ;  character  of, 

De  Berey,  Father,  288 

De  Bonneville,  H.,  178 

De  Bonne,  P.  A.,  178 

De  Boucherville,  Ministry,  the, 

De  Courcelles,  Governor,  21 

Defoy,  Abbe",  260 

De  Lery,  Chaussegros,  engi- 
neer, his  scheme  of  defence, 

Delouche,  Captain,  79 

Demers,  Rev.  Jerome,  work  of, 

De  Meulle,  IntendBnt,  24 

Denaut,  Mgr.,  187 

Denonville,  Marquis  de,  Gov- 
ernor, 24 

Denonville,  Mile,  de,  31 

De  Pontbriand,  Mgr.,  186 

De  Salaberry,  178 

Desfosse"s,  L.,  261 

Descheneaux,  M.,  259 

D'Esglis  Mgr.,  186 

Desjardins,  Father,  198 

Desportes,  P.,  6 

Desrochers,  B.,  261 

Dobell,  Hon.  R.R.  296 

Doherty,  Father,  268 

Dom  Pedro,  Emperor,  248 

Donnacona,  chief,  2,  sent  to 
France,  4 



Dorchester,  Lord,  administra- 

Fire Ships,  Ap.  XXXIV  ;  cost 

tion  of,  176 

and  failure  of,  78 

Dosquet,  Mgr.,  185 

First  missionaries;  the,  18 

Doucet,  A.,  258 

Fisher.  Dr.,  414 

Duchesneau,    Jacques,  "Inten- 

Fletcher,  Governor,  107 

dant,  23 

Flynn,  Ministry,  the,  230 

Ducking,    curious   custom   of, 


in  Quebec,  41 

chapter  VI,   101  ;   condition 

Du  Douyt,  M.,  257 

of,  36  ;  cost  of  in  1745,  50  ; 

Dufferin,  Lord,  work  of,  236 

nature  of  under  Champlain, 

Duffy,  Hon.  H.  T',  245 

103  ;   at  Levis,    102  ;   under 

Dumont,  M.,  412 

D'Avaugour,   104;  under 

Dumontier,  M.,  413 

Montmagny,   104  ;  action  of 

Dumoulin,  Bishop,  301 

citizens,  106  ;  defective  state 

Dunn,  Right,  Rev.  Bishop,  297 

of,  124 

Dupre",  Abbe",  257 

Fort  St.  Louis,   7  ;    condition 

Dupuy,  M.,  Intendant,  49 

of  9,  10 

Durand,  Father,  243 

Fort  and   Chateau   St.    Louis, 

Durham,  Lord,  arrival  of  ,  211  ; 


report  of,  212  ;  Terrace,  220 

Foley,  Edward,  377 

Durnford,  Lieut.  Col.,  Plans  of, 

Foulon,  the,  87 


Fox,  C.  J.,  204 

Drama,  the,  in  Quebec,  13 

French  arms,  success  of,  69 

French    army    the,     abandon 

EARLY  writers  in  Quebec,  414 

Quebec,  92 

Evanturel,  M.,  226 

French  Camp,  position  of  74 


French Medical  Congress,  the 

MENT,  chapter  IX,  185 

first,  422 

Electric  Railway  to  Montmo- 

French  Protestant  Church,  345 

rency,  the,  408 

French  Revolution,  the,  197 

Elgin,  Lord,  220  ;  administra- 

Franquet,   engineer,    107  ;   re- 

tion of,  221 

port  of  fortifications,  122 

Epidemics  in  Quebec,  241 

Franciscan    Convent,     Sketch 

Etherington,  Rev.  E.  J.,  308 

of,  286 

Executive  Council,  the,  in 

Fraser,  Colonel,  325 

1763,  170 

Frobisher,  J.,  178 

Frontenac,    character  of,    23  ; 

PAGUY,  F.  X.,Cure  of  Quebec, 

welcome  to  in  1689,  25  ;  his 


description   of  Quebec,   40  ; 

Female  Orphan  Asylum,  316 

bold     attitude     of    towards 

Ferland,  Abbe",  417 

Phips,  26  ;  Walls,  extent  of, 

Field  Artillery,  the  300 

1  08  ;  recall  of  23 

Finlay,  Asylum,  318 

Fulford,  Dr.,  295 

Fires  in  Quebec,  219  ;  237 
Fire  Brigade,  the,  Ap.  XXXIII 

Fur  Traders,  association  of,  28 



QAGNON,  Ernest,"  F.  R.  S.  C.  , 

work  of,  379 
Gagnon,  Philias,  165 
Galissonniere    Count    de     La, 

governor,    53  ;   his  adminis- 

tration, 54;  progress  under,  54 
Gamache,  Marquis  de,  18 
Garneau's,  History-  417 
Gaspe,  M.  de,  184 
Gaulthier,  Dr.,  54 
Gauvreau,  Claude,  259 
General   and   Staff   officers  in 

1762,  169 
General   Hospital,    sketch   of, 

361  ;  243 
George  III,  293 
Giffard,  R.,   Seigneurie  of,  7  ; 

remarkable  work  of,  8 
Girls  High  School,  194 
Golden  Dog,  the,  147 
Gordon,  Capt,  129 
Gosford,  Lord,  capacity  of,  205  ; 

speech  of,  215 
Gosselin,  Canon,  54 
Gosselin,  F.  X..  261 
Government  offices,  temporary, 


Grand  Seminary,  opening  of,  18 
Grant,  Rev.  D.,  343 
Grenier,  Gustave,  226 
Grey  Nuns,  the,  373 

HAENSEL,  Rev.  C.,  307 
Haldimand,  replaces  Carleton, 

175  ;  administration  of,  176  ; 

on  fortifications,  132  ;  House, 

'  Hamilton,  Rev.  C.,  303 
v  Hamilton,  Rev.  H.  F.,  304 
J  Hamilton,  Robert,  304 
Hawkin's  description  of  forti- 
fications,    120  ;    Picture     of 
Quebec,  414 
Head,  Sir  E.,  229 
Hubert,  L.,  6 

Heights  of  Abraham,  appear- 
ance of  after  battle,  93 

Hero,  the,  246 

Hillsborough,  Lord,  129 

Hocquart,  M.,  Intendant,  51  ; 
work  of,  52  ;  on  the  fortifi- 
cations, 1 20 

Holland,  Capt.,  129  ;  his  plans 
for  citadel,  132 

Holt  Renfrew  &  Co.,  408 

Hope,  Brigadier,  177 ;  Gate,  141 

TIONS, Chapter  on,  361 

Hospital  of  the  Poor,  32 

Hotel  Dieu,  sketch  of,  364  ;  32  ; 
Archives  of,  367 

Hotel  Dieu  du  Sacr£  Coeur, 
sketch  of,  368 

Hotel  de  Ville,  385 

Houillier,  F.  Le,  228 

Houseman,  Rev.  G.  V.  297 

Hubert,  A.  D.,  257 

Hubert,  Mgr.,  186 ; 

Hudon,  H.,  261 

Hundred  Associates,  Company 
of,  10 ;  rooms  of,  13  ;  dis- 
appearance of,  17 

Hunter,  M.,  Engineer,  133 

INDIAN  village,  near  Quebec,  2 

Indians,  character  of,  3 

Inglis,  Dr.,  293 

Institut  Canadien,  421 

Intendant, office  of,  49  ;  Palace, 
description  of,  386  ;  rebuilt, 
57;  description  of  by  Kalm,58 

Iroquois,  the,  action  of,  13 

Irvine,  Mr.  G. ,  memorial  of,  304 

JACQUES  CARTIER,  arrival  in 
the  St.  Lawrence,  2  ;  at 
Hochelaga,  2  ;  builds  a  fort, 
3  ;  sufferings  of,  3  ;  sets  up  a 
cross,  4  ;  Monument,  352  ; 
Church,  sketch  of,  288 



U  Jeffrey  Hale,  birth  and  death 
of,  370  ;  Hospital,  foundation 
of,  369 

Jesuits'  College,  situation  of, 
.  1  8,  faculty  of,  31  ;  Drama  in, 
!:  13  ;  Church,  described  by 

Kalm,  59 

Jette,  Sir  Louis  A.,  228  ;  Lady, 
t>  248  ;  Mademoiselle,  266 
Joinville,  Prince  de,  248 
Joly,  Ministry,  the,  230 
Jonquiere,    Marquis   de  la, 
I    Governor,  55  ;  Ceremony  at 
;    arrival  of,  56  ;  Government 
'   of,  61 

Jordan,  J.,  413  ;  M.,  178 
Joybert,  Mademoiselle  de,  31 
Justice,  administration  of,   12 

,  Peter,  his  description 

of  Quebec,  41 

Kent,  Duke  of,  179;  Gate,   142 
Kent  House,  408 
Kingdom  of  Canada,  227 
King,    Edward    VII,    H.    M., 


King's  Field,  the,  137 
Kirby,  W.  author  of  "  Golden 

Dog",  150  ;  quoted,  157 
Kleczkowski,  M.,  245 
Knox  Capt.,  148 

L.ACROIX,  Dr.,  54 

Ladies   of    Quebec,   the,    des- 

cribed  by   Kalm,    61  ;    Pro- 

testant Home,  325 
Laflamme,  Mgr.,  357 
Lafleche,  Mgr.,  245 
LaFontaine,  216 
Lalemant,  Father,  12 
La  Maison  Rouge,  315 
La  Minerve,  223 
Landry,  Judge,  245 
Langevin,  Sir  H.,  224  ;  247 
La  Palme,  Mde,  159  T^ 

La  Revue  Eucharistique,  413 

L'Aube-Riviere,  Mgr.,  243 

Laurier,  Sir  \V. ,  245 

Lauzon-Charnay,  Chs.  de,  15  ; 
Jean  de,  12 

Laval,  Mgr.  de,  Bishop,  16  ; 
arrival  of,  18  ;  death  of,  37  ; 
his  life  and  work,  38  ;  Nor- 
mal School,  390 

Laval  University,  foundation 
OIi  399  I  247  I  Museums  of, 
400  ;  Library  of,  401 

La  Verite",  413 

Lawlor,  Father,  275 

LE  CHIEN  D'OR,  Chapter  on, 

Legislative  Assembly,  228 

Legislative  Buildings,  descrip- 
tion of,  379 

Legislative  Council,  228  ;  ac- 
tion of,  206 

Le  Jeune,  Father,  describes 
Quebec,  9 

Le  Journal  de  Quebec,  411 

Lemieux,  Lucien,  note  by,  282 

Le  Moine,  Father,  269  ;  Sir 
James,  quoted,  151 

L'Enseignement  Primaire,  413 

Le  Soleil,  413 

Letellier,  St.  Just,  228 

LeVasseur,  Sieurde  Ne"re\  in  ; 
his  plans  of  defence,  in 

L'Evenement,  412 

Levis,  Chevalier  de,  96  ;  forces 
under,  96  ;  marches  on  Que- 
bec, 97  ;  defeats  Murray,  98  ; 

Library,  first  public,  in  Que- 
bec, 418 ;  portable  library 
of  Parliament,  419 ;  Parlia- 
mentary library  destroyed 
by  fire,  420 

Limoilou,  Parish  of,  261 

Lindsay,  Abbe",  272  ;  413  ; 

Lindsay,  Major  Crawford,  165 

Literary  association,  the  first 
in  Quebec,  420 

Literary  and  Historical  So- 
ciety, 420,  421  ;  note  re,  Ap- 
peudix  XL 

Chapter  on,  411 

Little  Seminary,  opening  of, 
37  ;  destruction  of,  37  ;  re- 
building of,  38 

Lotbiniere,  C.  de,  178 

Louis,  Brother,  259 

Louvigny,  M.  de,  257 

Lower  Town,  fire  in,  25 

Love,  Rev.  A.  T.,  330 

McEACHERN,  Mgr.,  260 
McGauran,  Father,  280 
McGill,  Jas.,  178 
McMahon,  Father, work  of,  275 
McNab,  Sir  A.,  223 
Macdonald,  Sir  J.  A.,  224 
Mackie,  Rev.  George,  295 
MacQueen,   Private,  tablet  to 

memory  of,  305 
Mackellar,  Major,  his  account 

of  battle  of  Ste.  Foy.  98 
Magnan,  J.  C.,  413 
Maguire,  Father,  268 
Mailloux,  A.,  261 
Maizerets,  Ango  de,  256 
Male  Orphan  Asylum,  317 
Mann,  Col.,  141 
Mantet,  Sieur  de,  35 
Marchand,  Hon.  F.  X.,  note  re, 

422  ;   Ministry  of,  230 
Marquess  of  Lome,  the,  248 
Marr,  Capt,  133 
Martello  Towers,  construction 

of,  140 ;  93 
Martin,  Abraham,  6 
Masse  Monument,  358 
Masson,  Hon.  A.  R.,  228 
Mayors  of  Quebec,  list  of,  233 

Mayor  of  Quebec,  first  elected, 
under  French  regime,  17 

Melhuish,  Capt.,  203 

Menneville,  Marquis  de,  gov- 
ernor, 61 

Mercier,  Ministry,  the,  230 

Mercury,  the,  181 

Mere  Marie  de  1'Incarnation, 
264  ;  sketch  of,  265  ;  23 

Merici  Convent,  the,  270 

Mesy,  de,  Governor,  16 

Metcalf,  Lord,  220 

Methodist,  Church,  331  ;  offi- 
cers of,  336 

Militia,  Act,  the,  220 

Militia,  of  Quebec  in  1725,  119 

Military,  rule  in  Quebec,  167 

Military,  organization  of  Que- 
bec, 404 

Milnes  Sir  R.,  180 

Minto,  Lord,  118;  247 

Minto,  Her  Excellency  the 
Countess  of.  See  engraving. 

Monckton, general,  at  Levis,  79 

Montbeillard,  Engineer,  123 

Montcalm,  Marquis  de,  defeats 
the  British,  69  ;  hears  of  the 
landing  of  the  British,  89  ; 
strong  position  of,  77  ;  good 
generalship  of,  90  ;  mortally 
wounded,  91  ;  death  of,  92 

Montgolfier,  Mgr.,  186 

Montgomery,  Gen.,  attempts 
to  take  Quebec,  174;  death 
of,  175  ;  House,  the,  175 

Montmagny,  succeeds  Cham- 
plain,  10  ;  Knight  of  Malta, 
1 1  ;  work  of,  1 1 

Montmorency,  405  ;  Wolfe's 
headquarters  at,  407  ;  Town- 
shend's  Camp  at,  407  ;  resi- 
dence of  Mr.  Price,  407"; 
souvenirs  of  warlike  times, 



Montmorency  Falls,  84  ;  Bri- 
tish camp  at,  84;  Battle  at,  84 

Montmorency  Cottage,  407  ; 
gardens  of,  408 

Mornay,  Mgr.  de,  185 

Morning  Chronicle,  the,  412 

Chapter  on,  347 

Morel,  M.,  257 

Morrin,  Dr.,  194;  career  of, 
223  ;  204 

Morrin,  College,  194 

Mountain, Bishop,  192  ;  sketch 
of,  195  ;  229 

Mountain,  Archdeacon,  295 

Mountain,  Rev.  Salter  J.,  293 

Mountain,  Rev.,  A.,  195 

Mounted,  Rifles,  the,  300 

Mousseau,  Ministry,  the,  230 

Mowat,  Sir  O.,  226 

Mulders,  Captain  de  la,  heroic 
conduct  of,  79 

Municipal  Government,  231 

Municipal  Wards,  232 

Munn,  John,  259 

Murray,  General,  87  ;  tactics 
of,  99 ;  report  on  fortifica- 
tions, 125 

NAUD,  J.,  261 
Nelligan,  Father,  281 
Nelson,  Dr.  Robert,  213 
New,  Park,  the,  Ap.  XXV 
Ninety-two  resolutions,  the,  204 
Norman,  Rev.  R.,  297 
Normandy,  coureurs  de  bois, 

from,  9 
North    American    Notes    and 

Queries,  413 

Notre-Dame  des   Anges,   Con- 
vent of,  32 
Notre-Datne  du  Chemin,  sketch 

of,  289 

Notre-Dame  de  la  Garde,  263 
Notre-Dame  de  Lourdes,  290 

Notre-Dame  de  la  Paix,  252 
Notre-Dame    de'\  la    Recou- 

vrance,    7  ;    destruction    of 

church  of,  1 1 
Notre-Dame  de  la    Victoire, 

dedication  of,  27  ;  sketch  of. 


O'BRIEN,  Mgr.,  250 

Ogilvy,  Major,  tablet  to  me- 
mory of,  305 

Old  Ash  Tree,  269 

Old  French  Works,  error  con- 
cerning, 140 

Orleans,  Duke  of,  248 

Orleans,  Island  of,  80 

Orleans,  British  camp  at,  85 

Orphir,  the,  247 

Osgoode,  Chief  Justice,  293 

Ouimet,  Ministry,  the,  230 

PACAUD,  E.,  413 

Paintings  in  Ursuline  Convent, 

Paisley,  H.  261 

Palace  Gate,  142 

Panet,  Antoine,  178 

Panet,  Mgr.,  187 

Panet,  J.,  178 

Papineau,  Jos.,  178;  zeal  of,  205 

Paquet,  Abbe,  287 

Parent,  sketch  of  the  mayors 
of  Quebec,  by,  234 

Parent,  Ministry,  the,  230 

Paris,  Count  de,  248 

Parliament,  first  under  British 
rule,  178  ;  subjects  under 
discussion,  179 

Parliament  Buildings,  descrip- 
tion of,  379  ;  interior  decor- 
ation of,  382  ;  monumental 
fountain,  382  ;  heraldic  de- 
signs, 383 

Pelletier,  the  Hon.  L.  P.,  412 

Peltrie,  Madame  de  la,  269 


Pe"tre*e,  Mgr.,  arrival  of,  14    , 

Pemberton,  George,  203      *r 

Perche,  emigration  from,  9 

Percival,  M.  H.,  228 

Philibert,  Nicolas,  Jacquin, 
149 ;  facts  concerning  death 
of,  159 

Philibert,  Colonel,  164 

Phips,  Admiral,  besieges  Que- 
bec, 26 

Pioneers  of  New  France,  6 

Pitt,  plan  of,  1 06 

Pivert,  N.,  6 

Plan  of  Quebec  in  1783,  136 

Plan  of  Quebec  in  1804,  139 

Plains  of  Abraham,  Ap.  XXVI 

Plessis,  Mgr. ,  administration 
of,  187  ;  advice  of,  183 

Pocquet,  M.,  243 

Pointe  aux  Trembles,  86 

Point  des  Peres,  batteries  at,  81 

Pontbriand,  Mgr.,  94  ;  his  des- 
cription of  Quebec,  95 

Pontleroy,  engineer,  107  ; 
repairs  walls,  123 

Potter,  Dr.,  300 

Price,  H.  M.,  note  by,  407     ^. 

Price,  M.,  Wolfesfield,  229 

Price,  W.  E.,  304 

Prince  of  Wales,  H.  R.  H., 
the,  246 

Prince  William  Henry,  176 

Princess  Louise,  H.  R.  H.,  248 

Printing  Press,  the  first  in 
Quebec,  198 

Prison,  The,  386  / 

Proctor,  J.  J.,  412 

Prominent  families  in  Quebec, 
under  the  French  regime, 
3°;  44 

Protestant  Burial  ground,  320 

Protestants  of  Quebec,  diffi- 
culties of,  192 

Protestant  Housekeepers  in 
Quebec  in  1764,  189 

Proulx,  M.,  256 

Prescott,  Sir  R.,  Governor,  180 

Prescott,  Lady,  180 

Prescott,  Gate,  142 

Prevote",  Court  of,  29 

ter on,  379 

QUEBEC,  Corporation  seal, 

Quebec,  Garrison   Club,    389; 

officers  at  foundation  of,  391  ; 

present  officers,  395 
Quebec  Gazette,  foundation  of, 

200;  411 
Quebec  in    Durham    County, 

England,  416 

Buebec  Mercury,  the,  411 
uebec,    names    of    principal 
inhabitants  of  in  1663,  19 
Quebec,    population    of,    in 

1663,  18 

RULE,  Chapter  on,  167 
Queylus,  Abbe  de,  256 

RAIMBAULT,  Father,  198 
Ramezay,  de,  desides  to  capi- 
tulate, 94 
Raudot,  Jacques  and  Antoine, 

Intendants,  36  ;  work  of,  50 
Richer,  J.  F.,  257 
Recollets,  Church  described  by 

Kalm,  60  ;  287  ;  resume  their 

labours,  38,  31 

Redemptorist  Fathers,  the,  280 
Reed,  Mr.  and  Mrs.    Hayter, 


Renault,  R.,  413 
Repentigny,  Pierre  le  Gardeur 

de,    148 ;  judgment  against, 

162  ;  death  of,  164 
Repentigny,  Amelie  de,  274 
Repentigny,  Madeleine  de,  271 



Resther,  Father,  262 
Richmond,  Duke  of,  202 
Roberval,  Marquis  de,  41 
Robitaille,  Hon.  W.  T.,  228 
Roe,  archdeacon,  303 
Ross,  J.  G.,  370 
Ross,  Ministry,  the,  230 
Ross,  J.  Theo.,  370 
Routhier,  Judge,  245,  229 
Royal  Canadian  Infantry,  300 
Royal  Grammar  School,  193 
Royal  Institution,  the,  191 
Royal  Society,  members  of,  in 

Quebec,  418 
Roy,  P.  G.,  164 

SAINT  ANDRE,  Mere,  367 

Saint  Ferre"ol.  M.,  257 

St.    Andrew's    Church,    326  ; 

Officers  of,  331 


St.  Antoine  Asylum,  374 
St.  Augustin,  86 
St.  Bridget's  Asylum  Associa- 
tion, 373 

St.  Charles  River,  2 
St.  Croix  River,  2 
Ste.  Foy  Monument,  350 
St.  George's  Society,  the,  Ap. 


St.  John's  Gate,  142 
St.  Joseph's  Church,  86 
St.  Jean  Baptiste,  parish  of, 263 
Saint  Jean  Baptiste  Society, 244 
St.  Louis  Academy,  371 
St.  Louis  Gate,  142 
St.  Malo,  2  ;  parish  of,  263 
St.  Matthew's  Church,  302 
St.  Michael's  Church,  314 
St.  Ours,  meeting  at,  206 
St.  Patrick's   Church,   sketch 

of,  275 

St.    Patrick's    Literary   Insti- 
tute, Ap.  XXXVI 

St.  Paul's  Church,  310 
St.  Peter's  Church,  308 
St.  Roch,  parish  of,  260 
St.    Sauveur,   Abbe*  J.    L.  de, 
261  ;    Church,    290  ;    parish 
of,  261 

Salvation  Army,  345 
Sarrazin,  Dr.,  54 
Scott,  Sir  Walter,  323 
Schulyler,  Peter,  on  the  works 

of  Quebec,  105 
Seminary  of  Quebec,  the,  197, 


Senechal's  Court,  the,  388 
Sewell,  Chief  Justice,  306 
Sewell,  Hon.  J.,  293 
Sewell,  Rev.  E.  W.,  306 
Shelburne,  Lord,  129 
Ships,  British,  pass  the  town,  83 
Shipping  in  Quebec,  207 
Sherbrooke,   Sir,  J.  C.,  admi- 
nistration of,  201 
Short- Wallick  Monument,  359 
SIEGE  OF  QUEBEC,  chap,  on,  71 
Signay,  M.,  256 
Sisters  of  Congregation,  work 

of,  51 

Smith,  H.  R.,  299 
Skene,  Brigadier,  177 
Soumande,  Simon,  26 
Sovereign  Council,  the;  powers 

of,  17  ;  first  session  of,  18 
Sparling,  Rev.  W.  H.,  336 
Spencer  Grange,  402;  residence 
of  Sir  James   Lemoine,  403  ; 
garden  of,  403 
Spencer  Wood,  228 
Speaker,  election  of  first,  178 
Stewart,  Hon.  the  Rev.,  294 
nirs connected    with    their 
origin,  Ap.  XLI 
Streets  of  Quebec,  and  inhabi- 
tants of,  about  1720,  44. 
Sydenham,  Lord,  190 


TACHE,  SirE.  P.,  225 

Tache",  E.  E.,  247 

Taillon,  Ministry,  the,  230 

Talon,  Intendant,  21 

Talon,  Character  of,  22  ;  policy 
of,  28 

Tait,  Rev.  D.,  340 

Tardivel,  M.,  413 

Taschereau,  H.  E. ,  Cardinal,  249 

Taschereau,  M.,  181 

Taschereau,  Judge,  203 

Terrace,  the,  240 

Tetu,  D.  H.,  261 

The  Canadien,  411 

The  Golden  Dog,  147 

The  Suffolk  Seal,  error  con- 
cerning, 415 

The  Union  of  1822,  202 

The  Votive  Lamp,  271 

Thibault,  T.,  257 

Thompson,  Sir  C.  E.  P.,  219 

Toosey,  Rev.  P.,  293 

Tilly,  le  Gardeur  de,  29 

Tor,  Bernard  de  la,  256 

Torcapel,  A.bbe,  256 

Townshend,  Lt.  Col.,  Ap. 

Townshend,  Brigadier  General, 
note  re,.  Ap.  XXXIV 

Townshend,  Gen.,  81  ;  good 
generalship,  Si  ;  letters  of, 


Townshend,  Lord,  132 

Tracy,  Marquis  de,  character 
of,  22 

Tragedy  in  Quebec,  14 

Treaty  of  Paris,  the,  168 

Trinity  Church,  305 

ter on,  201 

Twiss,  Capt.,  engineer  in 
charge  of  works,  133 ;  his 
plan  of  Quebec,  136 

True  Britain,  the  loss  of,  134 

Turcotte,  M.,  249 

URSULINES,  Monastery  of, 
264  ;  described  by  Kalm,  60 

VAUDREUIL,  Philippe  Rigaud 
de,  31  ;  Marriage  of,  31  ; 
Governor,  36  ;  character  and 
death  of,  37 

Vaudreuil,  Marquis  de,  last 
French  Governor,  61  ;  pro- 
tects Bigot,  62  ;  letters  of,  208 

Vallier,  Mgr.,  de  Saint,  39; 
character  and  death  of,  39 

Varennes,  Vuault  de,  35 

Victoria  Monument,  360 

Vieux,  N.  le,  13 

Viger,  D.  B.,  204 

Vilade,  Father,  198 

Villeneuve,  engineer,  plans  of, 

Villeray,  Louis  R.  de,  29 

Vimont,  Father,  254 

Von  Iffland,  Rev.  A.  A.,  314 

WALKER'S  FLEET,  destruc- 
tion, 36,  283 

Walls  of  Quebec,  plea  for  re- 
taining, 143 

Walsh,  M.  L.  and  J.  T.,  note 
by,  Ap.  XXXVI 

Watkin,  Rev.  B.,  308 

Webster,  Rev.  W.  D.,  307 

Weir,  Lieut.,  207 

Wilkie,  Dr.,  193 

Williams,  Bishop,  305 

Williams,  Rev.  Jas.,  296 

Williams,  Very  Rev.  Dean, 

Winter  in  Quebec,  96 

Wolfe,  General,  70  ;  before 
Quebec,  76  ;  selects  advanta- 
geous ground,  90  ;  his  plan 
of  attack,  87;  his  appeal  to 
the  Canadians,  81 ;  illness  of 
86;  mortally  wounded,  91  ; 
death  of,  91 



Wolfe's  Monument,  347 

Wolfe  -  Montcalm  Monument, 
200,  348 

Wood,  Major,  note  by,  Ap. 

Wurtele,  F.C.,  author  of  "The 
Church  of  England  in  Que- 
bec," 196  ;  librarian  of  the 
Literary  and  Historical  So- 
ciety, 421 

YOUNG,  Capt.,  203 

Young,  J.,  178 

Young,  T.  A.,  M.  A.,  194 

Young  Men's  Christian  Asso- 
ciation. Ap.  XXXI 

York.Their  Royal  Highnesses, 
the  Duke  and  Duchess  of, 


Page  Line  Instead  of  Read 

2 24 Stadacona Stadacone 

28 16 Add :  Aubert  de  la  Chesnaye. 

32 13 Twetny Twenty 

44 15 Roeur Rouer 

150 8 Fours Four 

155 3 Sinster Sinister 

182 22 L,afrangois I^efranjois 

186 14 Monseigneur M.  Pabbe" 

193 19 Wilke's Wilkie's 

232 Last Langevin Langelier 

243 17 Pupura Purpura 

245 21 Add  :  and  of  the  sixtieth  anniversary 

of  the  foundation  of  the  St.  Jean- 
Baptiste  Society. 

253 3 C.  Tardif Le  Tardif 

257 21 1734-44 1734-34 

290 6 St.  Sauveur Ste.  Genevieve 

411 Since  the  printing  of  this  book,  the 

Mercury  has  ceased  to  exist,  the  last 
number  having  been  issued  on  the 
1 7th  of  October,  1903. 

412 25 Add  :  and  five  others. 

413 i Family Saturday 

418 14 Add  •  Mgr.  T.  E.  Hamel. 

-  ?c// 

Works  of  N.  E.  Dionne,  M.D.,  Litt.  D. 


1.  JACQUES-CARTIER. — Sa  vie $2  oo 

2.  I/A  NOUVEU,E-FRANCE  r>E  CARTIER  a  CHAMPI,AIN  .  i  oo 

3.  SAMUEI,  CHAMPI<AIN. — Fondateur  de  Quebec,  Vol.  i.  .  i  50 

4.  VIE  DE  M.  I/ABBE  C.  F.  PAINCHAUD. — Fondateur  du 

College  de  Sainte-Anne  de  la  Pocatiere I  25 

5.  MGR  DE  FORBIN-JANSON. — Sa  vie  et  son   ceuvre  en 

Canada o  50 



The  Fortifications  of  Qxiebec 


With  Naval  and  Military  Notes  by  Major  William  Wood 

With  photographic  reproduction  of  the  original  M.S.  plan  of  the 
battle  of  the  Plains  of  Abraham  bearing  the  signature  of  Major  Mac- 
kellar  Engineer  in  Chief  under  Wolfe,  (not  previously  published). 

M.S.  plan  of  Quebec  used  by  Wolfe.  Plan  of  the  old  British  works, 
showing  their  commencement.  These  works  have  hitherto  been  referred 
to  as  "  old  French  works."  Plan  of  the  first  temporary  citadel,  views  of 
the  citadel,  old  gates  &c. 

Beautifully  printed  with  coloured  initials  on  hand  made  paper,  rough 
edges.  Only  40  copies  remain  unsubscribed  for.  Small  quarto,  paper 
boards,  price  $6.00,  subject  to  advance  without  notice. 

N.  B.  This  work  will  not  be  placed  on  sale,  and  can  only  be  obtained 
from  the  author. 



Battle  of  the  Plains  of  Abraham 

A.  DOUGHTY,  LITT.  D.  (Laval,)  F.  R.  Hist.  S.,  England 


G.  W.  PAR  VIE  LEE,  D.C.L. 

In  six  volumes,  with  63  plates   by   Gjnpil   &   Cie.,    Paris,    The 

Rembrandt  Portrait  Studio,   London,  and  the  Forbes 

Co.,  Boston,  and  10  plai.s- 

Only  20  sets  remain  for  sale  of  the  first  edition      Cloth  uncut, 
PRICE    S45.OO. 


Opinions  of  the   Press. 

The  story  of  the  taking  of  Quebec  has  been  told  a  hundred  times. 
It  is  told  again  in  these  volumes  with  circumstance  and  lucidity. 

The  Spectator. 

"  A.nd  yet  we  are  almost  inclined  to  condone  the  fault  when  the 
immediate  outcome  of  it  is  the  magnificent  series  of  volumes  whose 
title  stands  at  the  head  of  this  article  .....  but  to  speak  of  him  (\V~olfci 

as  Mr.  Doughty  does  frequently,  of  him,  the  victor  in  one  petty  skirmish, 
as  one  who  can  only  fittingly  be  compared  with  Nelson,  ihe  man  of  a 
hundred  fights  and  of  the  battles  of  giani  s,  is  carrying  hero  worship  into 
the  region  of  the  grotesque,—  The  Edinburgh  Review. 

J,he  procoss  of  the  siege  unfolds  itself  with  a  fulne> 

which  the  scale  of  Parkman's  work  rende  ed  impossible,  and  with  a 
precision  which  he  did  not  always  attain.—  The  Times,  London. 

Students  desiring  to  know  the  true  inwardness  of  this  far-reaching 
event  in  American  History,  must  inevitably  hereafter  turn  first  to  Dr. 
"ity's  scholarly  and  well-considered  volumes — -American  Historical 

An  Imperial  work  which  it  would  be  impossible  to  overestimate.— 
Sir  Gilbert  Parker,  M.  P. 

The  most  extensive  and  important  monograph  on  any  episode  in  the 
country's  annals  .....  the  interest  of  the  subject  outstrips  all  bounds 
that  ara  merely  local.—  New  York  Evening  Post. 

I  shall  always  value  it  not  only  on  account  of  its  historical  value.— 
Field  Marshal,  Lord  Roberts,  V.  C. 

Merits  the  thanks  of  all  those  interested  in  probably  the  most  famous 
incident  of  our  history.—  3ir  John  G.  Bourinot,  K.C.M.G.,  LLD.,  Litt.  D. 

Indispensable  to  every  future  historian  of  the  Seven  Years'  War  in 
America.—  The  Nation. 

That  there  should  be  signs  of  haste  here  and  there  are  not  to  be 
wondered  at  in  an  undertaking  of  such  scope  and  extent.  —  The  Gaeettc. 

A  memorable  achievement.  —  The  Daily  Chronicle,  London. 

It  will  be  many  years  before  the  true  value  of  these  volumes  is 
appreciated.—  Ifew  York  Times. 

Throws  an  entirely  new  light  upon  the  contentions  of  historians.— 

The  Independent. 

"  Les  six  volumes  du  Siege  de  Quebec  torment  comme  une  encyclo- 
pe'die,  resumant  tout  ce  qui  se  rapporte  a  la  derniere  phase  de  la  guerre 
de  Sept  Ans."—  La  Nouvelle  France. 

A  few  other  minor  errors  very  slightly  impair  the  value  of  this 
unique  undertaking  which  calls  for  hearty  recognition  from  historical 
scholars.  —  Review  of  Historical  Publications. 

La  publication  de  cet  ouvrage  n'aurait-elle  eu  pour  effet  quo  de 
corriger  certaines  erreurs  historiques.—  Revue  Canadienne. 

On  the  whole  it  is  a  work  we  must  have  and  are  glad  to  have  — 
James  Bain,  Toronto  Public  Library. 

But  it  ought  to  be  remembered  that,  with  the  exception  of  a  certain 
number  of  varying  value,  the  documents  in  question  have  been  men- 
tioned and  utilized  by  previous  historians."  —  Old  and  New. 

"  By  far  the  best  and  ablest  work  ever  written  on  the  subject,  and  I 
think  every  library  in  Europe  should  possess  it.—  Lieut.  Col.  C.  V.  F. 
Townshend,  C.  B.,  D.  3.  O. 

"  Molti  fatti,  e  specialmente  quelli  ove  pifi  prevalgono  come  cause 
le  passion!  umane,  vanno  accertati  in  una  storia  con  i  document!  origi- 
nal!,   Cosi  non  poche  e  non  lievi  correzioni  h-t  potu'.o  fare  il  Doughty." 
......  "  Le  correzioni  pari  a  questo  sono  nutnerose,  e  si  pud  affermare 

che  veramente  1'aurore  con  Topera  sua  ha  reso  un  servigio  alia  storia 
della  sua  patria."—  Riv,  Intern.  Scienze  Soc.  e  Discipl  Ausiliarie  Roma 

The  ARTHUR  H  CLARK  COMPANY,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  Sole  agents  for 
the  United  States  and  Great  Britain.  Price  in  England  £10.  In  the 
United  States  $50,  carriage  and  duty  free. 

Orders  for  Canada  should  be  addressed  to  THE  QUEBEC  NEWS  Co- 




F  Doughty,    (Sir)   Arthur 

54-97  George 

Q36D62  Quebec  under  two  flags 

cop. 2